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The Constitution Andrew Martin University of Kentucky
Constitutional Convention <ul><li>Delegates met in Annapolis, Md. in 1786. </li></ul>
Constitutional Convention <ul><li>Delegates met in Annapolis, Md. in 1786. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only five states sent del...
Constitutional Convention <ul><li>Delegates met in Annapolis, Md. in 1786. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only five states sent del...
Constitutional Convention <ul><li>Delegates met in Annapolis, Md. in 1786. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only five states sent del...
Political motivations <ul><li>Political: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Articles of Confederation were ineffective and weak </l...
Political motivations <ul><li>Political: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Articles of Confederation were ineffective and weak </l...
Political motivations <ul><li>Political: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Articles of Confederation were ineffective and weak </l...
Political motivations <ul><li>Political: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Articles of Confederation were ineffective and weak </l...
Political motivations <ul><li>Political: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Articles of Confederation were ineffective and weak </l...
Economic motivations <ul><li>Done to financially benefit Founding Fathers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Beard,  An Economi...
Economic motivations <ul><li>Done to financially benefit Founding Fathers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Beard,  An Economi...
Economic Events of 1780s <ul><li>Little protection for manufacturing sector </li></ul>
Economic Events of 1780s <ul><li>Little protection for manufacturing sector </li></ul><ul><li>No protection of investment ...
Economic Events of 1780s <ul><li>Little protection for manufacturing sector </li></ul><ul><li>No protection of investment ...
Economic Events of 1780s <ul><li>Little protection for manufacturing sector </li></ul><ul><li>No protection of investment ...
Economic Events of 1780s <ul><li>Little protection for manufacturing sector </li></ul><ul><li>No protection of investment ...
Economic Events of 1780s <ul><li>Little protection for manufacturing sector </li></ul><ul><li>No protection of investment ...
The Constitutional Convention <ul><li>May-September 1787 </li></ul>
The Constitutional Convention <ul><li>May-September 1787 </li></ul><ul><li>Held in Philadelphia State House </li></ul>
The Constitutional Convention <ul><li>May-September 1787 </li></ul><ul><li>Held in Philadelphia State House </li></ul><ul>...
Occupations of Founding Fathers
Occupations of Founding Fathers <ul><li>35 were lawyers or had some legal training </li></ul>
Occupations of Founding Fathers <ul><li>35 were lawyers or had some legal training </li></ul><ul><li>13 were businessmen, ...
Occupations of Founding Fathers <ul><li>35 were lawyers or had some legal training </li></ul><ul><li>13 were businessmen, ...
Occupations of Founding Fathers <ul><li>35 were lawyers or had some legal training </li></ul><ul><li>13 were businessmen, ...
Occupations of Founding Fathers <ul><li>35 were lawyers or had some legal training </li></ul><ul><li>13 were businessmen, ...
Occupations of Founding Fathers <ul><li>35 were lawyers or had some legal training </li></ul><ul><li>13 were businessmen, ...
Occupations of Founding Fathers <ul><li>35 were lawyers or had some legal training </li></ul><ul><li>13 were businessmen, ...
Occupations of Founding Fathers <ul><li>35 were lawyers or had some legal training </li></ul><ul><li>13 were businessmen, ...
Occupations of Founding Fathers <ul><li>35 were lawyers or had some legal training </li></ul><ul><li>13 were businessmen, ...
Convention deliberation <ul><li>Stated purpose was to fix Articles of Confederation </li></ul>
Convention deliberation <ul><li>Stated purpose was to fix Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AOC were tossed ...
Convention deliberation <ul><li>Stated purpose was to fix Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AOC were tossed ...
Convention deliberation <ul><li>Stated purpose was to fix Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AOC were tossed ...
Convention deliberation <ul><li>Stated purpose was to fix Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AOC were tossed ...
Convention deliberation <ul><li>Stated purpose was to fix Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AOC were tossed ...
Ratification <ul><li>Dropped unanimous consent requirement spelled out in AOC </li></ul>
Ratification <ul><li>Dropped unanimous consent requirement spelled out in AOC </li></ul><ul><li>Done because Rhode Island,...
Ratification <ul><li>Dropped unanimous consent requirement spelled out in AOC </li></ul><ul><li>Done because Rhode Island,...
Ratification <ul><li>Dropped unanimous consent requirement spelled out in AOC </li></ul><ul><li>Done because Rhode Island,...
Ratification <ul><li>Dropped unanimous consent requirement spelled out in AOC </li></ul><ul><li>Done because Rhode Island,...
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Federalists supported ratification of the Constitution  </li></ul>
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Federalists supported ratification of the Constitution  </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Fe...
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Federalists supported ratification of the Constitution  </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Fe...
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Federalists supported ratification of the Constitution  </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Fe...
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Federalists supported ratification of the Constitution  </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Fe...
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Federalists supported ratification of the Constitution  </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Fe...
Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Feared a federal government would not be responsive to citizens </li></ul>
Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Feared a federal government would not be responsive to citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Worried that ne...
 
Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Feared a federal government would not be responsive to citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Worried that ne...
Federalists <ul><li>Believed federal representative republic was possible, desirable </li></ul>
Federalists <ul><li>Believed federal representative republic was possible, desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Federalists believe...
Federalists <ul><li>Believed federal representative republic was possible, desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Federalists believe...
Federalists <ul><li>Believed federal representative republic was possible, desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Federalists believe...
Competing Visions <ul><li>The Virginia Plan </li></ul>
Competing Visions <ul><li>The Virginia Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Authored by James Madison </li></ul>
Competing Visions <ul><li>The Virginia Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Authored by James Madison </li></ul><ul><li>Favored larger s...
Competing Visions <ul><li>The Virginia Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Authored by James Madison </li></ul><ul><li>Favored larger s...
Competing Visions <ul><li>The Virginia Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Authored by James Madison </li></ul><ul><li>Favored larger s...
Competing Visions <ul><li>The New Jersey Plan </li></ul>
Competing Visions <ul><li>The New Jersey Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Offered as alternative to Virginia Plantation </li></ul>
Competing Visions <ul><li>The New Jersey Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Offered as alternative to Virginia Plantation </li></ul><u...
Competing Visions <ul><li>The New Jersey Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Offered as alternative to Virginia Plantation </li></ul><u...
Competing Visions <ul><li>The New Jersey Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Offered as alternative to Virginia Plantation </li></ul><u...
Competing Visions <ul><li>Connecticut Compromise  </li></ul>
Competing Visions <ul><li>Connecticut Compromise  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two houses </li></ul></ul>
Competing Visions <ul><li>Connecticut Compromise  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two houses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One proporti...
Competing Visions <ul><li>Connecticut Compromise  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two houses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One proporti...
Slavery and the Constitution <ul><li>Issue of slavery never explicitly mentioned in Constitution </li></ul>
Slavery and the Constitution <ul><li>Issue of slavery never explicitly mentioned in Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Issue v...
Slavery and the Constitution <ul><li>Issue of slavery never explicitly mentioned in Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Issue v...
Slavery and the Constitution <ul><li>Issue of slavery never explicitly mentioned in Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Issue v...
Slavery and the Constitution <ul><li>Issue of slavery never explicitly mentioned in Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Issue v...
Slavery and the Constitution <ul><li>Census to be taken every 10 years, would help determine the configuration of House di...
Slavery and the Constitution <ul><li>Census to be taken every 10 years, would help determine the configuration of House di...
Slavery and the Constitution <ul><li>Census to be taken every 10 years, would help determine the configuration of House di...
Compromise on enumerated rights <ul><li>The Federalists made a concession on individual rights, agreeing to amend the  Con...
Layout of the Constitution <ul><li>Article I (Legislative Branch) </li></ul><ul><li>Article II (Executive Branch) </li></u...
Separation of Powers <ul><li>Legislative Branch -- makes laws (Article I) </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Branch -- enforces l...
Presidential checks on Congress <ul><li>President can: </li></ul>
Presidential checks on Congress <ul><li>President can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto legislation  </li></ul></ul>
Presidential checks on Congress <ul><li>President can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto legislation  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Presidential checks on Congress <ul><li>President can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto legislation  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Presidential checks on Congress <ul><li>President can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto legislation  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Presidential checks on judiciary <ul><li>President can: </li></ul>
Presidential checks on judiciary <ul><li>President can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominate federal judges </li></ul></ul>
Presidential checks on judiciary <ul><li>President can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominate federal judges </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Congressional checks on President <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul>
Congressional checks on President <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Override presidential veto (2/3 majority) </...
Congressional checks on President <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Override presidential veto (2/3 majority) </...
Congressional checks on President <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Override presidential veto (2/3 majority) </...
Congressional checks on President <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Override presidential veto (2/3 majority) </...
Congressional checks on President <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Override presidential veto (2/3 majority) </...
Congressional checks on President <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Override presidential veto (2/3 majority) </...
Congressional checks on judiciary <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul>
Congressional checks on judiciary <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reject judicial nominees to federal bench </...
Congressional checks on judiciary <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reject judicial nominees to federal bench </...
Congressional checks on judiciary <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reject judicial nominees to federal bench </...
Congressional checks on judiciary <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reject judicial nominees to federal bench </...
Judicial checks on Congress, president <ul><li>Can declare laws passed by Congress unconstitutional  </li></ul>
Judicial checks on Congress, president <ul><li>Can declare laws passed by Congress unconstitutional  </li></ul><ul><li>Can...
Federalism (Article VI) <ul><li>Divides power between federal and state governments. </li></ul>
Federalism (Article VI) <ul><li>Divides power between federal and state governments. </li></ul><ul><li>Powers of the feder...
