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# KAN Talks 3: Gravity (By Akshaj)

Akshaj gives a brief overview of Gravity and answer the questions by audience.

Akshaj is 11 years old and a proud member of Mango Astronomy club. He is passionate about physics and astronomy.

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### KAN Talks 3: Gravity (By Akshaj)

1. 1. By:Akshaj.J.Gopal GRAVITY
2. 2. Newton asked his biographer William Stukeley “ Why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground ? Why should it not go sideways or upwards ? “ He implied that there must be some drawing power in matter and the sum of all the drawing power of the matter in Earth must be at the Earth’s center. The drawing power is directly proportional to the mass. . E.g. : A person on the moon weighs 6 times less than he is on Earth because the moon is much less massive. The drawing power of gravity decreases with distance E.g. : Satellite drifts too far away from the Earth NEWTON’S IDEA OF GRAVITY
3. 3. Newton states that every particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force that is proportional to their masses. F = G m1,m2 r^2 G= gravitational constant(6.67408 × 10^-11 m^3 kg^-1 s^-2) NEWTON’S IDEA OF GRAVITY
4. 4. Objects with mass distorts space time around themselves just as weights placed on a rubber sheet make dents in it. Because that object makes a dent in space time, other objects tend to roll down towards it. Einstein proposed that gravity acts at the speed of light. If this is true then something must be carrying gravity. These theoretical particles are called Gravitons. EINSTEIN’S IDEA OF GRAVITY
5. 5. • Gravity is a force • Mechanism is unknown • Acts at a distance • Moves at infinite speed • Gravity is tied to mass • Gravity is geometry • Mechanism is curvature • Acts locally • Moves at light speed • Gravity is tied to energy Newton Einstein NEWTON AND EINSTEIN ON GRAVITY
6. 6. Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity is one of the towering achievements of 20th-century physics. Published in 1916, it explains that what we perceive as the force of gravity in fact arises from the curvature of space and time. Earth’s mass bends the space-time fabric GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY
7. 7. Is the sphere of gravitational influence around a body in which satellites are usually found orbiting This is the area where satellites a can maintain orbit without falling into the body or drifting away from it It was discovered by George William Hill. HILL RADIUS
8. 8. The distance within the gravitational field of a large body which is strong enough to prevent any smaller body, from being held together and in turn disentegrates to form rings. It was found in 1848 by French astronomer, Edouard Roche . ROCHE LIMIT
9. 9. exhibits gravitational acceleration so strong that no particles, electromagnetic radiation and even stars. General Relativity predicts that sufficently compacted mass can deform space time to form black holes. BLACK HOLE
10. 10. Johannes Kepler was a German astronomer and mathematician. He said 1. All planets move about the sun in elliptical orbits with the sun at one Foci 2. A radius vector joining any planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times KEPLER’S LAWS OF PLANETERY MOTION
11. 11. The Chandrasekhar limit is the maximum mass a stable white dwarf star can remain as a white dwarf star. The currently accepted value is 1.4 solar masses(2.765*10^30 kg) It was named after Indian Astrophysicist Subramanian Chandrasekhar CHANDRASEKHAR LIMIT
12. 12. EVOLUTION OF STARS
13. 13. According to Einstein ,starlight passing just before the sun’s surface bends1/2000th of a degree .this the case for all massive Gravitational bodies GRAVITATIONAL LENSING
14. 14. THANK YOU

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Akshaj gives a brief overview of Gravity and answer the questions by audience. About the speaker: Akshaj is 11 years old and a proud member of Mango Astronomy club. He is passionate about physics and astronomy.

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