Positive symptoms include delusions, hallucinations and disorganized behaviours.
Negative symptoms include lessened emotional expressions, lack of motivation and limited emotions.
The types of schizophrenia are based on symptomology at the time of diagnosis or that were more frequently observed. Positive symptoms dominate in the paranoid type and is the most common of all sub types. The disorganized type is more socially disrupting, with greater emotional and behavioural disturbances. An undifferentiated schizophrenia diagnosis indicated that there are no specific symptoms indicated.
Thereis a large amount of research, including drug trials, which support the dopamine theory.Those diagnosed have been found to have a higher concentrations of Dopamine. Genetics are thought to play a large part in the prevalence of schizophrenia, 47 percent chance of an identical twin of a sibling diagnosed with schizophrenia. developing the disorder. Non-identicaltwins have a 12 percent likelihood, which is the same chance as achild with one parent who has schizophrenia. The brain structure of those diagnosed with schizophrenia are also markedly different to those without the disorder, with scans of the brain showing a much smaller brain volume of those with schizophrenia.
Psychological views have arisen primarily from cognitive and psychodynamic perspectives. It has been previously thought that a child with overprotective, un-nurturing and inconsistent parents are more likely to develop schizophrenia.The psychological theory has mostly been unproven, with more of evidence pointing to biological factors. The cognitive theory asserts that hallucinations are misinterpreted, leading to delusions, causing withdrawal from the social environment. There is little evidence to support these theories.
Bbrain research has shown that the social and emotional environment during their development has a enduring impact on brain development, which includes cells and genes.
Marijuana, amphetamines, alcohol all contribute to the development of schizophrenia. It is also more likely that those with schizophrenia abuse alcohol and drugs as a coping mechanism.
It has been found that between one thirds and two thirds of people with schizophrenia currently live with their families.Carers are directly impacted emotionally and financially when the person they are caring for is hospitalized or relapse for long periods of time. Families experience frustration whilst ensuring that medication is taken. They are required to cope with inappropriate behaviours and the need to frequently supervise. This leads to fatigue and anxiety, which becomes a burden in itself.
It is believed that the treatment of schizophrenia shouldinclude a range of facilitations which are symptom specific and include the social and learning needs of the individual and their families.
Amanda Robinson : s2692674Assessment 3Due: 3rd June, 20137035HSV: Understanding Mental Health theories andPractice.Power-point Presentation on Schizophrenia.
SCHIZOPHRENIAFor individuals, carers and their families.
WHAT IS SCHIZOPHRENIA?Schizophrenia is a persistent brain disorder thatcan cause:o A disruption of thoughtso An Inability to recognize realityo Inability to think logicallyo Confusiono Paranoiao Hallucinations and delusionso Unusual behavioursIt can affect as much as 1 in every 100 peopleworldwide.
Genetics: 12% chance of those with one parent diagnosed of developing schizophrenia. 47% chance of an identical twin of a person diagnosed with schizophrenia Dopamine Theory:• larger than average concentration of the dopamine transmitter in the brains Brain structure:• more and larger brain cavities and cerebrospinal fluid• smaller temporal lobes, frontal lobes, less gray matter• abnormal blood flow to specific parts of the brain.Biological Nature ofSchizophrenia
Hallucinations• Sensory misperceptions Delusions• False beliefs Disorganized thinking• Scattered thoughts Decrease in Memory• Inability to recall recent working memory tasksImpact of Schizophrenia - Biological
Psychodynamic• Parental maltreatmentCognitive• Misinterpreted hallucinationsPsychological Nature of Schizophrenia
Impact of Schizophrenia – PsychologicalVisual and Auditory hallucinations• Seeing or hearing things that no one else hears or seesDisorganized Speech• Reduction of communication• Short replies• Reduction of fluency• reduction of thoughts.Anxiety and Depression• Feeling of helplessness• Agitation or feeling anxiousDelusions• False beliefs about everyday events
Substance abuse• Marijuana• Alcohol• AmphetaminesWork/school problems• Problems with friends• Being ‘different’Rejection by others• Family conflicts• Physical/emotional abuse• divorce• Relationship break upsSocial Nature of SchizophreniaLow Social Supportso No mentor/ role model/support systemMajor life eventso Family deaths,o Marriageo Childbirtho Moving House
Impact of Schizophrenia - Social Social Withdrawal Lower Socioeconomic status (disability support pension) Long Term Social housing or Supported living Stigma and discrimination Low-Level Employment Abuse and violence
Impact on FamilyFinancial :• Cost of care, medications, supervision, respite, hospitalizations.Emotional:• Anxiety, fear, frustration, helplessness, fatigue, stress.