Federalism (Article VI) <ul><li>Divides power between federal and state governments. </li></ul><ul><li>Powers of the feder...
Federalism (Article VI) <ul><li>Divides power between federal and state governments. </li></ul><ul><li>Powers of the feder...
Federalism <ul><li>State Governments </li></ul>
Federalism <ul><li>State Governments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended to look after health, safety and well-being of the peo...
Federalism <ul><li>State Governments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended to look after health, safety and well-being of the peo...
State reciprocity (Article IV) <ul><li>Full faith and credit clause </li></ul>
State reciprocity (Article IV) <ul><li>Full faith and credit clause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state must accept legal pro...
State reciprocity (Article IV) <ul><li>Full faith and credit clause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state must accept legal pro...
State reciprocity (Article IV) <ul><li>Full faith and credit clause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state must accept legal pro...
Supremacy Clause <ul><li>Federal law supercedes state law (Article VI) </li></ul>
Amendments <ul><li>Proposing an amendment </li></ul>
Amendments <ul><li>Proposing an amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress calls national convention at request of two-third...
Amendments <ul><li>Proposing an amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress calls national convention at request of two-third...
Amendments <ul><li>Ratifying an amendment </li></ul>
Amendments <ul><li>Ratifying an amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratifying conventions in three-fourths of states (rare) </...
Amendments <ul><li>Ratifying an amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratifying conventions in three-fourths of states (rare) </...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Background  </li></ul>
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Background  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratified, 1791 </li></ul></ul>
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Background  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratified, 1791 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of first 10 am...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Background  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratified, 1791 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of first 10 am...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards of personal and political freedom: </li></ul>
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards of personal and political freedom: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Freedom of speech, press, religi...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards of personal and political freedom: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Freedom of speech, press, religi...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Protection against British occupation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Protection against quartering of troops ...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process:  </li></ul>
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process:  </li></ul><ul><li>4. Protection against unreasonable search and se...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process:  </li></ul><ul><li>4. Protection against unreasonable search and se...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process:  </li></ul><ul><li>4. Protection against unreasonable search and se...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process:  </li></ul><ul><li>4. Protection against unreasonable search and se...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process:  </li></ul><ul><li>4. Protection against unreasonable search and se...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process:  </li></ul><ul><li>4. Protection against unreasonable search and se...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process:  </li></ul><ul><li>4. Protection against unreasonable search and se...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process:  </li></ul><ul><li>6. Guarantees of:  </li></ul>
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process:  </li></ul><ul><li>6. Guarantees of:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speedy,...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process:  </li></ul><ul><li>6. Guarantees of:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speedy,...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process:  </li></ul><ul><li>6. Guarantees of:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speedy,...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process:  </li></ul><ul><li>6. Guarantees of:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speedy,...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process:  </li></ul><ul><li>6. Guarantees of:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speedy,...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process:  </li></ul><ul><li>6. Guarantees of:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speedy,...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process:  </li></ul><ul><li>6. Guarantees of:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speedy,...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process:  </li></ul><ul><li>6. Guarantees of:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speedy,...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Description of unenumerated rights and reserved powers: </li></ul>
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Description of unenumerated rights and reserved powers: </li></ul><ul><li>9. Assurance that rights ...
Bill of Rights <ul><li>Description of unenumerated rights and reserved powers: </li></ul><ul><li>9. Assurance that rights ...
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Constitution2

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Constitution2

  1. 1. The Constitution Andrew Martin University of Kentucky
  2. 2. Constitutional Convention <ul><li>Delegates met in Annapolis, Md. in 1786. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Constitutional Convention <ul><li>Delegates met in Annapolis, Md. in 1786. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only five states sent delegates. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Constitutional Convention <ul><li>Delegates met in Annapolis, Md. in 1786. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only five states sent delegates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamilton suggested another meeting in Philadelphia in 1787. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Constitutional Convention <ul><li>Delegates met in Annapolis, Md. in 1786. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only five states sent delegates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamilton suggested another meeting in Philadelphia in 1787. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Madison was able to secure Congress' approval. