L 04


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L 04

  1. 1. L-04 ENGINEERINGMATERIALS<br />MECHANISM IN METALS<br />9/28/2011<br />1<br />
  2. 2. MECHANISMS IN METALS-L-04<br />Methods have been devised to modify the yield strength,ductility, and toughness of both crystalline and amorphous materials.<br />These strengthening mechanisms give engineers the ability to tailor the mechanical properties of materials to suit a variety of different applications. <br />For example, the favorable properties of steel result from interstitial incorporation of carbon into the iron lattice. <br />9/28/2011<br />2<br />
  3. 3. MECHANISM IN METALS<br />Brass, a binary alloyof copper and zinc, has superior mechanical properties compared to its constituent metals due to solution strengthening.<br />Work hardening (such as beating a red-hot piece of metal on anvil) has also been used for centuries by blacksmiths to introduce dislocations into materials, increasing their yield strengths.<br />9/28/2011<br />3<br />
  4. 4. What is Strengthening?<br />Plastic deformation occurs when large numbers of dislocations move and multiply so as to result in macroscopic deformation.<br />In other words, it is the movement of dislocations in the material which allows for deformation.<br />If we want to enhance a material's mechanical properties (i.e. increase the yield and tensile strength), we simply need to introduce a mechanism which prohibits the mobility of these dislocations.<br />9/28/2011<br />4<br />
  5. 5. What is Strengthening?<br />Whatever the mechanism may be, (work hardening, grain size reduction, etc.) they all hinder dislocation motion and render the material stronger than previously.<br />The stress required to cause dislocation motion is orders of magnitude lower than the theoretical stress required to shift an entire plane of atoms, so this mode of stress relief is energetically favorable.<br />Hence, the hardness and strength (both yield and tensile) critically depend on the ease with which dislocations move.<br />9/28/2011<br />5<br />
  6. 6. What is Strengthening?<br />Pinning points, or locations in the crystal that oppose the motion of dislocations, can be introduced into the lattice to reduce dislocation mobility, thereby increasing mechanical strength.<br />Dislocations may be pinned due to stress field interactions with other dislocations and solute particles, creating physical barriers from second phase precipitates forming along grain boundaries. <br />9/28/2011<br />6<br />
  7. 7. What is Strengthening?<br />There are four main strengthening mechanisms for metals, the key concept to remember about strengthening of metallic materials is that it is all about preventing dislocation motion and propagation; you are making it energetically unfavorable for the dislocation to move or propagate. <br />For a material that has been strengthened, by some processing method, the amount of force required to start irreversible (plastic) deformation is greater than it was for the original material.<br />9/28/2011<br />7<br />
  8. 8. What is Strengthening?<br />In amorphous materials such as polymers, amorphous ceramics (glass), and amorphous metals, the lack of long range order leads to yielding via mechanisms such as brittle fracture, crazing, and shear band formation. <br />In these systems, strengthening mechanisms do not involve dislocations, but rather consist of modifications to the chemical structure and processing of the constituent material.<br />9/28/2011<br />8<br />
  9. 9. What is Strengthening?<br />Unfortunately, strength of materials cannot infinitely increase. Each of the mechanisms elaborated below involves some trade off by which other material properties are compromised in the process of strengthening.<br />9/28/2011<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Strengthening Mechanisms in Metals<br />1-Work hardening: Work hardening, also known as strain hardening or cold working, is the strengthening of a metal by plastic deformation.<br />Or is the phenomenon whereby a ductile metal becomes harder and stronger as it is plastically deformed.<br />This strengthening occurs because of dislocation movements within the crystal structure of the material.<br />Any material with a reasonably high melting point such as metals and alloys can be strengthened in this fashion<br />9/28/2011<br />10<br />
  11. 11. 1-Work hardening<br />Alloys not amenable تیار to heat treatment, including low-carbon steel, are often work-hardened.<br />Some materials cannot be work-hardened at normal ambient temperatures, such as indium, however others can only be strengthened via work hardening, such as pure copper and aluminum.<br />The primary species responsible for work hardening are dislocations.<br />9/28/2011<br />11<br />
  12. 12. 1-Work hardening<br />Dislocations interact with each other by generating stress fields in the material. <br />The interaction between the stress fields of dislocations can impede dislocation motion by repulsive or attractive interactions.<br />Additionally, if two dislocations cross, dislocation line entanglement occurs, causing the formation of a jog which opposes dislocation motion.<br />These entanglements and jogs act as pinning points, which oppose dislocation motion.<br />9/28/2011<br />12<br />
  13. 13. 1-Work hardening<br />As both of these processes are more likely to occur when more dislocations are present, there is a correlation between dislocation density and yield strength,<br />where G is the shear modulus, b is the Burgers vector, and is the dislocation density.<br />Increasing the dislocation density increases the yield strength which results in a higher shear stress required to move the dislocations.<br />9/28/2011<br />13<br />
