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Breakthrough Horizontal Drilling
Performance in Pre-Khuff Strata with
Steerable Turbines
Mike Simpson, Shaohua Zhou, Dave ...
Outline
Introduction
Economic Importance of Pre-
Khuff Reservoirs
Pre-Khuff Geology
Turbo-drilling Experience in
Saudi Ara...
Introduction
Saudi Aramco Produces 8.1 mmbopd, 6.9
bscfd non-associated Gas &1 mmbpd NGL’s
Introduction
It operates 49 Land
and Offshore Drilling
& Workover Rigs
consisting of:
25 Onshore Oil Rigs
3 Offshore Oil R...
Economic Importance of
Pre-Khuff Reservoirs
25% Gas Prod. f/Pre-Khuff – Mostly Unzy
Unzy’s Most Abrasive & Problematic to ...
Pre-Khuff Geology
Pre-Khuff – Formations of Lower
Permian Age or older deposited before
the Khuff
Include the Unayzah, Jau...
Unayzah A, B & C
Unzy-A has 3000
to 9000 psi UCS
(PDC Drillable)
Unzy-B (7000-
27,000 on this RMA)
Too hard & Abrasive
for...
Unayzah-A Core from Tinat-6
•Abrasive
• Not as
Hard as
UNZY-B
•Friable
Internal friction angle (phi): Unayzah reservoir core rock mechanics lab test result
40
45
50
55
60
65
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
...
BHA: 3 BHA TYPE : Vertical
DATE: WELL : TINAT #3
JOB N° : RIG: SF 162 ARAMCO
GRAPHIC DESCRIPTION OD (in) ID (in) LENGTH ( ...
BHA: 2 BHA TYPE:Vertical
DATE: WELL :
JOB N° : RIG:NAD-117 ARAMCO
GRAPHIC DESCRIPTIONOD (in)ID (in)LENGTH ( ft )SERIAL N°
...
BHA: 2 BHA
TYPE:
Vertical
DATE: WELL:
JOB N° : RIG:SF 174 ARAMCO
GRAPHICDESCRIPTIONOD (in)ID (in)LENGTH ( ft )SERIAL N°
32...
Primary Cause of Bit Sticking
Radial Hole Deformation
Radial Hole Deformation and breakout in the
near wellbore region due...
Radial Hole Deformation
Excessive Breakouts
normally occurred
across Sandstones,
as shown in this
Image Log from
HWYH-950
Secondary Cause of Bit Sticking
– Unstabilized Rotating Length
Bit Box
Stab
Pin Up Bit Box Down Shaft Lower Brg Stab Turbi...
Turbo-drilling Experience in Saudi Arabia – 4th Run
4th
Vertical Run on HWHY-961:
8-3/8” IADC M842 Impreg bit
with Box-up ...
Turbo-drilling Experience in Saudi Arabia – 4th Run
Run on HWYH-961
Made 242’ in 23.5
hrs @ 10.3 fph with
cost of $443/ft
Figure 11: Caliper Log over Turbo-Drilled Interval (100 pcf MW)
(No undergauge hole across Unayzah or Jauf)
7.250
7.625
8....
Horizontal Vs. Vertical Well Productivity
Horizontal Wells
showed substantial
increase in
productivity over
Vertical Wells...
Unayzah even tougher to drill horizontally
Diminished bit performance in 5-7/8” vs. 8-
3/8” bits
Diminished bit performanc...
Abrasive Wear/Lost Cones – PDC/Impreg Wear
Major Problems in Unayzah-B
Two 5-7/8” IADC 627Y TCI’s lost all three cones whi...
Lost Cones – PDC/Impreg Wear
Major Problems in Unayzah-B
RR Impreg 100%
Worn after drilling
22’ in 8.5 hours
Run on Low-Sp...
Lost Cones – PDC/Impreg Wear
Major Problems in Unayzah Formation
PDC completely
cored out after
Drilling 219’ in 26.5
hour...
Horizontal Solution to Radial Hole Deformation
Drill Paralell to Maximum Horz. Stress Axis
Horizontal Wellbore Drilled Due...
Solution to hole spiraling – One Stage 4-3/4”
Steerable Turbine & Box-Up bit (Min. Rot. Length)
One Power
Section
99 Press...
Breakthrough Horizontal Drilling
Performance on WDHY-1
1st Horizontal Run:
5-7/8” IADC M842
Box-up 12 blade
Impregnated di...