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Political motivations <ul><li>Political: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Articles of Confederation were ineffective and weak </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Political motivations <ul><li>Political: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Articles of Confederation were ineffective and weak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shay's rebellion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Political motivations <ul><li>Political: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Articles of Confederation were ineffective and weak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shay's rebellion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revolutionary war debt </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Political motivations <ul><li>Political: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Articles of Confederation were ineffective and weak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shay's rebellion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revolutionary war debt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to handle threats from foreign powers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Political motivations <ul><li>Political: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Articles of Confederation were ineffective and weak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shay's rebellion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revolutionary war debt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to handle threats from foreign powers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jefferson: “ an assembly of demi-gods ” </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Economic motivations <ul><li>Done to financially benefit Founding Fathers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Beard, An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States , 1913 </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Economic motivations <ul><li>Done to financially benefit Founding Fathers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Beard, An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States , 1913 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policies of 1780s helped farmers and laborers, hurt business owners, bankers </li></ul>
  13. 13. Economic Events of 1780s <ul><li>Little protection for manufacturing sector </li></ul>
  14. 14. Economic Events of 1780s <ul><li>Little protection for manufacturing sector </li></ul><ul><li>No protection of investment in western land </li></ul>
  15. 15. Economic Events of 1780s <ul><li>Little protection for manufacturing sector </li></ul><ul><li>No protection of investment in western land </li></ul><ul><li>American shipping was discriminated against by foreign countries </li></ul>
  16. 16. Economic Events of 1780s <ul><li>Little protection for manufacturing sector </li></ul><ul><li>No protection of investment in western land </li></ul><ul><li>American shipping was discriminated against by foreign countries </li></ul><ul><li>Each state coining its own money, along with other laws, led to depreciation of currency and resulted in inflation </li></ul>
  17. 17. Economic Events of 1780s <ul><li>Little protection for manufacturing sector </li></ul><ul><li>No protection of investment in western land </li></ul><ul><li>American shipping was discriminated against by foreign countries </li></ul><ul><li>Each state coining its own money, along with other laws, led to depreciation of currency and resulted in inflation </li></ul><ul><li>“ stay laws” prevented foreclosure on farms </li></ul>
  18. 18. Economic Events of 1780s <ul><li>Little protection for manufacturing sector </li></ul><ul><li>No protection of investment in western land </li></ul><ul><li>American shipping was discriminated against by foreign countries </li></ul><ul><li>Each state coining its own money, along with other laws, led to depreciation of currency and resulted in inflation </li></ul><ul><li>“ stay laws” prevented foreclosure on farms </li></ul><ul><li>“ tender laws” allowed farmers to pay loans with crops </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Constitutional Convention <ul><li>May-September 1787 </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Constitutional Convention <ul><li>May-September 1787 </li></ul><ul><li>Held in Philadelphia State House </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Constitutional Convention <ul><li>May-September 1787 </li></ul><ul><li>Held in Philadelphia State House </li></ul><ul><li>55 men from 12 states (Rhode Island did not send delegates) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Occupations of Founding Fathers
  23. 23. Occupations of Founding Fathers <ul><li>35 were lawyers or had some legal training </li></ul>
  24. 24. Occupations of Founding Fathers <ul><li>35 were lawyers or had some legal training </li></ul><ul><li>13 were businessmen, merchants, or shippers </li></ul>
  25. 25. Occupations of Founding Fathers <ul><li>35 were lawyers or had some legal training </li></ul><ul><li>13 were businessmen, merchants, or shippers </li></ul><ul><li>12 owned and managed slave plantations/farms </li></ul>
  26. 26. Occupations of Founding Fathers <ul><li>35 were lawyers or had some legal training </li></ul><ul><li>13 were businessmen, merchants, or shippers </li></ul><ul><li>12 owned and managed slave plantations/farms </li></ul><ul><li>11 were major securities speculators </li></ul>
  27. 27. Occupations of Founding Fathers <ul><li>35 were lawyers or had some legal training </li></ul><ul><li>13 were businessmen, merchants, or shippers </li></ul><ul><li>12 owned and managed slave plantations/farms </li></ul><ul><li>11 were major securities speculators </li></ul><ul><li>9 held public office </li></ul>
  28. 28. Occupations of Founding Fathers <ul><li>35 were lawyers or had some legal training </li></ul><ul><li>13 were businessmen, merchants, or shippers </li></ul><ul><li>12 owned and managed slave plantations/farms </li></ul><ul><li>11 were major securities speculators </li></ul><ul><li>9 held public office </li></ul><ul><li>6 were major land speculators </li></ul>
  29. 29. Occupations of Founding Fathers <ul><li>35 were lawyers or had some legal training </li></ul><ul><li>13 were businessmen, merchants, or shippers </li></ul><ul><li>12 owned and managed slave plantations/farms </li></ul><ul><li>11 were major securities speculators </li></ul><ul><li>9 held public office </li></ul><ul><li>6 were major land speculators </li></ul><ul><li>3 physicians </li></ul>
  30. 30. Occupations of Founding Fathers <ul><li>35 were lawyers or had some legal training </li></ul><ul><li>13 were businessmen, merchants, or shippers </li></ul><ul><li>12 owned and managed slave plantations/farms </li></ul><ul><li>11 were major securities speculators </li></ul><ul><li>9 held public office </li></ul><ul><li>6 were major land speculators </li></ul><ul><li>3 physicians </li></ul><ul><li>2 scientists </li></ul>
  31. 31. Occupations of Founding Fathers <ul><li>35 were lawyers or had some legal training </li></ul><ul><li>13 were businessmen, merchants, or shippers </li></ul><ul><li>12 owned and managed slave plantations/farms </li></ul><ul><li>11 were major securities speculators </li></ul><ul><li>9 held public office </li></ul><ul><li>6 were major land speculators </li></ul><ul><li>3 physicians </li></ul><ul><li>2 scientists </li></ul><ul><li>1 minister </li></ul>
  32. 32. Convention deliberation <ul><li>Stated purpose was to fix Articles of Confederation </li></ul>
  33. 33. Convention deliberation <ul><li>Stated purpose was to fix Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AOC were tossed on fourth day of deliberation </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Convention deliberation <ul><li>Stated purpose was to fix Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AOC were tossed on fourth day of deliberation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deliberations were secretive </li></ul>
