CIVIL ENGINEERING• Definition:- “Civil Engineering is the art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of man”.- Royal Charter of Institute of Civil Engineers London.• The main scope of civil engineering or the task of civil engineering is planning, designing, estimating, supervising construction, managing construction, execution, and maintenance of structures like building, roads, bridges, dams, etc.
JOHN SMEATON• In the beginning, Civil Engineering included all engineers that did not practice military engineering; said to have begun in 18th century France• First “Civil Engineer” was an Englishman, John Smeaton in 1761• Civil engineers have saved more lives than all the doctors in history development of clean water and sanitation systems
• Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya is a genius engineer.• His birthday 15th September is celebrating as Engineers Day in India on every year.• He worked in PWD department of Bombay (now its known as Maharashtra state).• He invented Block System the automatic doors which he devised to stop wasteful overflow of water.• He builted many dams in Maharashtra state.
• He was designed and patented a system of automatic weir water floodgates which were first installed in 1903 at the Khadakvasla reservoir, Pune.• He worked as a chief engineer during construction of Krishna Raja Sagara Dam on the Kaveri River in Mandya. He became the President of All India Manufacturers Association.• He was known for his honesty and integrity. In 1912, Maharaja of Mysore appointed Visvesvaraya as his Dewan.
BRANCHES & SCOPE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING• Civil engineering may be divided into the following fields: • Surveying & leveling • Building, Planning and construction • Advanced Construction • Structural Engineering • Geotechnical Engineering • Water Resources Engineering • Transportation Engineering • Environmental Engineering • Town Planning & etc.,
SURVEYING & LEVELLING• Surveying includes measurements of distances and angles in horizontal & vertical planes, while leveling is the measurement of heights in vertical plane. Chain, compass, level and theodolite are the instruments used for surveying.• Surveying fixes the relative positions of different points on the basis of surface of earth. It also includes measurements of areas and volumes. Basic aim of surveying is to prepare a map of the area to some scale.
SURVEYING & LEVELLING• Surveying is carried out to fix the alignment of road, railway canal. It is also useful in selecting the site for the construction of structures. Modern surveying instruments like Electronic total station and Geographical Positioning System(GPS) are the modern electronic digital instruments for survey works.• Remote sensing and Geographical Information system(GIS) are adopted for surveying and planning of many civil engineering projects.
BUILDING PLANNING & CONSTRUCTION • Civil engineers are concerned with many types of structures of which buildings are of prime importance. Buildings are planned according to the fundamental principles of planning & bylaws of local municipal bodies. • Building planning requires basic knowledge of principles of architecture. Buildings may be residential or public building like school, colleges, government office, Hospitals, etc. They are designed according to need of specific occupants and purposes.
ADVANCED CONSTRUCTION• Construction of dams, bridges, tunnels, ports, requires several advanced construction techniques of construction. Under water construction requires specific type of equipment.• Pile foundations or well foundations are generally provided for foundation of bridges across rivers in alluvial soil.• Large scale earthworks in excavation requires equipments like power shovel, dragline, bulldozers, etc.
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING• This Branch of civil engineering deals with structural analysis and design of structures.• Structural analysis is done to calculate stresses in structural components, on the basis of loads, acting on structures.• Sections of structural elements like beams, columns, slabs, etc. are designed. Structural analysis requires much calculation, hence advanced computing software‘s are used to carry out structural analysis and design.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING• Geotechnical engineering is that field of civil engineering which deals with soil investigation and design of proper foundations of structures.• Soil investigation includes collection and testing of soil samples.• Geotechnical engineering includes measurement of soil Parameters and safe bearing capacity.• It also includes construction and design of simple foundations, pile foundations, well foundations, caissons, coffer dams, construction of foundation of dams, construction of tunnels, sub base of road, earthen dams, earth related constructions.
WATER RESOURCES ENGIEERING• Water resource engineering means measurements, utilization and development of water resources for agriculture, municipal and power generation purpose. It mainly includes irrigation engineering, design of hydraulic structures like dams, canals etc.• Water resource engineering deals with planning designing and developing water resources by constructing several hydraulic structures like dams, barrages, hydropower stations, canal and pipe networks etc.
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING• Transportation means movement of Passengers and goods by means of vehicles on land, ship on water and aircrafts in air.• Transportation Engineering is that branch of Civil engineering which deals with planning, designing and construction of roads, bridges, railways, tunnels, harbours, ports, docks, runways and airports.
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING• Environmental Engineering deals with pollution control and public health engineering. Different types of pollutions are water, air, noise and other pollution.• Environmental engineering includes design, construction and maintenance of water treatment plant, waste water treatment plant, water distribution network and sewerage system, it also deals with solid waste management in towns and cities.
TOWN PLANNING• Town planning means planned & controlled growth of town by dividing town in to different land use zones and regulating building construction to provide better environment for the people of the town.• In the town planning areas of town are divided into residential, commercial, recreational and industrial zones, which is called zoning.• Floor space index, and other byelaws are fixed to guide and regulate the building construction.
FUNCTIONS OF CIVIL ENGINEER• Civil engineering functions performed can broadly be classified in three categories.• Before construction• During construction• After Construction
BEFORE CONSTRUCTION• Feasibility study• Surveying• Site investigation• Planning• Design and drawing• Estimating• Planning & Scheduling
DURING CONSTRUCTION• Dealing with clients, Consulting engineer and contractors• Execution and supervision• Quality control• Costing
BEFORE CONSTRUCTION• Maintenance and repairs• Valuation• After the construction regular maintenance of structures is to be carried out. Valuation is carried out forthe purpose of sale, purchase and many others purposes.
THANKING YOU• If you have the Imaginary Thinking & Creative Knowledge, you will never defeat by any one.• But don’t stop your innovative ideas until you beat your goal.• Proud to be a “CIVIL ENGINEER” & as well as “CIVILION”.