Breakthrough Horizontal Drilling
Performance on WDHY-1
2nd
Horizontal Run:
5-7/8” IADC M842
Box-up 12 blade
Impregnated di...
Turbo-drill Operating Parameters
WDYH-1(re): turbine drilling parameters (SA5.4)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
15850
15900
1595...
Breakthrough Horizontal Drilling
Performance on WDHY-1
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
SA5.2 WDYH-4
XR40YODPD
WDYH-4
K...
Breakthrough Horizontal Drilling
Performance on WDHY-1
14000
14500
15000
15500
16000
16500
17000
17500
MD(Feet)
8/3/2003 8...
AVERAGE 5-7/8" BIT PERFORMANCE IN
UNAYZAH-B For WDHY-1 & 4
BIT TYPE # RUN
Average
FOOTAGE
Average
HOURS
Avg.
ROP
Avg.
$/FT...
Turbo-drill Runs in Potassium Formate Brines
Clear “solids free” Liquid the can be used as
drilling, spotting, workover or...
Turbo-drill Runs in Potassium Formate Brines
3rd
Horizontal Run:
5-7/8” IADC M842
12 Blade Impreg run
on 4-3/4” Turbine in...
Turbo-drill Runs in Potassium Formate Brines
4th
Horizontal Run: 5-
7/8” IADC M842 8
Blade Impreg run on
4-3/4” Turbine in...
Turbo-drill Runs in Potassium Formate Brines
5th
Horizontal Run:
5-7/8” IADC M842
12 Blade Impreg run
on 4-3/4” Turbine in...
Effect of Overbalance of Rock Confined
Compressive Strength
Increased overbalance between formation and Drilling fluid
inc...
Potassium Formate Brine Performance HRDH-658
Use of a 102 pcf potassium Formate Brine
with excess CaCO3 on HRDH-658:
Lower...
Turbo-drill Run in 90 pcf K-Formate Brine on Tinat-3
4-3/4” Steerable Turbo-drill prior to being RIH on Tinat-3
Setting Turbo-drill bearing section in Mouse-hole
Stabbing Power Section onto Bearing
Section & Making up same
Making up Turbine Sleeve Impreg Bit and
checking bearing gap on Turbo-drill
RIH with Turbo-drill Assembly
Record Breaking ROP run in
Tinat-3 Unayzah-A
6th
Horizontal Run:
5-7/8” M834 Impreg
drilled 360’ in 50 hrs
@ 7.2 fph with ...
Average 5-7/8" Bit Performance on Tinat-3
in the Unayzah-A
BIT TYPE # RUN
Average
FOOTAGE
Average
HOURS
Avg.
ROP
Avg.
$/FT...
Potassium Formate Brine Performance in Tinat-3
Lowered Pump
Pressures from
4200 to 3400 psi at
220 gpm
Decreased Rotating
...
Composition of formate-based drilling fluid
Component Function Concentration
Formate brine Density control
Lubricity
Polym...
Typical properties of formate-based drilling fluid
Property Initial Hot rolling
@285o
F
Mud density (pcf) 90 90
PV (cp) 24...
Solids Control System for K-Formate Brine
Two Decanting Centrifuges
Two Linear Motion Shale Shakers
w/180 & 200 Mesh Scree...
Potassium Formate Brine Liquor in Individual
Bulk Containers (IBC’s)
Potassium Formate Powder in 25 kg sacks
Poor-Boy Brine Recovery System
Drain Lines
from Rig Floor
Brine collected in
IBC’s for Reuse
Expandable Sand Screen Completion
Well Completed with 1410’ of 4”/230 micron
expandable Sand Screens
Run and expanded with...
Conclusions
Steerable turbo-drill/Impreg bit drilling has
emerged as the most cost effective and HSE
friendly manner to dr...
Conclusions, cont.
IADC 627-737 TCI bits are also cost effective
when total revolutions are maintained in the
150,000 to 1...
Conclusions, cont.
The 90 & 102 pcf potassium formate brines
used in Tinat-3 & HRDH-658 provided lower
pump pressures, tor...
Conclusions, cont.
Plans are to use Impreg/Turbo-drill
assemblies over the entire Unayzah build
and horizontal sections in...
Breakthrough Horizontal Drilling
Performance in Pre-Khuff Strata with
Steerable Turbines
Thank You!
Questions?
