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Quality education

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Education is not merely giving lectures and assigning tasks. It is much more than that. Watch the presentation to learn more.

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Quality education

  1. 1. 02/18/15 QUALITY EDUCATIONQUALITY EDUCATION Presented by: Manmohan Joshi
  2. 2. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Education:Education: A process of effecting desirable changes in students’ behaviour Direction of these changes determined by objectives of teaching
  3. 3. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Quality Education:Quality Education: Supports a rights based approach to all educational endeavours Based on the four pillars of education and provides skills for:  Learning to know  Learning to live together  Learning to do  Learning to be
  4. 4. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Quality education……Quality education…… Views the learner as an individual, and educates to create individual competency in all four roles Is locally relevant and culturally appropriate Is informed of the past, is relevant to the present, and prepares individuals for the future
  5. 5. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Quality education……Quality education…… Builds:  Knowledge  Life skills  Perspectives  Attitudes & values Provides skills for employability Is measurable
  6. 6. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Curriculum FrameworkCurriculum Framework Learning:  function of doing  undergoing & testing  (includes acquisition of habits, skills & appreciations) Emphasis on thinking skills Need to use Information technology
  7. 7. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Curriculum framework……Curriculum framework……  Quality of books/course material:  To have clearly defined objectives  To be kept up to date – based on:  New information/knowledge  Classroom experience  Level of comprehension of learners  Preparation and use of supplementary material  Preparation of material in time
  8. 8. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Transaction of CurriculumTransaction of Curriculum Planning:  Term plan: distribution of units/sub-units:  Teaching time  Testing time  Revision time  Final examination time  Daily lesson plan
  9. 9. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Teaching MethodologyTeaching Methodology We often teach as we ourselves were taught, rather than in the way we were trained to teach. Many in higher education without training Knowledge of subject only not sufficient for effective teaching
  10. 10. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Teaching methodology……Teaching methodology……  Many teaching skills common to all subjects:  Management of teaching environment  Use of teaching material  Communication and presentation skills  Interpersonal skills  Assessment
  11. 11. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Teaching methodology……Teaching methodology……  Interactive teaching:  Explore the links between teaching, learning and formal assessment:  How we learn  Compare this with the way we teach  Investigate our assessment methods – effect on the quality of our students’ learning  Encouraging to learn for the future – not for examination alone
  12. 12. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Teaching methodology…….Teaching methodology……. Interactive lectures:  Make them meaningful experiences for students  Look at concentration spans  How to activate students during breaks  Presentation skills to maintain interest
  13. 13. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Teaching methodology……Teaching methodology……  Learning, teaching and assessment: Ask yourself:  How can we understand the learning needs of students who are less able than we were?  What makes students want to learn more and to continue to do so?  How can the relationship between learning and assessment be strengthened?  How to encourage better performance through positive and constructive feedback?
  14. 14. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Teaching methodology……Teaching methodology…… Lecturing: Ask yourself:  What are the ways of making lectures more interactive?  How can we improve our lecturing through student feedback?
