Construction Of Research Centre Using Green Building Technology
A Study Of Construction Of Research Centre Using Green Building Technology PROJECT ASSOCIATESPROJECT GUIDE MANIDEEP.MARGAMMs . V. ARUNA P.PRAMOD REDDY A.LAKSHMI NARAYANA
Content INTRODUCTION NEW ECO FRIENDLY PRODUCTS IN MARKET DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION STRUCTURAL, INTERIORS AND ARCHITECTURAL RAIN WATER COLLECTION AND ITS DISPOSAL LEED COMPARISION BETWEEN GREEN BUILDING AND ORDINARY BUILDING CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION Green building is an outcome of adesign which focuses on the reductionof overall impact of the builtenvironment on human health and thenatural environment by:
Human population per sq.Km of countryarea Ye a rCo u n t r y 1947 2009 2049 India 121 350 581 China — 132 141 U.S.A. — 34 49Actual open area shared by number ofpeople Co v e r e d Gr o u n d Pe r s ons St or e y a r e a l i v i ng Tot a l ope n of s q .f t . i n t ot a l hous e s a r e abui l di ng a p a r t me n s q .f t . t 1 24 36,000 25,200 96 5 120 180,000 25,200 480
Need for studyPeople are attracted towards a green building –Oper at i onal Savi ngsDayl i ght s & Vi ewsA r Q i ual i t yA t ypi cal of f i ce bui l di ng w d oul r equi r e pur gi ng of f r esh ai r of about 15 cf m/per son w ch hi pr ovi des a f r esh am ence i nsi de bi t he bui l di ng.
Need for studyAccording to the statistics proven, these conserve 40-50% of energy, 20-30% water compared to that of conventional buildings. The green buildings conserve: 39 % of total energy use, 12 % of total water consumption,
Research MethodologySITE DATATh e s i t e f o r t h e USP C a mp u s i nHy d e r a b a d me a s u r e sa p p r o x i ma t e l y 4 a c r e s . Th e s i t eh a s a c c e s s r o a d s a l o n g t h eSo u t h , Ea s t & We s t e r n .Th e s i t e h a s a c o n t o u r d r o p o fa r o u n d 8.0m f r o m E a s t t o We s t a n dt h e t e r r a i n i s r o c k y wi t h r o c ko u t c r o p s o n t h e e a s t e r n p a r c e l o ft h e s i t e .Be i n g a r o c k y l a n d t h e d e s i g n i ss u c h t h a t t h e e x c a v a t i o n i smi n i mi z e d t o a v o i d r o c k c u t t i n g .
NEW ECO-FRIENDLY PRODUCT IN MARKETLight Weight Concrete:Autoclaved aerated concrete (A AC), also known as autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC) or autoclaved lightweight concrete (ALC) was invented in the mid- precast building material that simultaneously provides structure, insulation, and fire
Advantages: AAC’s excellent thermal efficiency makes a majorcontribution to environmental protection by sharplyreducing the need for heating and cooling in buildings. AAC’s easy workability allows accurate cutting, whichminimizes the generation of solid waste during use. Unlikeother building materials, AAC can eliminate the need to beused in combination with insulation products, which increasethe environmental impact and cost of construction.
AAC’s high resource efficiency gives it lowenvironmental impact in all phases of its life cycle,from processing of raw materials to the disposal ofAAC waste.AAC’s light weight also saves energy in transportation.The fact that AAC is up to five times lighter thanconcrete leads to significant reductions inCO2 emissions during transportation. In addition, manyAAC manufacturers apply the principle of producing asnear to their consumer markets as possible to reducethe need for transportation.