SPE 90376
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SPE 90376 presentation slides - Turbine drilling with imgregnated diamond bits in hard abrasive sandstones with potassium formate brine

Breakthrough horizontal well drilling performance in hard abrasive sandstones by turbo-drilling in potassium formate brine

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SPE 90376 presentation slides - Turbine drilling with imgregnated diamond bits in hard abrasive sandstones with potassium formate brine

  1. 1. Breakthrough Horizontal Drilling Performance in Pre-Khuff Strata with Steerable Turbines Mike Simpson, Shaohua Zhou, Dave Treece, Carlos Rondon, Tom Emmons, Saudi Aramco; Craig Martin Sii-Neyrfor and Mohammad Tahir, Diamant Drilling Services SPE 90376
  2. 2. Outline Introduction Economic Importance of Pre- Khuff Reservoirs Pre-Khuff Geology Turbo-drilling Experience in Saudi Arabia Breakthrough Horizontal Drilling Performance Turbo-drill Runs in Potassium Formate Brines Conclusions
  3. 3. Introduction Saudi Aramco Produces 8.1 mmbopd, 6.9 bscfd non-associated Gas &1 mmbpd NGL’s
  4. 4. Introduction It operates 49 Land and Offshore Drilling & Workover Rigs consisting of: 25 Onshore Oil Rigs 3 Offshore Oil Rigs 21 Land Gas Rigs, 2000 hp or larger
  5. 5. Economic Importance of Pre-Khuff Reservoirs 25% Gas Prod. f/Pre-Khuff – Mostly Unzy Unzy’s Most Abrasive & Problematic to Drill Gas Demand will inc. to 12 bscfd by 2025 50-55% of this must come from the Pre-Khuff Currently Drlg. 47 Gas Wells/year w/18 Rigs Utilizes three Workover Rigs & one Snub. U. Unzy Well Design Changed to Horz. in 2003 to meet demand
  6. 6. Pre-Khuff Geology Pre-Khuff – Formations of Lower Permian Age or older deposited before the Khuff Include the Unayzah, Jauf, Tawil, Sharawra, Qusaiba, Sarah, Qasim and Saq Mainly hard and ultra abrasive sandstones interbedded with siltstones and shales Shales often unstable requiring 1500 psi overbalance to mitigate tight hole
  7. 7. Unayzah A, B & C Unzy-A has 3000 to 9000 psi UCS (PDC Drillable) Unzy-B (7000- 27,000 on this RMA) Too hard & Abrasive for PDC’s – TCI’s & Impregs Only Unzy-C 9000- 22,000 UCS
  8. 8. Unayzah-A Core from Tinat-6 •Abrasive • Not as Hard as UNZY-B •Friable
  9. 9. Internal friction angle (phi): Unayzah reservoir core rock mechanics lab test result 40 45 50 55 60 65 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 porosity (%) internalfrictionangle(deg) phi (WDYH-1) phi (GHZL-2) phi (GHZL-3) Unayzah Porosity vs. Abrasivity from Offset Core Unayzah Angle of Internal Friction typically ranges between 42 and 63° for the A, B and C.
  10. 10. BHA: 3 BHA TYPE : Vertical DATE: WELL : TINAT #3 JOB N° : RIG: SF 162 ARAMCO GRAPHIC DESCRIPTION OD (in) ID (in) LENGTH ( ft )SERIAL N° 8 3/8" Hughes Christensen S279G8-3/8" -- 1.17 1.17) CUSTOMER : 15 x HWDP 2 x Drill Collars 5" 3" 452.41970.82 ARAMCO Jars 6-1/2" 59.45 518.41 ARAMCO Cross-Over 6-1/2” 1.49 458.96 ARAMCO Flex Joint 457.47 ARAMCO 12 x Drill Collars 6-1/2” 1.50 426.81 ARAMCO 6-1/2" 2-13/16"367.27425.31 ARAMCO Roller Reamer 6-1/2" 2-7/8" 6.30 58.04 ARAMCO8 3/8" Circulating Sub 2 " 1.80 51.74 ARAMCO Turbine Section 1 6-5/8" -- 17.61 49.94 Turbine Section 2 -- 16.96 32.33 8-516" Turbine Bearing Section6-5/8" 12.40 15.37 Bit-Box-Stabilizer 3" 0.95 2.12 NEYRFOR 64010 6-5/8" 