  15. 15. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Teaching methodology…….Teaching methodology…….  Seminars & group discussions: They encourage students:  To compare their ideas with each other  To give expression to their understanding of a subject  To develop skills in listening  To draw out information  To persuade others to their way of thinking  To develop cooperation and teamwork
  16. 16. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Interactive teaching methodsInteractive teaching methods  Class discussion  Whole group participates  Teacher leads, coaches  Discussion groups:  Used for larger groups  Reduces anxiety  Structured for homogeneity or diversity  Teacher to circulate to ensure effectiveness
  17. 17. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Interactive teachingInteractive teaching methods……..methods…….. Group projects:  Teacher as consultant/facilitator  Encourage skills in: • Interpersonal relationships • Negotiation • Teamwork
  18. 18. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Interactive teachingInteractive teaching methods……..methods…….. Peer teaching:  Useful when great variance in levels of learning  Those who have mastered skill coach others  Must ensure peer teachers are competent  Can be used to master components of a task – particularly useful for technical subjects
  19. 19. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Experiential teaching methodsExperiential teaching methods Field/clinical:  Provides real-life experience  Student completes tasks while being observed and/or reports back and receives feedback  Requires careful planning
  20. 20. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Experiential teachingExperiential teaching methods……….methods………. Laboratory:  Hands-on practice  Good control by the teacher Role-playing:  Useful for interpersonal skills  Allows practice in lower-threat environment
  21. 21. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Experiential teachingExperiential teaching methods……….methods………. Simulations/games:  Facilitate practice in all areas  Require well-structured materials  Immediate feedback; highly interactive Drill:  Repetitions of tasks to build auto. Response  Useful for lower cognitive domains
  22. 22. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Classroom InteractionClassroom Interaction  Critical thinking: students to think, speak & be listened to  Collaborative learning: encourage peer-to- peer interaction and cooperation  Value of group learning: student talk, listen, question, and so learn
  23. 23. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Classroom Interaction……..Classroom Interaction……..  Designing group tasks:  Related to the course  Related to subsequent tests  Teacher’s role:  Monitor unobtrusively  Focus on what the group discovered and not what teacher knows or thinks
  24. 24. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Interactive Classroom:Interactive Classroom: Encourage students’ interaction:Encourage students’ interaction:  Begin class with a controversy or problem. Instead of: “We are going to cover this……” Begin with: “ Here’s the question we want to answer.”  Use silence to encourage reflection  Arrange and use classroom space to encourage interaction
  25. 25. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Skilful QuestioningSkilful Questioning  As teachers we ask tens of thousands of questions that we already know the answer to!  The only point of asking questions is:  To raise issues about which the teacher needs information  About which the pupils need to think
  26. 26. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Teachers use Questions forTeachers use Questions for many reasons:many reasons:  To provide students with an explanation  To allow students to use prior knowledge  To check and correct, evaluate students’ understanding  As a classroom management strategy
  27. 27. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi On the students’ part Q’s can:On the students’ part Q’s can:  Encourage students to review or revise work  Engage in active listening and thinking  Actively involve in learning process
  28. 28. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Teacher assesses efficacy ofTeacher assesses efficacy of teaching-learning processteaching-learning process  Via questioning students learn more as they become active participants rather than passive observers.  Students are encouraged to understand rather than just receiving knowledge.
  29. 29. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Classification of QuestionsClassification of Questions ‘Open’ questions: designed to elicit more than one possible answer – a detailed response. Ex: What do you think the world would be like if there were no cars? ‘Closed’ questions: designed to elicit just the required answer. Ex: When was the Rustaq fort built?
  30. 30. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Quality of questionsQuality of questions  Questions should be:  Clear  Brief  In a natural and simple language  Thought provoking & distributed widely  Having balance between ‘fact’ and ‘thought’ questions
  31. 31. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Effective questioning strategyEffective questioning strategy  Wait time: Students have opportunity to think before answering.  Students are encouraged to consult with their partner/group to formulate answer.  Teacher involves a number of students in the answer to a single question creating an opportunity for discussion, ex: What do you think? Do you agree with the answer?
  32. 32. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Continued…..Continued…..  Appropriateness of questions; fitness for purpose  Quality and range of questions  Opportunities for students to formulate their own questions The better the questioning, the more reliable the evidence collected by the teacher to evaluate the teaching- learning process.
