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  1. 1. Studying Politics Scientifically <ul><li>Andrew Martin </li></ul><ul><li>PS 372 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Politics vs. Political Science
  3. 3. How do political scientists acquire scientific research? <ul><li>They employ empirical research methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Research is based on “objective” observations </li></ul><ul><li>Well-defined principles for collecting, analyzing and evaluating information. </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical research generates scientific knowledge. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Merits of empirical research <ul><li>Allows scholars and students to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test existing political theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate new, scientific knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ever-changing body of literature over time </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Aims of Political Science <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction </li></ul>
  6. 6. Applied Research <ul><li>Research conducted to accumulate knowledge for practical purposes (e.g. a problem in need of a solution). </li></ul>
  7. 8. Theoretical research <ul><li>Theoretical research -- Research conducted to satisfy intellectual curiosity and is not primarily concerned with a practical application. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Maoz and Russett (1993) <ul><li>Findings: </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic states are in general about as conflict-and war-prone as non-democracies, but democracies have rarely clashed with one another in violent conflict. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Qualitative research <ul><li>Research is more descriptive, historical, and tends to include fewer studies or observations. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Approaches to Qualitative Research Scholar participation Direct observation In-Depth Interviews Analysis of Documents and Materials Collected by observing what people do and say
  11. 12. Quantitative Research <ul><li>Is the investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Quantitative Research <ul><li>Employs mathematical models </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts are measured quantitatively. </li></ul><ul><li>Transforms concepts into empirical concepts that can be measured mathematically </li></ul>
  13. 14. Primary Research Fields <ul><li>American Politics </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American Political Institutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American Political Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. State Politics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public Policy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Judicial Decision-Making
  15. 16. Influencing Bureaucracies
  16. 17. Politics-Administration Dichotomy Administration Politics Wood and Waterman
  17. 18. Primary Research Fields <ul><li>Comparative Politics </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Politics/Political Culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Democratization/Elections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil/Ethnic Conflict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative Political Institutions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Primary Research Fields <ul><li>International Relations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>International Political Economy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War and International Conflict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diplomacy/Foreign Policy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>International Institutions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Research Journals <ul><li>Most popular for American politics: </li></ul><ul><li>The American Political Science Review </li></ul><ul><li>The American Journal of Political Science </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Politics </li></ul>
  20. 22. Public Support for Iraq War