6-1/2" Cross-Over 2-13/16" 66039 66042 2-13/16"15.33 8-516" ARAMCO442.14 6-1/2"2-13/16"15.33 2-13/16" 2-13/16" BIT-STUCK BHA: TINAT #3 8/30/97 -- Bearing Shaft (Box-End) 6-1/2" 6-5/8" -- -- 0.85 2.97 NEYRFOR The 1st Vertical Turbo-drill run was made with a Two Stage conventional turbine and Imprenated diamond Bit from 16,143 to 16,149’. Attempted to pick up off bottom for connection, bit stuck on bottom on 8/30/97. Back-reamed and jarred fish up to 16,144’. Spotted Diesel, Pipe-Lax and 15% HCl, No Success. Finally string-shot/backed off @ 14,674’ & again @ 15,736’ leaving 430’ of fish (Bit / turbine / CS / NBRR / 12 DC’s) in hole. Lost time: 12 days Stuck Pipe/Fishing Cost: $560,000 Turbo-drilling Experience in Saudi Arabia – 1st Run Drilling Report
  11. 11. BHA: 2 BHA TYPE:Vertical DATE: WELL : JOB N° : RIG:NAD-117 ARAMCO GRAPHIC DESCRIPTIONOD (in)ID (in)LENGTH ( ft )SERIAL N° CUSTOMER : 9/21/97 QTIF-150 BIT-STUCK BHA: QATIF #150 15 HWDP 3-1/2"2-1/16"458.84980.22ARAMCO Jars 4-3/4"2-1/4"62.43521.388ARAMCO2 x Drill Collars 12 x Drill Collars4-3/4"2-1/4" 28.36458.59ARAMCO Roller Reamer 4-3/4”2-1/4"5.2956.10ARAMCO5-7/8" Cross-Over 2 1/4"1.0750.81ARAMCO 5-13/16"Turbine Section 14-3/4"-- 18.2149.7446114 5-13/16"Turbine Section 24-3/4"-- 17.3231.5346115 5-13/16"Turbine Bearing Section4-3/4"-- 12.21514.212 (Box-End) Bearing Shaft 0.78 2.00 5 7/8"-- 1.22 1.225-7/8” Impreg Bit (Pin-Up 4-3/4" 4-3/4" 374.49 ARAMCO430.59 4-3/4"2-1/4" -- Drilled 5-7/8” Hole with T-2 Turbine and 5-7/8” STC- K35TX Impreg Bit from 16,135 to 16,147’ (12’). Picked up to make connection and stuck pipe 7’ off bottom on 9/20/97. Spotted 40 bbl Grease pill - jarred and worked on pipe, no success. Spotted 1100 gal of HF acid & two 40 bbl EZ-Spot Pills & Worked pipe. String Shot Backed off @ 15,866’ leaving 274’ of fish (7 DC, NBR, XO, Turbine & Bit) in hole. Worked on fish a total of 11 days then decided to ST. Spent another 13 days sidetracking back to 16,147’. Total Time lost: 23 days Total Stuck Pipe/Fishing Cost: $690,000 Turbo-drilling Experience in Saudi Arabia - 2nd Run Drilling Report
  12. 12. BHA: 2 BHA TYPE: Vertical DATE: WELL: JOB N° : RIG:SF 174 ARAMCO GRAPHICDESCRIPTIONOD (in)ID (in)LENGTH ( ft )SERIAL N° 32 x 3-1/2" HWDP3-1/2"2-1/16"986.671549.9ARAMCO 3 x Spiral Drill Collars4-3/4"2-1/4"92.94563.22ARAMCO Jars 4-3/4"2-1/4"31.35470.28ARAMCO 10 x Spiral Drill Collars4-3/4"2-1/4"310.73438.93ARAMCO 5-13/16"String Stabilizer-- 2-1/4"5.76128.20ARAMCO 2 x Spiral Drill Collars4-3/4"2-1/4"62.18122.44ARAMCO Bit Sub w/Float Valve4-3/4"2" 3.1560.26ARAMCO Cross Over Double Pin.4-1/2"1-3/8"1.4457.11ARAMCO 5-13/16"String Stabilizer-- 2-1/4"5.7755.67ARAMCO 5-13/16"Turbine Section 14-3/4"-- 18.2049.9046143 5-13/16"Turbine Section 24-3/4"-- 17.3031.7046122 5-13/16"Turbine Bearing Section4-3/4"-- 12.1914.40 Bearing Shaft (Pin-End) Safety Sub 5" 1-3/16"0.901.90 5-7/8"-- 1.001.00 5-7/8” Impreg bit (Box-Up / T.F.A: =1.00in²) CUSTOMER: BIT STUCK – HRDH-642 HRDH-64212/28/99 4-3/4"-- 0.312.21 Drilled 5-7/8” Hole with T-2 Turbine and 5-7/8” STC-KGRCETPX Impreg Bit from 13,975 to 14,057’ in the Unayzah-B. Picked up to check 9’ Drilling Break f/5-25 fph – Pipe Stuck. Spotted 50 bbl Hi-Vis and Grease pills & jarred with 25K, no success. Jarred out of Neyrfor Bit Safety Sub with 60K. Left bottom half of Safety Sub and Impreg bit on bottom (1.57’). Milled and worked on fish with 5-7/8” Burn shoes, Cobra Mills, Taper Taps and Jars for 21 days and finally broke through. Total Time lost: 23 days Total Stuck Pipe/Fishing Cost: $842,000 Turbo-drilling Experience in Saudi Arabia - 3rd Run Drilling Report