  33. 33. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi RecapitulationRecapitulation  At the end of every sub-unit/point  At the beginning of the class before starting a new unit/sub-unit/point  At the end of the unit
  34. 34. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Class workClass work  Supervise/go round  Check  Guide/assist  Pair work  Group work
  35. 35. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Home workHome work Type of home work:  Written  Oral  Project work – individual/group Checking Follow-up
  36. 36. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi RevisionRevision  Revision test  Oral  Written  Practice examination  Remedial action
  37. 37. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Teaching aidsTeaching aids  Board and marker  Flash cards  Charts  OHP  PowerPoint Presentation-good for revision  Field visits
  38. 38. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Reflective TeachingReflective Teaching  What is reflective teaching? It is a form of:  Problem solving  Thinking to resolve an issue  Involves active chaining  Careful ordering of ideas linking each with its predecessors
  39. 39. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Reflective teaching……Reflective teaching……  Reflection a key component of teacher development  Self-enquiry & critical thinking help in:  assessing strengths and weaknesses  taking remedial action
  40. 40. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Reflective teaching…….Reflective teaching…….  Reflective actions integrate with personal attitudes:  Open-mindedness  Responsibility  Whole-heartedness  Reflective actions bring balance between thought and action
  41. 41. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Reflective teaching…….Reflective teaching…….  It is about using opportunities to systematically:  Explore  Question  Frame and re-frame  Challenge own teaching  Make informed choices  Reflection is the heart of good teaching
  42. 42. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Principles of ReflectionPrinciples of Reflection  Teacher to be interested in the problem  Issue to be owned by teacher – not imposed  Solution is rested in the teacher  Systematic procedures necessary  Issue to be derived from teacher’s experience  Ideas once tested to lead to some action  Reflexive action to redefine practice in teaching
  43. 43. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Relationship between methodology andRelationship between methodology and reflection:reflection:  Reflection a process to integrate theory into practice  Link between learnt knowledge and practice  Reflection is more than ‘thinking’  Focuses on day-to-day classroom teaching  Improvement through reflection  Process aimed at becoming a ‘critically reflective teacher’
  44. 44. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Skills for a good reflective teacherSkills for a good reflective teacher  Self-initiated inquiry: Reinforce points of strength Improve weak points  Incorporates new theories in teaching  Openness and creativity  Develops himself/herself: through reading, conferences & workshops, discussion with colleagues  Regular in reflection
  45. 45. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Reflective teaching……….Reflective teaching………. How does reflective teaching integrate theory into practice?  Exploring Teaching “Shall I teach?”:  teacher-centred/student-centred approach  Academic Preparation “What shall I teach?”:  content and amount of knowledge
  46. 46. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Reflective teaching……….Reflective teaching……….  Understanding Learners “How do students learn?”:  knowing students & strategies of learning will help in planning lessons  Organizing for Teaching “How shall I teach?”  to be built around the needs of students as well the target outcomes
  47. 47. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Reflective teaching……….Reflective teaching……….  Education and the cultural context “Why do we teach?”:  Teaching is done in social context  Environment affects teaching  Teachers need to know: o The aims of education o The culture of their students
  48. 48. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Types of ReflectionTypes of Reflection  Pre-lesson reflection:  Anticipate events & plan accordingly  Tasks, organization of tasks, time for each, the way to introduce it  Techniques & strategies  Language, skills, visual aids  Classroom environment
  49. 49. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Types of Reflection……..Types of Reflection……..  Reflection-in-action:  On-the-spot experience, try, check success  Makes teacher’s performance thoughtful and practical  Helps in integrating theory and practice
  50. 50. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Types of Reflection……..Types of Reflection……..  Reflection-on-action:  Questions an event/situation that occurred in the classroom  Plenty of time to think about  Write down the observations  Think and plan remedial action  Discuss with colleague or consult reference
  51. 51. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi Activities for development ofActivities for development of reflective teachingreflective teaching  Action research  Audio or video recording of lessons  Reflection sheet  Peer observation
  52. 52. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi How do teachers reflect on theirHow do teachers reflect on their teaching? (sequence of strategies…)teaching? (sequence of strategies…)  Teach! The teacher gives the lesson  Think back.  Describe. The teacher describes the events in his lesson  Investigate reasons that led to them  Re-frame events in the light of several theoretical frameworks
  53. 53. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi How do teachers reflect on theirHow do teachers reflect on their teaching? (sequence of strategies…)teaching? (sequence of strategies…)  Generate multiple understandings  Decide what to do next  Start it all over again “Reflection on one’s teaching is a practice that requires discipline, openness, continuity and detachment.”
  54. 54. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi EvaluationEvaluation Note: “Technology of Evaluation (including setting question papers)” to be discussed separately.
  55. 55. 02/18/15 Quality Education by Manmohan Joshi THANK YOU!THANK YOU!

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