  14. 14. 1-Work hardening<br />This process is easily observed while working a material. <br />Theoretically, the strength of a material with no dislocations will be extremely high (τ=G/2) because plastic deformation would require the breaking of many bonds simultaneously.<br />, at moderate dislocation density values of around 107-109 dislocations/m2, the material will exhibit a significantly lower mechanical strength. <br />9/28/2011<br />14<br />
  15. 15. 1-Work hardening<br />Analogously, it is easier to move a rubber rug across a surface by propagating a small ripple through it than by dragging the whole rug.<br />At dislocation densities of 1014 dislocations/m2 or higher, the strength of the material becomes high once again. It should be noted that the dislocation density can't be infinitely high because then the material would lose its crystalline structure.<br />9/28/2011<br />15<br />
  16. 16. 2-Solid Solution Strengthening/Alloying<br />For this strengthening mechanism, solute atoms of one element are added to another, resulting in either substitutional or interstitial point defects in the crystal (see Figure 1). <br />The solute atoms cause lattice distortions that impede dislocation motion, increasing the yield stress of the material.<br />Solute atoms have stress fields around them which can interact with those of dislocations.<br />9/28/2011<br />16<br />
  17. 17. 9/28/2011<br />17<br />
  18. 18. 2-Solid Solution Strengthening/Alloying<br />The presence of solute atoms impart compressive or tensile stresses to the lattice, depending on solute size, which interfere with nearby dislocations, causing the solute atoms to act as potential barriers to dislocation propagation and/or multiplication.<br />The shear stress required to move dislocations in a material is: <br />where c is the solute concentration and ε is the strain on the material caused by the solute.<br />9/28/2011<br />18<br />
  19. 19. 2-Solid Solution Strengthening/Alloying<br />Increasing the concentration of the solute atoms will increase the yield strength of a material, but there is a limit to the amount of solute that can be added, and one should look at the phase diagram for the material and the alloy to make sure that a second phase is not created.<br />In general, the solid solution strengthening depends on the concentration of the solute atoms, shear modulus of the solute atoms, size of solute atoms, valency of solute atoms (for ionic materials), and the symmetry of the solute stress field.<br />9/28/2011<br />19<br />
  20. 20. 2-Solid Solution Strengthening/Alloying<br />Note that the magnitude of strengthening is higher for non-symmetric stress fields because these solutes can interact with both edge and screw dislocations whereas symmetric stress fields, which cause only volume change and not shape change, can only interact with edge dislocations.<br />9/28/2011<br />20<br />
  21. 21. 3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening<br />precipitation hardening -a process in which alloys are strengthened by the formation, in their lattice, of a fine dispersion of one component when the metal is quenched from a high temperature and aged at an intermediate temperature.<br />Precipitation hardening, also called age hardening, is a heat treatment technique used to increase the yield strength of malleable materials, including most structural alloys of aluminium, magnesium, nickel and titanium, and some stainless steels.<br />9/28/2011<br />پھیلانے<br />21<br />
  22. 22. 3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening<br />It relies on changes in solid solubility with temperature to produce fine particles of an impurity phase, which impede the movement of dislocations, or defects in a crystal's lattice.<br />Since dislocations are often the dominant carriers of plasticity, this serves to harden the material. <br />The impurities play the same role as the particle substances in particle-reinforced composite materials.<br />9/28/2011<br />22<br />
  23. 23. 3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening<br />Just as the formation of ice in air can produce clouds, snow, or hail, depending upon the thermal history of a given portion of the atmosphere, precipitation in solids can produce many different sizes of particles, which have radically different properties.<br />Unlike ordinary tempering, alloys must be kept at elevated temperature for hours to allow precipitation to take place. <br />This time delay is called aging. <br />9/28/2011<br />23<br />
  24. 24. 3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening<br />Solution treatment and aging is sometimes abbreviated "STA" in metals specs and certs.<br />Note that two different heat treatments involving precipitates can alter the strength of a material: solution heat treating and precipitation heat treating. <br />Solid solution strengthening involves formation of a single-phase solid solution via quenching and leaves a material softer. <br />9/28/2011<br />24<br />
  25. 25. 3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening<br />Diffusion's exponential dependence upon temperature makes precipitation strengthening, like all heat treatments, a fairly delicate process. <br />A large number of other constituents may be unintentional, but benign, or may be added for other purposes such as grain refinement or corrosion resistance. <br />In some cases, such as many aluminum alloys, an increase in strength is achieved at the expense of corrosion resistance.<br />9/28/2011<br />25<br />