  13. 13. Primary Cause of Bit Sticking Radial Hole Deformation Radial Hole Deformation and breakout in the near wellbore region due to High Insitu Stresses Equivalent to 1/16” in 8-3/8” hole and 1/32” in 5-7/8” hole
  14. 14. Radial Hole Deformation Excessive Breakouts normally occurred across Sandstones, as shown in this Image Log from HWYH-950
  15. 15. Secondary Cause of Bit Sticking – Unstabilized Rotating Length Bit Box Stab Pin Up Bit Box Down Shaft Lower Brg Stab Turbine Body 2.97 ft 2.00 ft Turbine BodyLower Brg StabBox Down ShaftPin Up Bit 2.21 ft Turbine BodyLower Brg Stab Pin Down Shaft Box Up Bit TINAT-3 8 3/8” Bit Sticking QATIF 150 5 7/8” Bit Sticking Haradh 642 5 7/8” Bit Sticking Bit Safety Sub 1.43 Box Up Bit Pin Down Shaft Lower Brg Stab Turbine Body HWYH 961 8 3/8” NO Bit Sticking
  16. 16. Turbo-drilling Experience in Saudi Arabia – 4th Run 4th Vertical Run on HWHY-961: 8-3/8” IADC M842 Impreg bit with Box-up Connection Turbine Sleeve with Back- reaming Feature Prismatic Link Release Mechanism (120,000 lbf)
  17. 17. Turbo-drilling Experience in Saudi Arabia – 4th Run Run on HWYH-961 Made 242’ in 23.5 hrs @ 10.3 fph with cost of $443/ft
  18. 18. Figure 11: Caliper Log over Turbo-Drilled Interval (100 pcf MW) (No undergauge hole across Unayzah or Jauf) 7.250 7.625 8.000 8.375 8.750 9.125 9.500 9.875 10.250 10.625 11.000 11.375 11.750 12.125 12.500 13690 13700 13710 13720 13730 13740 13750 13760 13770 13780 13790 13800 13810 13820 13830 13840 13850 13860 13870 13880 13890 13900 13910 13920 13930 13940 Depth (feet) Caliper(inches) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 GR(api) CALX (in) CALY (in) GR (api) Khuf f -D Anhydr i te Unayzah Jauf HWYH-961 – No Undergauge hole across Unayzah or Jauf Fourth Turbodrill Run – No Undergauge hole
  19. 19. Horizontal Vs. Vertical Well Productivity Horizontal Wells showed substantial increase in productivity over Vertical Wells without Fracking GHZL-3 GHZL-8 G HZL-4 GHZL-11(H) GHZL-10 GHZL-5 GHZL-7(H) GHZL-2 GHZL-9(DL) GHZL-6(H) GHZL-1
  20. 20. Unayzah even tougher to drill horizontally Diminished bit performance in 5-7/8” vs. 8- 3/8” bits Diminished bit performance in Horizontal vs. Vertical Hole Requirement that all bit runs be made on PDM’s at much higher RPM’s than on rotary Diminished bit performance in the target reservoir - the Unayzah-B
  21. 21. Abrasive Wear/Lost Cones – PDC/Impreg Wear Major Problems in Unayzah-B Two 5-7/8” IADC 627Y TCI’s lost all three cones while drilling Unayzah-B on WDHY-1 HSE concern over tripping frequency with TCI’s (every 14 hrs) in desert climate with daytime temp ≥120°F
  22. 22. Lost Cones – PDC/Impreg Wear Major Problems in Unayzah-B RR Impreg 100% Worn after drilling 22’ in 8.5 hours Run on Low-Speed PDM ROP: 2.6 fph WOB: 13,000 lbf RPM: 190 Dull: 8-8-RO-G-X1/16
  23. 23. Lost Cones – PDC/Impreg Wear Major Problems in Unayzah Formation PDC completely cored out after Drilling 219’ in 26.5 hours Run on Low-Speed PDM ROP: 8.2 fph WOB: 18,000 lbf RPM: 240 Dull: 8-7-RO-M-X-IN- CR&BT-PR&DMF