  35. 35. Convention deliberation <ul><li>Stated purpose was to fix Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AOC were tossed on fourth day of deliberation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deliberations were secretive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members sworn to secrecy </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Convention deliberation <ul><li>Stated purpose was to fix Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AOC were tossed on fourth day of deliberation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deliberations were secretive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members sworn to secrecy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows of Philadelphia State House were nailed shut </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Convention deliberation <ul><li>Stated purpose was to fix Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AOC were tossed on fourth day of deliberation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deliberations were secretive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members sworn to secrecy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows of Philadelphia State House were nailed shut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guards were posted to prevent others from hearing deliberations </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Ratification <ul><li>Dropped unanimous consent requirement spelled out in AOC </li></ul>
  39. 39. Ratification <ul><li>Dropped unanimous consent requirement spelled out in AOC </li></ul><ul><li>Done because Rhode Island, North Carolina expected to resist changes </li></ul>
  40. 40. Ratification <ul><li>Dropped unanimous consent requirement spelled out in AOC </li></ul><ul><li>Done because Rhode Island, North Carolina expected to resist changes </li></ul><ul><li>Nine states would have to ratify Constitution for it to take effect </li></ul>
  41. 41. Ratification <ul><li>Dropped unanimous consent requirement spelled out in AOC </li></ul><ul><li>Done because Rhode Island, North Carolina expected to resist changes </li></ul><ul><li>Nine states would have to ratify Constitution for it to take effect </li></ul><ul><li>States would have to ratify, though no mention of elected state legislatures was made </li></ul>
  42. 42. Ratification <ul><li>Dropped unanimous consent requirement spelled out in AOC </li></ul><ul><li>Done because Rhode Island, North Carolina expected to resist changes </li></ul><ul><li>Nine states would have to ratify Constitution for it to take effect </li></ul><ul><li>States would have to ratify, though no mention of elected state legislatures was made </li></ul><ul><li>States held elections to select delegates to state constitutional conventions </li></ul>
  43. 43. Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists
  44. 44. Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Federalists supported ratification of the Constitution </li></ul>
  45. 45. Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Federalists supported ratification of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Federalists opposed ratification </li></ul>
  46. 46. Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Federalists supported ratification of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Federalists opposed ratification </li></ul><ul><li>Federalists won the day </li></ul>
  47. 47. Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Federalists supported ratification of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Federalists opposed ratification </li></ul><ul><li>Federalists won the day </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution was signed by convention delegates September 17, 1787 </li></ul>
  48. 48. Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Federalists supported ratification of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Federalists opposed ratification. </li></ul><ul><li>Federalists won the day </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution was signed by convention delegates September 17, 1787 </li></ul><ul><li>New Hampshire was 9th state to ratify it, putting it into law, June 21, 1788 </li></ul>
  49. 49. Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Federalists supported ratification of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Federalists opposed ratification. </li></ul><ul><li>Federalists won the day </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution was signed by convention delegates September 17, 1787 </li></ul><ul><li>New Hampshire was 9th state to ratify it, putting it into law, June 21, 1788 </li></ul><ul><li>Laws and gov't took effect March 4, 1789 </li></ul>
  50. 50. Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Feared a federal government would not be responsive to citizens </li></ul>
  51. 51. Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Feared a federal government would not be responsive to citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Worried that new executive would amass too much power </li></ul>
  52. 53. Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Feared a federal government would not be responsive to citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Worried that new executive would amass too much power </li></ul><ul><li>No protection of individual rights </li></ul>
  53. 54. Federalists <ul><li>Believed federal representative republic was possible, desirable </li></ul>
  54. 55. Federalists <ul><li>Believed federal representative republic was possible, desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Federalists believed a large republic would prevent the tyranny of a majority. </li></ul>
  55. 56. Federalists <ul><li>Believed federal representative republic was possible, desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Federalists believed a large republic would prevent the tyranny of a majority. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalist No. 10 </li></ul></ul>
  56. 57. Federalists <ul><li>Believed federal representative republic was possible, desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Federalists believed a large republic would prevent the tyranny of a majority. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalist No. 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shared powers would give government the power to get things done, but prevent it from becoming too powerful </li></ul>
  57. 58. Competing Visions <ul><li>The Virginia Plan </li></ul>
  58. 59. Competing Visions <ul><li>The Virginia Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Authored by James Madison </li></ul>
  59. 60. Competing Visions <ul><li>The Virginia Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Authored by James Madison </li></ul><ul><li>Favored larger states </li></ul>
  60. 61. Competing Visions <ul><li>The Virginia Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Authored by James Madison </li></ul><ul><li>Favored larger states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed bicameral legislature </li></ul></ul>
  61. 62. Competing Visions <ul><li>The Virginia Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Authored by James Madison </li></ul><ul><li>Favored larger states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed bicameral legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation in both based on population </li></ul></ul>
  62. 63. Competing Visions <ul><li>The New Jersey Plan </li></ul>
  63. 64. Competing Visions <ul><li>The New Jersey Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Offered as alternative to Virginia Plantation </li></ul>