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONProject Needs: As part of several discussions with USP the definition of the projects needs is described as follows.The campus shall have: Laboratories –Analytical, Microbiology, Bio- Analytical & Synthetic Labs Support lab functions – Wash, stores, cold rooms, etc. Lab scientists workspaces Administration Offices Meeting rooms & training facility Cafeteria Library Utility infrastructure Parking
Applicable codes and ReferencesArchitectural/Interiors: Regulations by ICICI Knowledge Park Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority National Building Code –for circulation standards, toilet design except fire and in case it is stringent Pollution Control Board
Structural Design Codes:IS1893 :2002 for Seismic protectionIS 456:2000 – for Plain & Reinforced concreteIS 875:1987 Part 1 – Code of practice for design loads for building &structure- dead loadsIS 875:1987 Part 2 – Code of practice for design loads for building& structure imposed loadsIS 875:1987 Part 3 – Code of practice for design loads for building& structure- wind loadsIS 800: Code of practice for General construction in StructuralsteelIS 1893:1984: Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structureSP16:1980 – Design aids reinforced Concrete to IS:456-1978IS 1904 Indian Standard Code of practice for design & constructionof foundations in Soil: General RequirementsIS 2950 Indian Standard Code of practice for design & constructionof raft foundation (Part – 1)IS 2974 Code of practice for design & construction of machinefoundation.SP 34 Handbook on Concrete Reinforcement & detailingIRC 57 - Design of Rigid pavements.IS 1786:1985 – Code of practice for reinforcing SteelIS: 8112-1989- Ordinary Portland Cement
Safety:Safety is one of the prime aspects for the designand functioning of this facility. The safety aspectscovered in this section are related to the designaspects for this facility.Architecture: All access ways –vertical or horizontal shall bedisabled friendly –use of ramps, elevators, grabbars etc. All labs shall have minimum 2 exits to cater toescape routes. Fire escape staircases have been provided atstrategic locations for a max. Travel distance of45m (as per NBC). Safety shower & eye washes are provided atstrategic locations. All exit corridors shall not have anyobstructions & the clear widths shall bemaintained Panic bars shall be provided at fire
Safety and Security system All access control doors shall be deactivated incase of fire which shall be connected to the Firepanel. Smoke and heat detectors shall beprovided in all spaces and connected to the firepanel. The PA system shall be activated in case of fireand announcement shall be made to make theusers aware of an emergency situation. CCTV system is being proposed to monitor thesite periphery. The cameras shall be placed atstrategic locations on the compound wall.Cameras are also proposed in entry/exit pointsand in the buildings.
Laboratory design Ventilated reagent storages areproposed for storing of reagents toensure that the solvent vapours areextracted out of the lab. All volatile and flammable chemicalsshall be handled inside the fume hood. All Laboratory equipment shall haveemergency shutdown procedures that areposted on equipment or near to theequipment. All Laboratory scientists must know thelocation and proper use of allLaboratory safety equipment, includingfirst aid kit(s), eyewash, fire
STRUCTURAL,INTERIORS AND ARCHITECTURAL General building design procedure: Step 1: Plan the approximate layout of the building Step 2: Calculate dead and snow load Step 3: Design steel roof decks Step 4: Select OWSJ’s (Open Web Steel Joist) Step 5: Design beam Step 6: Design column Step 7: Design steel column bore plates Step 8: Design footing Step 9: Create engineering drawing Step 10: Final check and submission.
Design Philosophy and Approachfor the Structural Design The basic aim of structural design of the buildings is to ensure the achievement of satisfactory behavior during the intended design life. With appropriate degree of safety they should sustain all the loads coming during construction and use. Adequate durability and fire resistance are other major factors governing the design.Robustness: Proposed Structures are planned and designed, so that they are not unreasonably Susceptible to effects of accident wherein damage to small area of failure of single element may lead to collapse of major portions of the structure.
