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Amanda Robinson : s2692674Assessment 3Due: 3rd June, 20137035HSV: Understanding Mental Health theories andPractice.Power-p...
SCHIZOPHRENIAFor individuals, carers and their families.
WHAT IS SCHIZOPHRENIA?Schizophrenia is a persistent brain disorder thatcan cause:o A disruption of thoughtso An Inability ...
POSITIVE SYMPTOMS Delusions Hallucinations Disorganized Behaviours
NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS Lack of Emotional expressions Inability to start or complete tasks Limited emotions
COGNITIVE SYMPTOMSWorking Memory difficultiesAttentionMotor skillsExecutive functionIntelligence
TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA Paranoid Undifferentiated Residual Catatonic DisorganizedParanoid schizophrenia isthe most com...
DIFFERENTPERSPECTIVES• BIOLOGICAL• PSYCHOLOGICAL• SOCIAL
BIOLOGICAL CAUSESGeneticsDopamine TheoryBrain Structure
 Genetics: 12% chance of those with one parent diagnosed of developing schizophrenia. 47% chance of an identical twin o...
 Hallucinations• Sensory misperceptions Delusions• False beliefs Disorganized thinking• Scattered thoughts Decrease in...
PSYCHOLOGICAL CAUSESPsychodynamicCognitive
Psychodynamic• Parental maltreatmentCognitive• Misinterpreted hallucinationsPsychological Nature of Schizophrenia
Impact of Schizophrenia – PsychologicalVisual and Auditory hallucinations• Seeing or hearing things that no one else hears...
SOCIALSocial LabellingFamily Dysfunction
Substance abuse• Marijuana• Alcohol• AmphetaminesWork/school problems• Problems with friends• Being ‘different’Rejection b...
Impact of Schizophrenia - Social Social Withdrawal Lower Socioeconomic status (disability support pension) Long Term So...
Impact on FamilyFinancial :• Cost of care, medications, supervision, respite, hospitalizations.Emotional:• Anxiety, fear...
Impact on Communityo Hospitalizations in acute carefacilitieso Community Supporto Funding/Grants
Personal AccountsA story of a young man, talking aboutschizophrenia from his own experiences.This is Richard Schweizer, a ...
TREATMENT Medication (Biological Model) Psychological (CBT, counseling) Psychosocial (Psychological andSocial Model) E...
Medication interventionso First Generation antipsychotics work bybinding to dopamine receptors andinhibiting their transmi...
SIDE EFFECTSSide effects of first generationmedications can include: Restlessness or agitation Muscular spasms/stiffness...
Psychological Interventions Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) can reduce symptomsin schizophrenia. In CBT, there is heavy...
PSYCHOSOCIALPsychosocial Interventions include: Case Management. Early Intervention Support ServicesRehabilitation may ...
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Used as a last resort if no othertreatment has been effective Used for short term
HOW YOU CAN HELP Encourage the person tocontinue treatment Attend follow-up appointments Be supportive and courteous A...
WHERE TO FIND FURTHER INFORMATIONWebsites: http://au.reachout.com/All-about-schizophrenia http://www.sane.org/informatio...
REFERENCESBarney, L., Griffiths, K., Christensen, H., & Jorm, A. (2009). Exploring the nature of stigmatising beliefs abou...
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Schizophrenia