  24. 24. Horizontal Solution to Radial Hole Deformation Drill Paralell to Maximum Horz. Stress Axis Horizontal Wellbore Drilled Due East or West in Ghawar Area (Parallel to Shmax) •Shmax Shmax Shmax Vertical Well Hole diameter reduction causing ”bit sticking” Slight Hole diameter enlargement providing stable hole & drilling conditions “no sticking” Shmax
  25. 25. Solution to hole spiraling – One Stage 4-3/4” Steerable Turbine & Box-Up bit (Min. Rot. Length) One Power Section 99 Pressure Profile Turbine Blade Sections Flexible Titanium Drive Shaft with1° integral bend Use of Box-up bit with Turbine-Sleeve
  26. 26. Breakthrough Horizontal Drilling Performance on WDHY-1 1st Horizontal Run: 5-7/8” IADC M842 Box-up 12 blade Impregnated diamond bit run on advanced steerable turbodrill Drilled 737’ averaging 5.5 fph in 134 rotating hours with cost of $402/ft. Graded 3-3- WT-A-X-I
  27. 27. Breakthrough Horizontal Drilling Performance on WDHY-1 2nd Horizontal Run: 5-7/8” IADC M842 Box-up 12 blade Impregnated diamond bit run on advanced steerable turbodrill, drilled 852’ averaging 7.0 fph in 122 rotating hours with cost of $330/ft. Graded 3-3- WT-A-X-I
  28. 28. Turbo-drill Operating Parameters WDYH-1(re): turbine drilling parameters (SA5.4) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 15850 15900 15950 16000 16050 16100 16150 16200 16250 16300 16350 16400 16450 16500 16550 16600 16650 16700 16750 measured depth, ft ROP/WOB/CircMnt 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 RPM/GPM/PSI Circ Mnt aver WOB ROP FT/HR turbine RPM Press PSI Flow GPM WOB: 4,000 lbf RPM: 1,400 ROP: 7.0 fph P. Press: 2900 psi Circ. Rate: 220 gpm
  29. 29. Breakthrough Horizontal Drilling Performance on WDHY-1 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 SA5.2 WDYH-4 XR40YODPD WDYH-4 KRG50CETPXX WDYH-1 SA5.4 WDYH-1 FOOTAGE DRILLED TURBINE TURBINE PDM PDM FORMATION DRILLED Unayzah –B – Siltstone/ Sandstone 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 SA5.2 WDYH-4 XR40YODPD WDYH-4 KRG50CETPXX WDYH-1 SA5.4 WDYH-1 FOOTAGE DRILLED TURBINE TURBINE PDM PDM FORMATION DRILLED Unayzah –B – Siltstone/ Sandstone
  30. 30. Breakthrough Horizontal Drilling Performance on WDHY-1 14000 14500 15000 15500 16000 16500 17000 17500 MD(Feet) 8/3/2003 8/10/2003 8/17/2003 8/24/2003 8/31/2003 9/7/2003 9/14/2003 WDYH-1 first lateral, 5-7/8" bit record SA5.4 KRG50OETPXX MILL XTG48PX SL63DGKPR XSD57D DSX143D XR40YOD R4 Impreg/Turbine Runs 58% of Total Footage
  31. 31. AVERAGE 5-7/8" BIT PERFORMANCE IN UNAYZAH-B For WDHY-1 & 4 BIT TYPE # RUN Average FOOTAGE Average HOURS Avg. ROP Avg. $/FT DULL GRADE T- B TSP/PDM 1 13 7 1.9 4608 3---3 IMPREG/PDM 7 82 23 3.6 2219 8---8 IMPREG/TURB 2 794 128 6.2 366 3---3 PDC/PDM 14 152 28 5.5 1233 6---5 TCI/PDM 49 124 12 10.6 545 5---8 TSP/PDM IMPREG/PDM IMPREG/TURB. PDC/PDM TCI/PDM 4608 13 2219 82 366 794 1233 152 545 124 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 FootageCost,$/FT $/FT FOOTAGE
  32. 32. Turbo-drill Runs in Potassium Formate Brines Clear “solids free” Liquid the can be used as drilling, spotting, workover or completion fluids Sodium Formate – up to 85 pcf Potassium Formate up to 98 pcf Cesium Formate up to 144 pcf Used in over 400 wells since introduced by Shell in 1993 Extends Temperature Range of Conventional Viscosifiers and Fluid Loss Agents from 240- 340º F. Cesium Formate successful up to 429°F
