In which we try to explain why we consider artificial intelligence to be a subject most worthy of study, and in which we try to decide what exactly it is, this being a good thing to decide before embarking.
What is AI?• Artificial Intelligence, or AI, is the ability of a compter to actlike a human being.Thinking humanly Thinking rationallyActing humanly Acting rationally
3Task Domains of AI• Mundane Tasks:– Perception• Vision• Speech– Natural Languages• Understanding• Generation• Translation– Common sense reasoning– Robot Control• Formal Tasks– Games : chess, checkers etc– Mathematics: Geometry, logic,Proving properties of programs• Expert Tasks:– Engineering ( Design, Fault finding, Manufacturing planning)– Scientific Analysis– Medical Diagnosis– Financial Analysis
4AI Technique• Intelligence requires Knowledge• Knowledge posesses less desirable properties such as:– Voluminous– Hard to characterize accurately– Constantly changing– Differs from data that can be used• AI technique is a method that exploits knowledge that should berepresented in such a way that:– Knowledge captures generalization– It can be understood by people who must provide it– It can be easily modified to correct errors.– It can be used in variety of situations
5The State of the Art• Computer beats human in a chess game.• Computer-human conversation using speechrecognition.• Expert system controls a spacecraft.• Robot can walk on stairs and hold a cup of water.• Language translation for webpages.• Home appliances use fuzzy logic.• ......
6Tic Tac Toe• Three programs are presented :– Series increase– Their complexity– Use of generalization– Clarity of their knowledge– Extensability of their approach
8Introductory Problem: Tic-Tac-ToeProgram 1:Data Structures:• Board: 9 element vector representing the board, with 1-9 for each square. Anelement contains the value 0 if it is blank, 1 if it is filled by X, or 2 if it is filled witha O• Movetable: A large vector of 19,683 elements ( 3^9), each element is 9-elementvector.Algorithm:1. View the vector as a ternary number. Convert it to adecimal number.2. Use the computed number as an index intoMove-Table and access the vector stored there.3. Set the new board to that vector.
9Introductory Problem: Tic-Tac-ToeComments:This program is very efficient in time.1. A lot of space to store the Move-Table.2. A lot of work to specify all the entries in theMove-Table.3. Difficult to extend.
Virtue ethicsDifficult to predict what virtues to giveArtificial life because it is a complextechnology. Unable to see the resultsof these virtues may be a problembecause there are risks involved withsome virtues overpowering others.What preprogrammed “virtues” shouldcomputers have to allow them to bemorally right? Can virtues make anAI entity behave morally at all?Wisdom, compassion, courage,strength, obedience, carefulness…?
ADVANTAGES (Factual Changes)Smarter artificial intelligence promises to replace human jobs, freeing peoplefor other pursuits by automating manufacturing and transportations.Self-modifying, self-writing, and learning software relieves programmers ofthe burdensome task of specifying the whole of a program’sfunctionality—now we can just create the framework and have theprogram itself fill in the rest (example: real-time strategy game artificialintelligence run by a neural network that acts based on experience insteadof an explicit decision tree).Self-replicating applications can make deployment easier and less resource-intensive.AI can see relationships in enormous or diverse bodies of data that a humancould not
Disadvantages (Risks)• Potential for malevolentprograms, “cold war”between two countries,unforeseen impactsbecause it is complextechnology,environmentalconsequences will mostlikely be minimal.
• Self-modifying, when combined with self-replicating,can lead to dangerous, unexpected results, such as anew and frequently mutating computer virus.• As computers get faster and more numerous, thepossibility of randomly creating an artificialintelligence becomes real.• Military robots may make it possible for a country toindiscriminately attack less-advanced countries withfew, if any, human casualties.• Rapid advances in AI could mean massive structuralunemployment• AI utilizing non-transparent learning (i.e. neuralnetworks) is never completely predictable
The Future?• Idea of Artificial Intelligence isbeing replaced by Artificial life,or anything with a form orbody.• The consensus amongscientists is that a requirementfor life is that it has anembodiment in some physicalform, but this will change.Programs may not fit thisrequirement for life yet.
Should we start caring yet?• Very sophisticated—perhaps even sentient—AI may not be far off; with sufficientcomputation power (such as that offered byquantum computers) it is possible to “evolve”AI without much programming effort.• Today, concerns include mutating viruses andthe reliability of AI (you don’t want softwaredirecting your car into a tree).
What should happen• When programs that appear to demonstrate sentience appear(intelligence and awareness), a panel of scientists could beassembled to determine if a particular program is sentient ornot.• If sentient, it will be given rights, so, in general, companies willtry to avoid developing sentient AI since they would not beable to indiscriminately exploit it.• Software companies should be made legally responsible forfailings of software that result in damage to third partiesdespite good-faith attempts at control by the user.• AI and robotics have the potentially to truly revolutionize theeconomy by replacing labor with capital, allowing greaterproduction—it deserves a corresponding share of researchfunding!
And what is going to happen…• Most people are willing to torture and kill intelligent animalslike cows just for a tastier lunch—why would they hesitate toexploit artificial life?• This is further compounded mainstream religious beliefs• Even with laws, any individual with sufficient computingpower could “evolve” AI without much programming.• Licensing agreements will continue to allow carelesscompanies to often escape responsibility for faulty software.• Bottom line: ethical considerations will be ignored; reform—ifit happens—will only take place when the economic costsbecome too high.