Training process


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Training process

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Training and Development 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Objectives and Goals Theories and Principles of Training. Orientation Process of Training and Development Modes and Techniques of Training
  2. 2. Training and Developing Employees Behavioral Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Describe the basic training process. Explain the nature of at least five training techniques. Discuss what management development is and why it’s important. Describe the five on-and off-the-job development techniques. Explain why training evaluation is important and how it is best accomplished.
  3. 3. Chapter Outline  Orienting Employees  The Training Process  Training techniques  Training for Special Purposes  Managerial Development and Techniques.  Evaluating the Training Effort Training
  4. 4. Key words employee orientation A procedure for providing new employees with basic back-ground information about the firm. training The process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs.
  5. 5. Key words task analysis A detailed study of a job to identify the skills required so that an appropriate training program may be instituted. performance analysis Verifying that there is a performance deficiency and determining whether that deficiency should be rectified through training or through some other means (such as transferring the employee).
  6. 6. Key words on-the-job training (OJT) Training a person to learn a job while working at it. job instruction training (JIT) Listing of each job’s basic tasks, along with key points in order to provide step-by-step training for employees.
  7. 7. Key words programmed learning A systematic method for teaching job skills involving presenting questions or facts, allowing the person to respond, and giving the learner immediate feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers. vestibule or simulated training Training employees on special off-the-job equipment, as in airplane pilot training, whereby training costs and hazards can be reduced.
  8. 8. Key words management development Any attempt to improve current management performance by knowledge, changing attitudes, or skills. or future imparting increasing succession planning A process through which senior-level openings are planned for and eventually filled.
  9. 9. Key words job rotation A management training technique that involves moving a trainee from department to department to broaden his or her experience and identify strong and weak points. action learning A training technique by trainees are allowed analyzing and solving departments. which management to work full time problems in other
  10. 10. Key words case study method A development method in which the manager is presented with a written description of an organizational problem to diagnose and solve. management game A development technique in which teams of managers compete with one another by making computerized decisions regarding realistic but simulated companies.
  11. 11. Key words role playing A training technique in which trainees act out the parts of people in a realistic management situation. behavior modeling A training technique in which trainees are first shown good management techniques in a film, are then asked to play roles in a simulated situation, and are then given feedback and praise by their supervisor.
  12. 12. Key words in-house development centers A company-based method for exposing prospective managers to realistic exercises to develop improved management skills. controlled experimentation Formal methods for testing the effectiveness of a training program, preferably with beforeand-after tests and a control group.
  13. 13. 1. Objectives and Goals (1) Definition (2) Goals and Objectives (3) Relation with other HRM activities
  14. 14. (1) Definition  Training and development are planned efforts to facilitate the learning job-related behavior on the part of the employees.
  15. 15. (2) Goals and Objectives (1)Goals of training and development The goal of training and development is to enhance employee quality and motivation so as to improve productivity and meet future needs of the organization. (2)Objectives of training and development: A.Meet organization needs. B.Meet individual needs. C.Improve productivity satisfaction.
  16. 16. (3) Relation with other HRM activities A. Task analysis: the basis for developing training programs, strategies and materials. B. HR planning: guidelines for training and development programs. C. Performance appraisals: identifying training needs. D. Organization development: identifying training needs.
  17. 17. 2. Theories and Principles of Training (1) Reinforcement theory (2) Goal-setting theory (3) Expectancy theory (4) Application of the theories (5) Basic principles of learning
  18. 18. (1) Reinforcement theory (Skinner, B.F.) A. The frequency of behavior is influenced by its consequences. B. Three major types of consequences:  Positive reinforcement: reward desirable behavior.  Negative reinforcement: withhold punishments to force the adoption of desirable behavior.  Punishment: punish undesirable behavior.
  19. 19. (2) Goal-setting theory (Locke, E. A) A. One’s conscious goals or intentions regulate his/her behavior. B. Three important implications for motivating trainees:  The learning objective should be conveyed clearly to the trainees.  Training goals should be difficult enough to challenge the trainees and satisfy their needs.  The final goal should be supplemented with periodic sub-goals during training.
  20. 20. (3) Expectancy theory A. One will be motivated to chose a behavior alternative that is most likely to have favorable consequences. B. Key concepts:  Outcome: the result of a certain behavior.  Valence: perceived value of the outcome.  E (effort) →P (performance) expectancy: the amount of effort for a certain level of performance.  P (performance) → O (outcome) expectancy: the probability that improved performance will lead to desirable outcome.
  21. 21. (4) Application of the theories A. Schedule reinforcement in training:  Continuous reinforcement.  Intermittent reinforcement. B. Set clear and challenging goals in training. C. Tie desirable rewards to training outcome for each individual.
  22. 22. (5) Basic principles of learning A. The principle of reinforcement: continuous and repetitive practice ensures the retention of knowledge and skills. B. The principle of behavior modeling: set models for the trainees to follow. C. The principle of feedback: timely and adequate feedback motivates the trainees. D. The principle of learning transfer: those that can be transferred to work are most likely to be retained.
  23. 23. Orientation (1) What is orientation? Orientation is to help the new employees know the organization and their jobs. (2) Content of orientation: A. Socialization: to help the new employees know their colleagues and supervisors. B. Organization: to help the new employees to know the organization structure and regulations. C. Job: to help the new employees know the tasks, duties and desirable behavior of their
  24. 24. 4. Process of Training and Development (1) Training needs analysis (2) Instructional design (3) Validation (4) Implementation (5) Evaluation and follow-up
  25. 25. (1) Training needs analysis A. Organization analysis: identify training needs of the organization according to its long-term goals-set the training goals. B. Job analysis: identify training needs according to job descriptions and specifications—specify skills/knowledge/behavior to be trained. C. People analysis: identify people that need training and their trainability-identify potential trainees.
  26. 26. (2) Instructional design A. Set training goals. B. Determine what to train. C. Identify trainees. D. Choose training materials. E. Determine training modes and methods. F. Select trainers. G. Schedule training. H. Develop training budget.
  27. 27. (3) Validation A. Validate the training program before implementation.  Pilot study: conduct the program with a small number of trainees to test its effect.  Consultation: consult the trainees and their supervisors on the appropriateness of the program. B. Make revision of the training programs before implementation.
  28. 28. (4) Implementation A. Obtain continuous support from linemanagement to the training program. B. Appoint manager for the training program. C. Develop managing guidelines for the program. D. Provide logistic support. E. Conduct concurrent evaluation of the program.
  29. 29. (5) Evaluation and follow-up A. Types of evaluation:  Concurrent evaluation: evaluate training effects during training.  Immediate final evaluation: evaluate training effects at the end of the training.  Follow-up evaluation: evaluate training effect by evaluating trainee performance over time.
  30. 30. C. Forms of evaluation  Written tests: Check learning results of knowledge.  Simulation: check learning results of skills.  Interviews: check training effects by talking to the trainees and their supervisors.  Questionnaire: check effectiveness of instruction materials, trainer and training methods.  Performance appraisal: check learning transfer and training effectiveness on job.
  31. 31. 5. Modes and Techniques of Training (1) Training modes A. On-job training B. Off-job training (2) Training techniques