  33. 33. Turbo-drill Runs in Potassium Formate Brines 3rd Horizontal Run: 5-7/8” IADC M842 12 Blade Impreg run on 4-3/4” Turbine in Unzy-B on HRDH- 658 Suffered Total Failure of Impreg Segment Cutting Structure
  34. 34. Turbo-drill Runs in Potassium Formate Brines 4th Horizontal Run: 5- 7/8” IADC M842 8 Blade Impreg run on 4-3/4” Turbine in Unzy-B on HRDH- 658 Drilled 81’ in 24.5 hrs at 3.31 fph in 93 pcf K-Formate Brine Drilling Fluid
  35. 35. Turbo-drill Runs in Potassium Formate Brines 5th Horizontal Run: 5-7/8” IADC M842 12 Blade Impreg run on 4-3/4” Turbine in Unzy-B on HRDH- 658 Drilled 60’ in 16 hrs at 3.75 fph in 102 pcf K-Formate Brine Drilling Fluid
  36. 36. Effect of Overbalance of Rock Confined Compressive Strength Increased overbalance between formation and Drilling fluid increase confined compressive strength and impede drilling rates 18000 20000 22000 24000 26000 28000 30000 32000 34000 36000 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 confined pressure (overbalance) in psi rockcompressivestrength(psi) φ = 40 o φ = 45 o φ = 50 o φ = 55 o φ = 60 o
  37. 37. Potassium Formate Brine Performance HRDH-658 Use of a 102 pcf potassium Formate Brine with excess CaCO3 on HRDH-658: Lowered Pump Pressures Decreased Rotating Torque and Drag Allowed a 11,649’ horizontal section to be drilled with 1500 psi overbalance without differentially sticking the drillstring
  38. 38. Turbo-drill Run in 90 pcf K-Formate Brine on Tinat-3 4-3/4” Steerable Turbo-drill prior to being RIH on Tinat-3
  39. 39. Setting Turbo-drill bearing section in Mouse-hole
  40. 40. Stabbing Power Section onto Bearing Section & Making up same
  41. 41. Making up Turbine Sleeve Impreg Bit and checking bearing gap on Turbo-drill
  42. 42. RIH with Turbo-drill Assembly
  43. 43. Record Breaking ROP run in Tinat-3 Unayzah-A 6th Horizontal Run: 5-7/8” M834 Impreg drilled 360’ in 50 hrs @ 7.2 fph with avg cost of $402/ft. Graded 3-4-WT-A-X-I Run in 90 pcf Sodium/Potassium Formate drilling fluid
  44. 44. Average 5-7/8" Bit Performance on Tinat-3 in the Unayzah-A BIT TYPE # RUN Average FOOTAGE Average HOURS Avg. ROP Avg. $/FT DULL GRADE T- B IMPREG/TURB 1 360 50 7.2 410 1---0 PDC/PDM 3 320 35 9.3 320 5---5 TCI/PDM 2 118 13 8.9 472 2---1 IMPREG/TURB. PDC/PDM TCI/PDM 410 360 320 320 472 118 0 100 200 300 400 500 AverageDrillingCost, $/FT $/FT FOOTAGE
  45. 45. Potassium Formate Brine Performance in Tinat-3 Lowered Pump Pressures from 4200 to 3400 psi at 220 gpm Decreased Rotating Torque from 9400 to 7600 ft-lb Reduced hole drag from 25,000 to 10,000 lbf at the end of the horizontal section
  46. 46. Composition of formate-based drilling fluid Component Function Concentration Formate brine Density control Lubricity Polymer protection Biocide 1 bbl Xanthan Rheology control Drag reducer 1 ppb Modified starch and/or ULV PAC Fluid loss control 4 –8 ppb Sized calcium carbonate Bridging agent 20 ppb Potassium carbonate pH and corrosion control 2 ppb
  47. 47. Typical properties of formate-based drilling fluid Property Initial Hot rolling @285o F Mud density (pcf) 90 90 PV (cp) 24 30 YP (lb/100 ft2 ) 22 29 Gel (lb/100 ft2 ) 4/5 7/9 API Filtrate (cc/30 min) 2.4 1.8 HTHP fluid loss (cc/30 min) @ 285o F 13.6 12 ph 10.5 11