  26. 26. 3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening<br />The addition of large amounts of nickel and chromium needed for corrosion resistance in stainless steels means that traditional hardening and tempering methods are not effective. <br />However, precipitates of chromium, copper or other elements can strengthen the steel by similar amounts in comparison to hardening and tempering. <br />The strength can be tailored by adjusting the annealing process, with lower initial temperatures resulting in higher strengths.<br />The lower initial temperature increase driving force of nucleation.<br />9/28/2011<br />26<br />
  27. 27. 3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening<br />More driving force means more nucleation sites, and more sites, means more places for dislocations to be disrupted while the finished part is in use.<br />Many alloy systems allow the aging temperature to be adjusted.<br />For instance, some aluminium alloys used to make rivets for aircraft construction are kept in dry ice from their initial heat treatment until they are installed in the structure.<br />9/28/2011<br />27<br />
  28. 28. 3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening<br />After this type of rivet is deformed into its final shape, aging occurs at room temperature and increases its strength, locking the structure together. <br />Higher aging temperatures would risk over-aging other parts of the structure, and require expensive post-assembly heat treatment. <br />Too high of an aging temperature promotes the precipitate to grow too readily.<br />9/28/2011<br />28<br />
  29. 29. 3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening<br />In most binary systems, alloying above a concentration given by the phase diagram will cause the formation of a second phase. <br />A second phase can also be created by mechanical or thermal treatments. <br />The particles that compose the second phase precipitates act as pinning points in a similar manner to solutes, though the particles are not necessarily single atoms.<br />The dislocations in a material can interact with the precipitate atoms in one of two ways (see Figure 2).<br />9/28/2011<br />29<br />
  30. 30. 3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening<br />9/28/2011<br />30<br />
  31. 31. 3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening<br />If the precipitate atoms are small, the dislocations would cut through them.<br />As a result, new surfaces (b in Figure 2) of the particle would get exposed to the matrix and the particle/matrix interfacial energy would increase. <br />For larger precipitate particles, looping or bowing of the dislocations would occur which results in dislocations getting longer. <br />9/28/2011<br />31<br />
  32. 32. 3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening<br />For larger precipitate particles, looping or bowing of the dislocations would occur which results in dislocations getting longer. <br />Hence, at a critical radius of about 5 nm, dislocations will preferably cut across the obstacle while for a radius of 30 nm, the dislocations will readily bow or loop to overcome the obstacle.<br />The mathematical descriptions are as follows:<br />For Particle Bowing- For Particle Cutting-<br />9/28/2011<br />32<br />
  33. 33. 4. Grain Boundary Strengthening<br />In a polycrystalline metal, grain size has a tremendous influence on the mechanical properties.<br />Because grains usually have varying crystallographic orientations, grain boundaries arise.<br />While an undergoing deformation, slip motion will take place.<br />Grain boundaries act as an impediment to dislocation motion for the following two reasons:<br />9/28/2011<br />33<br />
  34. 34. 4. Grain Boundary Strengthening<br />1. Dislocation must change its direction of motion due to the differing orientation of grains. 2. Discontinuity of slip planes from grain 1 to grain 2.<br />The stress required to move a dislocation from one grain to another in order to plastically deform a material depends on the grain size. <br />The average number of dislocations per grain decreases with average grain size (see Figure 3).<br />9/28/2011<br />34<br />
  35. 35. 4. Grain Boundary Strengthening<br />9/28/2011<br /><ul><li>A lower number of dislocations per grain results in a lower dislocation 'pressure' building up at grain boundaries.
  36. 36. This makes it more difficult for dislocations to move into adjacent grains.</li></ul>35<br />
  37. 37. 4. Grain Boundary Strengthening<br />This relationship is the Hall-Petch Relationship and can be mathematically described as follows:<br />where k is a constant, d is the average grain diameter and σy,0 is the original yield stress.<br />The fact that the yield strength increases with decreasing grain size is accompanied by the caveat that the grain size cannot be decreased infinitely.<br />As the grain size decreases, more free volume is generated resulting in lattice mismatch.<br />9/28/2011<br />36<br />
  38. 38. 4. Grain Boundary Strengthening<br />Below approximately 10 nm, the grain boundaries will tend to slide instead; a phenomenon known as grain-boundary sliding.<br />If the grain size gets too small, it becomes more difficult to fit the dislocations in the grain and the stress required to move them is less.<br />It was not possible to produce materials with grain sizes below 10 nm until recently, so the discovery that strength decreases below a critical grain size is still exciting.<br />9/28/2011<br />37<br />
  39. 39. 5. Transformation Hardening<br />This is an assignment <br />9/28/2011<br />38<br />