  64. 65. Competing Visions <ul><li>The New Jersey Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Offered as alternative to Virginia Plantation </li></ul><ul><li>Favored smaller states </li></ul>
  65. 66. Competing Visions <ul><li>The New Jersey Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Offered as alternative to Virginia Plantation </li></ul><ul><li>Favored smaller states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed unicameral legislatures </li></ul></ul>
  66. 67. Competing Visions <ul><li>The New Jersey Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Offered as alternative to Virginia Plantation </li></ul><ul><li>Favored smaller states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed unicameral legislatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One vote per state </li></ul></ul>
  67. 68. Competing Visions <ul><li>Connecticut Compromise </li></ul>
  68. 69. Competing Visions <ul><li>Connecticut Compromise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two houses </li></ul></ul>
  69. 70. Competing Visions <ul><li>Connecticut Compromise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two houses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One proportional (House) </li></ul></ul>
  70. 71. Competing Visions <ul><li>Connecticut Compromise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two houses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One proportional (House) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One equal votes for each state (Senate) </li></ul></ul>
  71. 72. Slavery and the Constitution <ul><li>Issue of slavery never explicitly mentioned in Constitution </li></ul>
  72. 73. Slavery and the Constitution <ul><li>Issue of slavery never explicitly mentioned in Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Issue very contentious </li></ul>
  73. 74. Slavery and the Constitution <ul><li>Issue of slavery never explicitly mentioned in Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Issue very contentious </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves and commerce compromise </li></ul>
  74. 75. Slavery and the Constitution <ul><li>Issue of slavery never explicitly mentioned in Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Issue very contentious </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves and commerce compromise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northerners got tariffs on imported goods </li></ul></ul>
  75. 76. Slavery and the Constitution <ul><li>Issue of slavery never explicitly mentioned in Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Issue very contentious </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves and commerce compromise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northerners got tariffs on imported goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners got protection against the outlaw of overseas slave trading until 1808. </li></ul></ul>
  76. 77. Slavery and the Constitution <ul><li>Census to be taken every 10 years, would help determine the configuration of House districts </li></ul>
  77. 78. Slavery and the Constitution <ul><li>Census to be taken every 10 years, would help determine the configuration of House districts </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves were to be counted as 3/5 person </li></ul>
  78. 79. Slavery and the Constitution <ul><li>Census to be taken every 10 years, would help determine the configuration of House districts </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves were to be counted as 3/5 person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Southern population counts, and hence the South would have more seats in the U.S. House. </li></ul></ul>
  79. 80. Compromise on enumerated rights <ul><li>The Federalists made a concession on individual rights, agreeing to amend the Constitution to include a list of individual safeguards. </li></ul>
  80. 81. Layout of the Constitution <ul><li>Article I (Legislative Branch) </li></ul><ul><li>Article II (Executive Branch) </li></ul><ul><li>Article III (Judicial Branch) </li></ul><ul><li>Article IV (Relations between the States) </li></ul><ul><li>Article V (Amendment Process) </li></ul><ul><li>Article VI (Federal-State relations/Oath for Officers) </li></ul><ul><li>Article VII (How Constitution will be ratified) </li></ul>
  81. 82. Separation of Powers <ul><li>Legislative Branch -- makes laws (Article I) </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Branch -- enforces laws (Article II) </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial Branch -- interprets laws, resolves disputes (Article III) </li></ul>
  82. 83. Presidential checks on Congress <ul><li>President can: </li></ul>
  83. 84. Presidential checks on Congress <ul><li>President can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto legislation </li></ul></ul>
  84. 85. Presidential checks on Congress <ul><li>President can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call special session </li></ul></ul>
  85. 86. Presidential checks on Congress <ul><li>President can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call special session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommend legislation </li></ul></ul>
  86. 87. Presidential checks on Congress <ul><li>President can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call special session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommend legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice-President presides over Senate, casts tie-breaking votes </li></ul></ul>
  87. 88. Presidential checks on judiciary <ul><li>President can: </li></ul>
  88. 89. Presidential checks on judiciary <ul><li>President can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominate federal judges </li></ul></ul>
  89. 90. Presidential checks on judiciary <ul><li>President can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominate federal judges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pardon persons convicted by federal courts </li></ul></ul>
  90. 91. Congressional checks on President <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul>
  91. 92. Congressional checks on President <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Override presidential veto (2/3 majority) </li></ul></ul>
  92. 93. Congressional checks on President <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Override presidential veto (2/3 majority) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impeach and remove president </li></ul></ul>
  93. 94. Congressional checks on President <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Override presidential veto (2/3 majority) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impeach and remove president </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reject presidential appointees (Senate) </li></ul></ul>
  94. 95. Congressional checks on President <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Override presidential veto (2/3 majority) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impeach and remove president </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reject presidential appointees (Senate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refuse ratification of treaties (Senate) </li></ul></ul>
  95. 96. Congressional checks on President <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Override presidential veto (2/3 majority) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impeach and remove president </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reject presidential appointees (Senate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refuse ratification of treaties (Senate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reject president's request for laws and funds </li></ul></ul>
