The Judiciary
Why are courts important?
“ Cult of the Robe”
 
<ul><li>Procedural Fairness </li></ul>
 
The American Justice System The Adversarial System Judges serve as  relatively passive and detached referees who do not ar...
The American Justice System <ul><li>Dual Court System </li></ul>Two court systems – federal and state – operate at the sam...
Federal Courts
The Courts and the Constitution <ul><li>“ The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, a...
“ The Least Dangerous Branch”
Neither the Purse nor the Sword
Judiciary Act of 1789
Structure of the Federal Courts
Structure of the Federal Courts
Structure of the Federal Courts
Specialty Courts <ul><li>In addition to the regular federal courts, Congress has established courts for certain specialize...
Jurisdiction The ability of a court to hear a particular type of case.
Jurisdiction of Federal Courts <ul><li>Cases involving the Constitution, federal statutes and treaties. </li></ul>
Jurisdiction of Federal Courts <ul><li>Cases involving the Constitution, federal statutes and treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Jurisdiction of Federal Courts <ul><li>Cases involving the Constitution, federal statutes and treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Jurisdiction of Federal Courts <ul><li>Cases involving the Constitution, federal statutes and treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Jurisdiction of Federal Courts <ul><li>Cases involving the Constitution, federal statutes and treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Jurisdiction of Federal Courts <ul><li>Cases involving the Constitution, federal statutes and treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Jurisdiction of Federal Courts <ul><li>Cases involving the Constitution, federal statutes and treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Jurisdiction of Federal Courts <ul><li>Cases involving the Constitution, federal statutes and treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Federal District Courts
Original Jurisdiction
Types of Law <ul><li>Criminal Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosecutions for violations of criminal statutes; laws for protect...
 
Appellate Courts
 
Appellate vs. Trial Courts <ul><li>Do not hear new cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Law vs. fact </li></ul><ul><li>No new evidence...
Procedure <ul><li>Three judge panel receives written briefs from the litigants </li></ul><ul><li>Panel hears oral argument...
Stare Decisis
Supreme Court
Supreme Court <ul><li>The Supreme Court is the final arbitrator for matters concerning federal laws and the U.S. Constitut...
Supreme Court <ul><li>The Court has nearly complete control over what cases it will hear. </li></ul>
Writ of Certiorari (also known as cert)‏
 
The Cert Process <ul><li>After losing in a lower court (Court of Appeals or state high court), losing litigant asks the Co...
The Rule of Four
Decision Process <ul><li>Merit Briefs </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Justices’ Conference </li></ul><u...
Legal Briefs <ul><li>After cert is granted, justices invite litigants to submit new briefs </li></ul><ul><li>Amicus Curiae...
Oral Arguments <ul><li>Generally limited to one hour – 30 minutes per side </li></ul><ul><li>Justices frequently interrupt...
Conference <ul><li>No one knows exactly what goes on inside conference </li></ul><ul><li>Justices takes turns stating thei...
Opinions <ul><li>Majority Opinion – “Opinion of the Court” </li></ul><ul><li>Concurring Opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Dissenti...
Qualifications of Federal Judges <ul><li>Constitutional Requirements </li></ul>
Qualifications of Federal Judges Law Degrees Race & Gender Age Judicial Experience
Diversity in the Judiciary
Diversity in the Federal Judiciary
The Role of Politics
Appointment Process <ul><li>Appointed by the president with the “advise and consent” of the Senate </li></ul>
Appointment Process <ul><li>Because of the power wielded by the Supreme Court, presidents take a personal interest in sele...
Political Litmus Tests Litmus Test In political terms, a person’s stand on a key issue that determines whether he or she w...
Political Litmus Tests <ul><li>Except for Robert Bork, most judicial nominees have refused to answer questions that might ...
 
Senatorial Courtesy
Judicial Tenure <ul><li>The Constitution stipulates that federal judges “shall hold their Offices during good Behavior” </...
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Judiciary