Impact on Communityo Hospitalizations in acute carefacilitieso Community Supporto Funding/Grants
Personal AccountsA story of a young man, talking aboutschizophrenia from his own experiences.This is Richard Schweizer, a young Australian manwho is very gifted and an active member of society.This movie delves into what it mean to haveschizophrenia and looks at the negative effects ofstigmatization on people’s lives.
Medication interventionso First Generation antipsychotics work bybinding to dopamine receptors andinhibiting their transmission.o Second Generation antipsychotics work on specificdopamine receptors to reduce side effects like those inthe first generation antipsychotics.Medication is used to alleviate oreliminate some of the symptomsassociated with schizophrenia.Both medications are still used to treat thenegative symptoms of schizophrenia
SIDE EFFECTSSide effects of first generationmedications can include: Restlessness or agitation Muscular spasms/stiffness or tremor Muscular movements of the face orlimbsFortunately, there are medications available toalleviate these side effects.
Psychological Interventions Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) can reduce symptomsin schizophrenia. In CBT, there is heavy emphasis on understanding thepersons understanding, developing a relationship, andexplaining psychotic symptoms in realistic terms toreduce the worrying effects.
PSYCHOSOCIALPsychosocial Interventions include: Case Management. Early Intervention Support ServicesRehabilitation may include: job training money management counseling Shopping and transportThe goal is to help people withschizophrenia : stay employed maintain as much independence aspossible
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Used as a last resort if no othertreatment has been effective Used for short term
HOW YOU CAN HELP Encourage the person tocontinue treatment Attend follow-up appointments Be supportive and courteous Advocate on their behalf Be patient
WHERE TO FIND FURTHER INFORMATIONWebsites: http://au.reachout.com/All-about-schizophrenia http://www.sane.org/information/factsheets-podcasts/187-schizophrenia http://www.headspace.org.au/is-it-just-me/find-information/psychosis?gclid=CKq0yLHkxrcCFQRapQod3gsATw
REFERENCESBarney, L., Griffiths, K., Christensen, H., & Jorm, A. (2009). Exploring the nature of stigmatising beliefs aboutdepression and help-seeking: implications for reducing stigma. BMC Public Health, 9(1), 61.Corcoran, J., & Walsh, J. (2009). Schizophrenia. In J. Corcoran, & J. Walsh, Mental health in social work : acasebook on diagnosis and strengths-based assessment (pp. 161-188). Boston, MA: PearsonPublishing.Fluery, M., Grenier, G., Bamvita, J., & Caron, J. (2011). Mental Health Service Utilization Among Patients withsevere mental disorders. Community Mental Health Journal, 47, 365-377.Mueser, K., Lu, W., Rosenberg, S., & Wolfe, R. (2010). The trauma of psychosis: Posttraumatic stress disorder andrecent onset psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 116(2), 217.OCarroll, R. (2000). Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Advance in Psychiatric Treatment, 6, 161-168.(2012). Schizophrenia. Norwalk, United States: Belvoir Media Group, LLC. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/docview/1350228199?accountid=14543Selmes, T., & Mitchell, A. (2007). Why dont patients take their medicine? Reasons and solutions in psychiatry.Advances in psychiatric treatment the The Royal College of Psychiatrists journal of c ontinuingprofessional development, 13(5), 336-346.Wessels, A. (2011, May 01). Community conversation: Raising awareness, reducing stigma. Press. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/docview/867340321?accountid=14543