Serviceability: The design properties of materials and the design loads comply with design codes specified in later part of this report and would typically include:i. Deflection Criteria:Deflection due to vertical loading: Final deflection below level of supports should not be greater than l/250 where l is the span of the member or the length of the cantilever. Deflection after installation of elements such as cladding and partitions not greater than l/500 or 20mm whichever is lesser.ii. Response to wind loads:Limiting the deflection to h/500 under design conditions and the storey drift to 0.04 *Storey height
iii. Cracking of concrete: Design surface crack width due to applied loads orthermal or shrinkage effects not greater than 0.3 mm iv. Vibrations: By avoidance of discomfort or alarm to occupants,structural damage or interference with proper functioning v. Durability: Durability is achieved by integration of all aspects ofdesign material and construction technology. Theenvironmental effect to which the concrete or steel isexposed is taken into account during the design byproviding adequate cover to reinforcement and use ofprotective coatings to structural steel works.
The nominal cover provided toreinforcement would be: STRUCTURAL ELEMENT COVER Foundation and retaining walls 50mm Column 40mm Beams 25mm Slabs 20mm Stair case waist slab 20mm Walls above ground 25mm Parapets and Balustrade 25mm
vi. Fatigue: Cyclical or repetitive loadings such as crane movement etc. shall be catered for in the design of the relevant elements of the structure. vii. Fire Resistance: The design of structural elements is to be based on fire resistance levels to satisfy BIS (IS 456:2000) requirements as advised.Material Properties: Concrete of design strength of 30 MPa will generally be used for structural concrete works. Columns strength would be enhanced to M35 in special cases as determined by the Oncoming loads onto the building.Reinforcing steel used in the design shall primarily be: High Yield Twisted Steel bars Fe 415 with a characteristic strength of 415 N/mm². Welded Mesh reinforcement with a characteristic strength of 485 N/mm². Mild steel reinforcement with a characteristic strength of 250 N/mm².
Loading CriteriaDead and Super Imposed Dead loads: Concrete: 25 KN/cum Steel: 78.5 KN/cum Screed: 25KN/cum or 1.5 KN/m² for floor finishes Brick Masonry: 2.2 KN/m height for 115 mm thickness 4.4 KN/m height for 230 mm thickness Block Masonry: 3.8 KN/m height for 200 mm thickness 1.9 KN/m height for100 mm thickness Partitions and Ceilings for office
Wind loads: The design wind speed for Hyderabad is 44 m/s with following reduction factors for determining the design wind pressure (dynamic).Imposed loads: The following design imposed loads will be used for this building: Office: 4.0 KN/m² Dining, Cafeteria: 3.0 KN/m² HVAC, Plant rooms: 5.0 KN/m² Switch gear room: 7.5 KN/m² Store: 2.5 KN/m² per meter height of storage Laboratories: 5.0 KN/m² Staircases: 4.0 KN/m²
Balustrade Loading:Balustrades are to be designed as follows: All other handrails, balustrades and the like, including parapets and railings to all roofs, shall be designed to resist a static load of 0.75 kN/m acting inward, outward or downward, or the appropriate wind load, whichever produces the most adverse effects. Balustrades, which may be called upon to restrain crowds or people under panic conditions, are to be designed for a load of 3 kN/m.Geo technical Conditions:
Beam and Slab Option: Reinforced Concrete framed structure with 600 x 750 mm RC Columns with Shallow beams 600 mm deep x 750 mm wide are provided to support 200/225/250 mm thick slabs along larger span and 450 x 600 mm beam along shorter span. The floor panels are typically 12.55 x 8m in most of the cases. This conventional system of construction is ideally suited for a low rise development where there is adequate headroom available. However the beam depths are kept to least possible dimension to maximize the head room but still satisfy the serviceability and strength criteria set
Design Criteria and Description: Site Location: Hyderabad, India. Geographic location: 17.86 deg N Latitude Altitude: 1787 feet above sea level.Outdoor Design Conditions: Based on the past experience with several projects in Hyderabad and ISHRAE Climatologically and Solar Data, the outdoor design conditions shall be considered as: Summer 106 ºF (41.1 ºC) DB 78 ºF (25.6 ºC) WB Monsoon 85 ºF (29.4 ºC) DB 81 ºF (27.2 ºC) WB
InteriorsDesign description:The block shall be basically divided into following areas. The reception lobby & Visitors area The laboratories Lab Office spaces Administration facility Supporting activities like Library, training centre, Cafeteria