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Schizophrenia

  1. 1. Amanda Robinson : s2692674Assessment 3Due: 3rd June, 20137035HSV: Understanding Mental Health theories andPractice.Power-point Presentation on Schizophrenia.
  2. 2. SCHIZOPHRENIAFor individuals, carers and their families.
  3. 3. WHAT IS SCHIZOPHRENIA?Schizophrenia is a persistent brain disorder thatcan cause:o A disruption of thoughtso An Inability to recognize realityo Inability to think logicallyo Confusiono Paranoiao Hallucinations and delusionso Unusual behavioursIt can affect as much as 1 in every 100 peopleworldwide.
  4. 4. POSITIVE SYMPTOMS Delusions Hallucinations Disorganized Behaviours
  5. 5. NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS Lack of Emotional expressions Inability to start or complete tasks Limited emotions
  6. 6. COGNITIVE SYMPTOMSWorking Memory difficultiesAttentionMotor skillsExecutive functionIntelligence
  7. 7. TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA Paranoid Undifferentiated Residual Catatonic DisorganizedParanoid schizophrenia isthe most common
  8. 8. DIFFERENTPERSPECTIVES• BIOLOGICAL• PSYCHOLOGICAL• SOCIAL
  9. 9. BIOLOGICAL CAUSESGeneticsDopamine TheoryBrain Structure
  10. 10.  Genetics: 12% chance of those with one parent diagnosed of developing schizophrenia. 47% chance of an identical twin of a person diagnosed with schizophrenia Dopamine Theory:• larger than average concentration of the dopamine transmitter in the brains Brain structure:• more and larger brain cavities and cerebrospinal fluid• smaller temporal lobes, frontal lobes, less gray matter• abnormal blood flow to specific parts of the brain.Biological Nature ofSchizophrenia
  11. 11.  Hallucinations• Sensory misperceptions Delusions• False beliefs Disorganized thinking• Scattered thoughts Decrease in Memory• Inability to recall recent working memory tasksImpact of Schizophrenia - Biological
  12. 12. PSYCHOLOGICAL CAUSESPsychodynamicCognitive
  13. 13. Psychodynamic• Parental maltreatmentCognitive• Misinterpreted hallucinationsPsychological Nature of Schizophrenia
  14. 14. Impact of Schizophrenia – PsychologicalVisual and Auditory hallucinations• Seeing or hearing things that no one else hears or seesDisorganized Speech• Reduction of communication• Short replies• Reduction of fluency• reduction of thoughts.Anxiety and Depression• Feeling of helplessness• Agitation or feeling anxiousDelusions• False beliefs about everyday events
  15. 15. SOCIALSocial LabellingFamily Dysfunction
  16. 16. Substance abuse• Marijuana• Alcohol• AmphetaminesWork/school problems• Problems with friends• Being ‘different’Rejection by others• Family conflicts• Physical/emotional abuse• divorce• Relationship break upsSocial Nature of SchizophreniaLow Social Supportso No mentor/ role model/support systemMajor life eventso Family deaths,o Marriageo Childbirtho Moving House
  17. 17. Impact of Schizophrenia - Social Social Withdrawal Lower Socioeconomic status (disability support pension) Long Term Social housing or Supported living Stigma and discrimination Low-Level Employment Abuse and violence
  18. 18. Impact on FamilyFinancial :• Cost of care, medications, supervision, respite, hospitalizations.Emotional:• Anxiety, fear, frustration, helplessness, fatigue, stress.
  19. 19. Impact on Communityo Hospitalizations in acute carefacilitieso Community Supporto Funding/Grants
  20. 20. Personal AccountsA story of a young man, talking aboutschizophrenia from his own experiences.This is Richard Schweizer, a young Australian manwho is very gifted and an active member of society.This movie delves into what it mean to haveschizophrenia and looks at the negative effects ofstigmatization on people’s lives.
  21. 21. TREATMENT Medication (Biological Model) Psychological (CBT, counseling) Psychosocial (Psychological andSocial Model) Electroconvulsive therapy (Biological)
  22. 22. Medication interventionso First Generation antipsychotics work bybinding to dopamine receptors andinhibiting their transmission.o Second Generation antipsychotics work on specificdopamine receptors to reduce side effects like those inthe first generation antipsychotics.Medication is used to alleviate oreliminate some of the symptomsassociated with schizophrenia.Both medications are still used to treat thenegative symptoms of schizophrenia
  23. 23. SIDE EFFECTSSide effects of first generationmedications can include: Restlessness or agitation Muscular spasms/stiffness or tremor Muscular movements of the face orlimbsFortunately, there are medications available toalleviate these side effects.
  24. 24. Psychological Interventions Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) can reduce symptomsin schizophrenia. In CBT, there is heavy emphasis on understanding thepersons understanding, developing a relationship, andexplaining psychotic symptoms in realistic terms toreduce the worrying effects.
  25. 25. PSYCHOSOCIALPsychosocial Interventions include: Case Management. Early Intervention Support ServicesRehabilitation may include: job training money management counseling Shopping and transportThe goal is to help people withschizophrenia : stay employed maintain as much independence aspossible
  26. 26. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Used as a last resort if no othertreatment has been effective Used for short term
  27. 27. HOW YOU CAN HELP Encourage the person tocontinue treatment Attend follow-up appointments Be supportive and courteous Advocate on their behalf Be patient
  28. 28. WHERE TO FIND FURTHER INFORMATIONWebsites: http://au.reachout.com/All-about-schizophrenia http://www.sane.org/information/factsheets-podcasts/187-schizophrenia http://www.headspace.org.au/is-it-just-me/find-information/psychosis?gclid=CKq0yLHkxrcCFQRapQod3gsATw
  29. 29. REFERENCESBarney, L., Griffiths, K., Christensen, H., & Jorm, A. (2009). Exploring the nature of stigmatising beliefs aboutdepression and help-seeking: implications for reducing stigma. BMC Public Health, 9(1), 61.Corcoran, J., & Walsh, J. (2009). Schizophrenia. In J. Corcoran, & J. Walsh, Mental health in social work : acasebook on diagnosis and strengths-based assessment (pp. 161-188). Boston, MA: PearsonPublishing.Fluery, M., Grenier, G., Bamvita, J., & Caron, J. (2011). Mental Health Service Utilization Among Patients withsevere mental disorders. Community Mental Health Journal, 47, 365-377.Mueser, K., Lu, W., Rosenberg, S., & Wolfe, R. (2010). The trauma of psychosis: Posttraumatic stress disorder andrecent onset psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 116(2), 217.OCarroll, R. (2000). Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Advance in Psychiatric Treatment, 6, 161-168.(2012). Schizophrenia. Norwalk, United States: Belvoir Media Group, LLC. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/docview/1350228199?accountid=14543Selmes, T., & Mitchell, A. (2007). Why dont patients take their medicine? Reasons and solutions in psychiatry.Advances in psychiatric treatment the The Royal College of Psychiatrists journal of c ontinuingprofessional development, 13(5), 336-346.Wessels, A. (2011, May 01). Community conversation: Raising awareness, reducing stigma. Press. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/docview/867340321?accountid=14543

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