  96. 97. Congressional checks on President <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Override presidential veto (2/3 majority) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impeach and remove president </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reject presidential appointees (Senate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refuse ratification of treaties (Senate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reject president's request for laws and funds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate president's actions </li></ul></ul>
  97. 98. Congressional checks on judiciary <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul>
  98. 99. Congressional checks on judiciary <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reject judicial nominees to federal bench </li></ul></ul>
  99. 100. Congressional checks on judiciary <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reject judicial nominees to federal bench </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create lower federal courts </li></ul></ul>
  100. 101. Congressional checks on judiciary <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reject judicial nominees to federal bench </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create lower federal courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amend laws to change judicial interpretation </li></ul></ul>
  101. 102. Congressional checks on judiciary <ul><li>Congress can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reject judicial nominees to federal bench </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create lower federal courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amend laws to change judicial interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propose constitutional amendments </li></ul></ul>
  102. 103. Judicial checks on Congress, president <ul><li>Can declare laws passed by Congress unconstitutional </li></ul>
  103. 104. Judicial checks on Congress, president <ul><li>Can declare laws passed by Congress unconstitutional </li></ul><ul><li>Can declare acts of the president/administration unconstitutional </li></ul>
  104. 105. Federalism (Article VI) <ul><li>Divides power between federal and state governments. </li></ul>
  105. 106. Federalism (Article VI) <ul><li>Divides power between federal and state governments. </li></ul><ul><li>Powers of the federal government are explicitly defined are known as expressed powers. </li></ul>
  106. 107. Federalism (Article VI) <ul><li>Divides power between federal and state governments. </li></ul><ul><li>Powers of the federal government are explicitly defined are known as expressed powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally, focus of nat'l government was to be foreign affairs, nat'l security and commerce </li></ul>
  107. 108. Federalism (Article VI) <ul><li>Divides power between federal and state governments. </li></ul><ul><li>Powers of the federal government are explicitly defined are known as expressed powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally, focus of nat'l government was to be foreign affairs, nat'l security and commerce </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Necessary and proper&quot; clause, subsequent amendments allowed federal gov't influence to grow </li></ul>
  108. 109. Federalism <ul><li>State Governments </li></ul>
  109. 110. Federalism <ul><li>State Governments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended to look after health, safety and well-being of the people </li></ul></ul>
  110. 111. Federalism <ul><li>State Governments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended to look after health, safety and well-being of the people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powers known as police powers </li></ul></ul>
  111. 112. State reciprocity (Article IV) <ul><li>Full faith and credit clause </li></ul>
  112. 113. State reciprocity (Article IV) <ul><li>Full faith and credit clause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state must accept legal proceedings of other states </li></ul></ul>
  113. 114. State reciprocity (Article IV) <ul><li>Full faith and credit clause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state must accept legal proceedings of other states </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Privileges and immunities clause </li></ul>
  114. 115. State reciprocity (Article IV) <ul><li>Full faith and credit clause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state must accept legal proceedings of other states </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Privileges and immunities clause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandates that out-of -state citizens enjoy legal rights of citizens in that state </li></ul></ul>
  115. 116. Supremacy Clause <ul><li>Federal law supercedes state law (Article VI) </li></ul>
  116. 117. Amendments <ul><li>Proposing an amendment </li></ul>
  117. 118. Amendments <ul><li>Proposing an amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress calls national convention at request of two-thirds of the states (rare) </li></ul></ul>
  118. 119. Amendments <ul><li>Proposing an amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress calls national convention at request of two-thirds of the states (rare) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-thirds of Congress votes for proposed amendment (more common) </li></ul></ul>
  119. 120. Amendments <ul><li>Ratifying an amendment </li></ul>
  120. 121. Amendments <ul><li>Ratifying an amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratifying conventions in three-fourths of states (rare) </li></ul></ul>
  121. 122. Amendments <ul><li>Ratifying an amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratifying conventions in three-fourths of states (rare) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three-fourths of state legislatures approve (more common) </li></ul></ul>
  122. 123. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Background </li></ul>
  123. 124. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratified, 1791 </li></ul></ul>
  124. 125. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratified, 1791 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution </li></ul></ul>
  125. 126. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratified, 1791 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foundation for civil liberties/civil rights in United States </li></ul></ul>
  126. 127. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards of personal and political freedom: </li></ul>
  127. 128. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards of personal and political freedom: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Freedom of speech, press, religion (two parts), right to assemble peacefully </li></ul>
  128. 129. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards of personal and political freedom: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Freedom of speech, press, religion (two parts), right to assemble peacefully </li></ul><ul><li>2. Right to keep and bear arms </li></ul>
  129. 130. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Protection against British occupation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Protection against quartering of troops in private homes </li></ul>
  130. 131. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process: </li></ul>