Terrace Rainwater collection and disposal: The terrace rainwater is taken out by using rigid PVC pipes rated for 4 kg/cm²pressure and connected to the proposed storm water drain available near the building.Storm water recharge & disposal: Storm Water from the proposed USP campus is routed through RC Hume pipes & catch basins located on the periphery of the building & finally connecting to the external drain, it is also used to recharge the bore wells using recharge pits / percolation pits located at strategic points in the
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LEED STANDS FOR LEADERSHIP IN ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGNLEED Categories: Under the LEED certification program green building design focuses on five main categories: Sustainable Sites Water Efficiency Energy and Atmosphere Materials and Resources Indoor Environmental Quality
COMPARISON BETWEEN GREEN BUILDING AND ORDINARY BUILDING AND ITS ADVANTAGESCIVIL WORKS: Usage of ACC blocks in place of ordinary clay blocks. Usage of fly ash upto 30% replacement of cement in all the structural works. Storm water tanks used for the fire water and other PHE usages. Rain water harvesting pits are provided. Usage of sewage treatment water for harvesting and toilet flush. Roof top plantation.
SOLAR SYSTEM:•50% of street lights are on solar system.•Solar system, photo voltaic system for the corridor lighting.HVAC:•Usage of R134A for refrigerant in place of R22.•Heat recovery wheels are placed in the system to reduce thepower.•TES (Thermal Energy Storage) tanks were installed to decreasethe usage of energy.•Hot water from return was used for usage of hot water supply intoilets and kitchen etc.ORIENTATION OF BUILDING: The building is facing South direction. 80% of facade area for the glazing is on North and South directions. Staircases were present on East and West directions.
LIFTS: Lifts are used only for PHE’s only (G+2) and utility purpose only.LIGHTING: Usage of LED lighting as compared to CFL. Usage of sensors in all the cabins for lighting system. Monitoring of all the systems on BMS (Building Management Systems).
ADVANTAGES: 2-storm water storage of 30,000 litres each are arranged for the storage of rain water. They can be used as storage tanks and bares the water of about 3 day’s storage. Sewage and treatment tanks (STT) - Reusing of sewage water after treatment for harvesting (Gardening). Fly ash is used in R.C.C works and P.C.C (Buildings and C.C roads). In this, cement is replaced by 30% of fly ash. A.C.C blocks are replaced in place of clay blocks. Thermal cooling system over terrace (A.C.C blocks over roof) to decrease heat losses. Solar lighting system for street lights and internal lightings. Separate waste storage for recyclable waste material (papers, plywood, glass, cardboard etc.,). Sensors for electrical lighting/HVAC system in meeting rooms and corridors/library. Orientation of building (Main elevation) - openings with glass windows for South and North direction and closed walls for East and West directions. And glass used is of 0.38 k.
CONCLUSION The green buildings gives the facility a campus feels, and creates anenvironment of creative thoughts and interaction which will help inexchange of ideas. The design shall also be energy efficient. From the design point of view, the design specifications are to bethoroughly satisfied, since no compromise can be made regarding thestability of the structure. Quality control plays a vital role in the construction of the structure.The quality control department in the site is of major importance.Appropriate precautionary measures are to be taken to avoid the use ofinefficient material. The fire fighting system which can efficiently control the hazardouseffects of sudden fires and which minimizes the loss is importance inthis structure.
Safety and security plays a major role, because huge equipment manpower get involved while constructing these kind of huge structures. Therefore, proper formulation of rules and regulations regardingsafety is mandatory. The green building experiences in India have been exciting andchallenging as well. Since its introduction in 2001, the LEED rating hasemerged as a very useful tool in designing a green building. Now there isan imminent need for service providers, who would be required in largenumbers, not in hundreds but thousands, as the movement is heading toreach greater heights. The green building movement is here to stay for the benefit ofindividuals, society and the country at large.