  1. 1. The Judiciary
  2. 2. Why are courts important?
  3. 3. “ Cult of the Robe”
  4. 5. <ul><li>Procedural Fairness </li></ul>
  5. 7. The American Justice System The Adversarial System Judges serve as relatively passive and detached referees who do not argue with attorneys or challenge evidence The Inquisitorial System Judges take an active role in discovering and evaluating evidence, will question witnesses and intervene as deemed necessary
  6. 8. The American Justice System <ul><li>Dual Court System </li></ul>Two court systems – federal and state – operate at the same time within the same geographic area.
  7. 9. Federal Courts
  8. 10. The Courts and the Constitution <ul><li>“ The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.” </li></ul>
  9. 11. “ The Least Dangerous Branch”
  10. 12. Neither the Purse nor the Sword
  11. 13. Judiciary Act of 1789
  12. 14. Structure of the Federal Courts
  13. 15. Structure of the Federal Courts
  14. 16. Structure of the Federal Courts
  15. 17. Specialty Courts <ul><li>In addition to the regular federal courts, Congress has established courts for certain specialized areas of the law. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. U.S. Claims Court, U.S. Court of International Trade, and U.S. Court of Military Appeals </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Jurisdiction The ability of a court to hear a particular type of case.
  17. 19. Jurisdiction of Federal Courts <ul><li>Cases involving the Constitution, federal statutes and treaties. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Jurisdiction of Federal Courts <ul><li>Cases involving the Constitution, federal statutes and treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Jurisdiction of Federal Courts <ul><li>Cases involving the Constitution, federal statutes and treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls. </li></ul><ul><li>Admiralty and maritime issues. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Jurisdiction of Federal Courts <ul><li>Cases involving the Constitution, federal statutes and treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls. </li></ul><ul><li>Admiralty and maritime issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Controversies to which the US government is a party. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Jurisdiction of Federal Courts <ul><li>Cases involving the Constitution, federal statutes and treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls. </li></ul><ul><li>Admiralty and maritime issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Controversies to which the US government is a party. </li></ul><ul><li>Disputes between two or more states. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Jurisdiction of Federal Courts <ul><li>Cases involving the Constitution, federal statutes and treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls. </li></ul><ul><li>Admiralty and maritime issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Controversies to which the US government is a party. </li></ul><ul><li>Disputes between two or more states. </li></ul><ul><li>Disputes between a state and citizens of another state. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Jurisdiction of Federal Courts <ul><li>Cases involving the Constitution, federal statutes and treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls. </li></ul><ul><li>Admiralty and maritime issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Controversies to which the US government is a party. </li></ul><ul><li>Disputes between two or more states. </li></ul><ul><li>Disputes between a state and citizens of another state. </li></ul><ul><li>Disputes between citizens of different states. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Jurisdiction of Federal Courts <ul><li>Cases involving the Constitution, federal statutes and treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls. </li></ul><ul><li>Admiralty and maritime issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Controversies to which the US government is a party. </li></ul><ul><li>Disputes between two or more states. </li></ul><ul><li>Disputes between a state and citizens of another state. </li></ul><ul><li>Disputes between citizens of different states. </li></ul><ul><li>Disputes between states (or their citizens) and foreign states (or their citizens). </li></ul>
  25. 27. Federal District Courts
  26. 28. Original Jurisdiction
  27. 29. Types of Law <ul><li>Criminal Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosecutions for violations of criminal statutes; laws for protection of society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Civil Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suits for financial compensation for contract violations, personal injury, &c.; also injunction against government or private action </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. Appellate Courts
  29. 33. Appellate vs. Trial Courts <ul><li>Do not hear new cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Law vs. fact </li></ul><ul><li>No new evidence or witnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Only consider points of law under dispute </li></ul><ul><li>Most decisions are final </li></ul>
  30. 34. Procedure <ul><li>Three judge panel receives written briefs from the litigants </li></ul><ul><li>Panel hears oral arguments on the legal questions raised in the briefs </li></ul><ul><li>Issues decision, usually accompanied by a written opinion </li></ul>
  31. 35. Stare Decisis
  32. 36. Supreme Court
  33. 37. Supreme Court <ul><li>The Supreme Court is the final arbitrator for matters concerning federal laws and the U.S. Constitution </li></ul>
  34. 38. Supreme Court <ul><li>The Court has nearly complete control over what cases it will hear. </li></ul>
  35. 39. Writ of Certiorari (also known as cert)‏
  36. 41. The Cert Process <ul><li>After losing in a lower court (Court of Appeals or state high court), losing litigant asks the Court to grant cert </li></ul><ul><li>Court receives more than 8,000 of these petitions annually </li></ul><ul><li>Only about 80 are granted with full consideration </li></ul>
  37. 42. The Rule of Four
  38. 43. Decision Process <ul><li>Merit Briefs </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Justices’ Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Opinions </li></ul>
  39. 44. Legal Briefs <ul><li>After cert is granted, justices invite litigants to submit new briefs </li></ul><ul><li>Amicus Curiae may also submit briefs </li></ul>
  40. 45. Oral Arguments <ul><li>Generally limited to one hour – 30 minutes per side </li></ul><ul><li>Justices frequently interrupt with questions </li></ul><ul><li>These arguments are thought to have little effect on justices decision-making, and some completely ignore them </li></ul>
  41. 46. Conference <ul><li>No one knows exactly what goes on inside conference </li></ul><ul><li>Justices takes turns stating their positions and voting on the case </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion assignments are made </li></ul>
  42. 47. Opinions <ul><li>Majority Opinion – “Opinion of the Court” </li></ul><ul><li>Concurring Opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Dissenting Opinion </li></ul>
  43. 48. Qualifications of Federal Judges <ul><li>Constitutional Requirements </li></ul>
  44. 49. Qualifications of Federal Judges Law Degrees Race & Gender Age Judicial Experience
  45. 50. Diversity in the Judiciary
  46. 51. Diversity in the Federal Judiciary
  47. 52. The Role of Politics
  48. 53. Appointment Process <ul><li>Appointed by the president with the “advise and consent” of the Senate </li></ul>
  49. 54. Appointment Process <ul><li>Because of the power wielded by the Supreme Court, presidents take a personal interest in selecting appointees </li></ul>
  50. 55. Political Litmus Tests Litmus Test In political terms, a person’s stand on a key issue that determines whether he or she will be appointed to public office or supported in electoral campaigns
  51. 56. Political Litmus Tests <ul><li>Except for Robert Bork, most judicial nominees have refused to answer questions that might reveal how they would decide a case </li></ul>
  52. 58. Senatorial Courtesy
  53. 59. Judicial Tenure <ul><li>The Constitution stipulates that federal judges “shall hold their Offices during good Behavior” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpreted to mean a life term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judges cannot be removed for any reason by a President and Congress cannot impeach judges because they don’t like their decisions </li></ul>

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