  48. 48. Solids Control System for K-Formate Brine Two Decanting Centrifuges Two Linear Motion Shale Shakers w/180 & 200 Mesh Screens Total Solids Content ~ 5% Drill Solids ~ 0.45%
  49. 49. Potassium Formate Brine Liquor in Individual Bulk Containers (IBC’s)
  50. 50. Potassium Formate Powder in 25 kg sacks
  51. 51. Poor-Boy Brine Recovery System Drain Lines from Rig Floor Brine collected in IBC’s for Reuse
  52. 52. Expandable Sand Screen Completion Well Completed with 1410’ of 4”/230 micron expandable Sand Screens Run and expanded without major problems. 1 Successful Installation of 1410 ft of Expandable Sand Screens in TINT-3 7" Liner, 32 ppf @ 15191 ft MD 9-5/8" Casing, 58.4 ppf 7" Liner Reservoir top Running 4" ETC, 230 micron, 5-½" 15.5# Vam FJL Box x 4" ESS Pin 4" ESS 230 micron, 38ft, 4" ESS Box x Pin Sand Control Circulating Valve, 4-½" Stub Acme Box Up 4" EBC, 230 micron, 4" ESS Box x 4-½" Stub Acme Pin 6' EXY Tieback PBR, 5.625" OD 8TPI S.Acme Threaded Down 7" x 5-½" EXP Deployment Hanger/Packer 5.625" OD 8TPI S.Acme Thread Up x 5-½" 15.5 lb/ ft Vam FJL Pin Down M. Depth of 7" Liner Shoe : 15191 ft M.Depth/Length of 5-7/8" O.H. : 16747 ft Total Length of O.H. : 1556 ft 5-7/8" O.H. Max Inclination : 84.5 deg Mud : 90 pcf (Na/K/Formate) Total ESS Run Length : 1410 ft (37Jnts) Top EXP @ 14482 ft 5-7/8" hole, TD @ 16747 ft ESS Screen bottom at 1606 ft (131 ft from TD) 7" Liner Hanger top @ 14181 ft @ 14711 ft Hanger top @ 13465 ft Bridge Plug top @ 14014 ft Whipstock top @ 13990 ft 7" Liner Shoe @ 15698 ft
  53. 53. Conclusions Steerable turbo-drill/Impreg bit drilling has emerged as the most cost effective and HSE friendly manner to drill the Unayzah-B formation if the well can be drilled parallel to the maximum horizontal stress axis. Trajectory control was improved with consistent reactive torque of 30-35° and a build rate of 0.3°/100’ in the rotating mode.
  54. 54. Conclusions, cont. IADC 627-737 TCI bits are also cost effective when total revolutions are maintained in the 150,000 to 175,000 total revolutions range. PDM/PDC drilling appears to be the cheapest way to drill the lower compressive strength Unayzah-A horizontally in the Tinat Area.
  55. 55. Conclusions, cont. The 90 & 102 pcf potassium formate brines used in Tinat-3 & HRDH-658 provided lower pump pressures, torque and drag values and better bit performance than previously observed with conventional water base drilling fluids. In HRDH-658 the 102 pcf K-Formate Brine allowed a 1649’ quasi-horizontal section to be drilled with 1500 psi overbalance without differential sticking.
  56. 56. Conclusions, cont. Plans are to use Impreg/Turbo-drill assemblies over the entire Unayzah build and horizontal sections in conjunction with K-formate brines to further access their applicability and cost savings potential.
  57. 57. Breakthrough Horizontal Drilling Performance in Pre-Khuff Strata with Steerable Turbines Thank You! Questions? SPE 90376

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  • AryantoSarsono

    Apr. 2, 2015
  • monteiroleste1

    May. 3, 2015
  • MohamedHassan318

    Jul. 20, 2015
  • bomber777

    Aug. 12, 2015

Breakthrough horizontal well drilling performance in hard abrasive sandstones by turbo-drilling in potassium formate brine

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