  131. 132. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process: </li></ul><ul><li>4. Protection against unreasonable search and seizures. </li></ul>
  132. 133. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process: </li></ul><ul><li>4. Protection against unreasonable search and seizures. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Guarantees of: </li></ul>
  133. 134. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process: </li></ul><ul><li>4. Protection against unreasonable search and seizures. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Guarantees of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grand jury for capital crimes </li></ul></ul>
  134. 135. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process: </li></ul><ul><li>4. Protection against unreasonable search and seizures. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Guarantees of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grand jury for capital crimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no double jeopardy </li></ul></ul>
  135. 136. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process: </li></ul><ul><li>4. Protection against unreasonable search and seizures. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Guarantees of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grand jury for capital crimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no double jeopardy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no self-incrimination </li></ul></ul>
  136. 137. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process: </li></ul><ul><li>4. Protection against unreasonable search and seizures. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Guarantees of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grand jury for capital crimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no double jeopardy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no self-incrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no deprivation of life or property without &quot;due process of law&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  137. 138. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process: </li></ul><ul><li>4. Protection against unreasonable search and seizures. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Guarantees of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grand jury for capital crimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no double jeopardy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no self-incrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no deprivation of life or property without &quot;due process of law&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no taking of property without just compensation </li></ul></ul>
  138. 139. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process: </li></ul><ul><li>6. Guarantees of: </li></ul>
  139. 140. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process: </li></ul><ul><li>6. Guarantees of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speedy, public trial </li></ul></ul>
  140. 141. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process: </li></ul><ul><li>6. Guarantees of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speedy, public trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to be informed of nature of charges </li></ul></ul>
  141. 142. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process: </li></ul><ul><li>6. Guarantees of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speedy, public trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to be informed of nature of charges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to confront witnesses </li></ul></ul>
  142. 143. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process: </li></ul><ul><li>6. Guarantees of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speedy, public trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to be informed of nature of charges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to confront witnesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to compel witnesses to appear in one's defense </li></ul></ul>
  143. 144. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process: </li></ul><ul><li>6. Guarantees of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speedy, public trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to be informed of nature of charges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to confront witnesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to compel witnesses to appear in one's defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>right to legal counsel </li></ul></ul>
  144. 145. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process: </li></ul><ul><li>6. Guarantees of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speedy, public trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to be informed of nature of charges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to confront witnesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to compel witnesses to appear in one's defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>right to legal counsel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7. Guarantee of trial by jury of one's peers </li></ul>
  145. 146. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process: </li></ul><ul><li>6. Guarantees of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speedy, public trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to be informed of nature of charges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to confront witnesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to compel witnesses to appear in one's defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>right to legal counsel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7. Guarantee of trial by jury of one's peers </li></ul><ul><li>8. Guarantees against: </li></ul>
  146. 147. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Safeguards in judicial process: </li></ul><ul><li>6. Guarantees of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speedy, public trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to be informed of nature of charges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to confront witnesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to compel witnesses to appear in one's defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>right to legal counsel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7. Guarantee of trial by jury of one's peers </li></ul><ul><li>8. Guarantees against: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cruel and unusual punishment, excessive bail </li></ul></ul>
  147. 148. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Description of unenumerated rights and reserved powers: </li></ul>
  148. 149. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Description of unenumerated rights and reserved powers: </li></ul><ul><li>9. Assurance that rights not listed for protection against the power of the central government are reserved to the people. </li></ul>
  149. 150. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Description of unenumerated rights and reserved powers: </li></ul><ul><li>9. Assurance that rights not listed for protection against the power of the central government are reserved to the people. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Assurance that the powers not delegated to the central government are reserved to the states or to the people. </li></ul>

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