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# KAN Talks 1: Electrostatics (Akshay)

Akshay is 13 years old and a member of Mango Astronomy club. He loves physics. He is excited about learning the fundamentals in all areas of science and technology.

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### KAN Talks 1: Electrostatics (Akshay)

1. 1. Electro Statics Done By Akshay
2. 2. Charging And Discharging Charging
3. 3. Charging ● Static shock ● Rubbing a cloth and a plastic ruler.
4. 4. Charges ● Positive and Negative charge ● From the experiment - – Like charges repel – Unlike charges attract
5. 5. Static Electricity ● Amber – tree resin ● When rubbed, causes static charge ● Greek name for Amber – elektron
6. 6. Types of Charging Two types of charging - – Charging By Friction – Charging By Induction
7. 7. Charging By Friction ● Rubbing two objects ● One becomes positive ● One becomes negative
8. 8. Charging By Induction ● Keep a charged object nearby neutral object ● The charges in neutral object separate
9. 9. Charging And Discharging Electric Field And Electric Charge
10. 10. Charged Objects ● Charged objects can affect other objects ● We say that there is an electric field around it
11. 11. Charging And Discharging Fields
12. 12. Representing Fields ● An electric field is the area around a charged object in which another charged object experiences a force.
13. 13. Representing Fields ● A charged object has a field ● If a charged object moves into the field, it experiences a force. ● It can be shown by electrical lines of force
14. 14. Representing Fields ● The field originates from the positive charge ● The field goes into the negative charge. This is just like magnets( except ‘+’ is ‘N’ and ‘-’ is ‘S’)
15. 15. Charged Particles ● Charge is measured in Coulombs (c), named after Charles-Augustin de Coulomb. ● Electron is a negatively charged particle. ● It is much smaller that an atom (only weakly attached to the atom itself) ● Proton is a positively charged particle ● Present in the nucleus
16. 16. Charged Particles ● Electron charge = -0.000 000 000 000 000 00016 Coulombs = -1.6x10 ¹ C⁻ ⁹ ● Proton charge = +0.000 000 000 000 000 00016 Coulombs = +1.6x10 ¹ C⁻ ⁹
17. 17. Charging And Discharging Electrical Circuits
18. 18. Current in circuits ● Current is the flow of electrons ● For an electric current we need - – A completed circuit – A cell or Battery
19. 19. Current in circuits ● Current that flows in one direction all the time is called d.c Current (Direct Current) ● Current that keeps changing direction is called a.c current (Alternating Current) ● Current(I) = Charge(Q) / Time(t)
20. 20. Conductors ● Good conductors include most metals including copper, silver, gold, steel, etc. ● Good conductors are needed in a circuit for it to run without much resistance. ● Bad conductors have more resistance, thus not a good material for a circuit.
21. 21. Insulators ● Good Insulators include most polymers (such as Perspex or Polythene), minerals, glass, etc ● Good insulators are used to protect something or someone from charges.
22. 22. Measuring Current ● Ammeter ● Connected in series to a circuit ● Also called as Ampmeter
23. 23. Measuring Voltage ● Voltmeter ● Connected parallel to a circuit ● Also knows as EMF (Electro Motive Force) or Potential Difference (p.d.)
24. 24. Resistance ● Opposition of current ● Confronts the flow of charge
25. 25. Resistance ● For example – Walking through air compared to swimming in water.
26. 26. Symbols For Electrical Components
27. 27. Charging And Discharging Real Life Examples
28. 28. Lightning ● The strong negative charge in the cloud attracts positive charges in the ground (by induction). ● The positive charges move to the tallest objects ● A stepped ladder of negative charge comes down from the clouds, seeking a path to the ground.
29. 29. Van De Graff Generator ● A belt is spun, creating a charge. ● These charges move towards the sphere and get evenly distributed. ● When the person touches the sphere, the charges get transferred to the person.
30. 30. Van De Graff Generator
31. 31. Lighters ● Called a Piezoelectric generator(literally means pressing electricity). ● A piezoelectric crystal is neutral, but not symmetrically arranged ● When it is stretched, or bent, the charges move, and thus giving the crystal a charge.
32. 32. Lighters
33. 33. Capacitors ● A capacitor is made of 2 metal plates with a dielectric metal between them. ● When a voltage is given, the plates will start to accumulate an opposite charge. ● Whenever needed, the input will be inverted, acting as an output.
34. 34. Capacitors

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About the presenter: Akshay is 13 years old and a member of Mango Astronomy club. He loves physics. He is excited about learning the fundamentals in all areas of science and technology.

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