Civil Liberties Michael P. Fix
Early Interpretation of the Bill of Rights <ul><li>Early Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Seen as weak institution </li></u...
Early Interpretation of the Bill of Rights <ul><li>Bill of Rights does not  </li></ul><ul><li>apply to the States </li></u...
Incorporation of the 14 th  Amendment <ul><li>After the Civil War, 14th Amendment added to the Constitution  </li></ul>No ...
Incorporation of the 14 th  Amendment Judges must determine what protections, if any, are provided by the phrases : Due pr...
Incorporation of the 14 th  Amendment Incorporation The process through which the Supreme Court examines individual provis...
Incorporation of the 14 th  Amendment <ul><li>First step towards incorporation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5th Amendment “Takin...
Incorporation of the 14 th  Amendment <ul><li>Lawyers ask Supreme Court to interpret the Due Process Clause in such a way ...
1 st  Amendment Rights The First Amendment Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibit...
1 st  Amendment Rights <ul><li>Preferred Freedoms </li></ul>
1 st  Amendment Rights: Freedom of Speech Free speech laws must balance   individual liberties and societal interests
1 st  Amendment Rights: Freedom of Speech <ul><li>“ Clear and Present Danger Test” </li></ul>From www.impawards.com
1 st  Amendment Rights: Freedom of Speech Symbolic Speech When people take an action designed to communicate an idea
1 st  Amendment Rights: Freedom of Speech <ul><li>Symbolic Speech can be granted 1 st  Amendment protection </li></ul><ul>...
1 st  Amendment Rights: Freedom of Speech <ul><li>Reasonable restrictions on assemblies:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li>...
1 st  Amendment Rights: Freedom of Speech <ul><li>What about Commercial Speech? </li></ul>
1 st  Amendment Rights: Freedom of Speech <ul><li>Obscenity and community standards </li></ul>From  www.new-york-usa.com  ...
1 st  Amendment Rights: Freedom of the Press <ul><li>Near v. Minnesota (1931) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court rule...
1 st  Amendment Rights: Freedom of the Press <ul><li>Press interests versus governmental priorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
1 st  Amendment Rights: Freedom of Religion <ul><li>Establishment Clause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Congress shall make no la...
1 st  Amendment Rights: Freedom of Religion <ul><li>Separationist </li></ul><ul><li>Government must avoid contacts with re...
1 st  Amendment Rights: Freedom of Religion <ul><li>In the 1960s the Supreme Court adopts the Seperationist Perspective </...
<ul><li>How does the Supreme Court decide cases that involve the Establishment Clause? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lemon test:  ...
1 st  Amendment Rights: Freedom of Religion <ul><li>Free Exercise Clause: key cases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minersville Scho...
2 nd  Amendment: Right to Bear Arms <ul><li>The Supreme Court has never treated the final part of the amendment as a separ...
2 nd  Amendment: Right to Bear Arms <ul><li>The Bush Administration and the 2 nd  Amendment </li></ul>
Criminal Rights <ul><li>Exclusionary Rule (4 th  Amendment) </li></ul><ul><li>Under this rule, evidence that is obtained i...
Criminal Rights <ul><li>5 th  Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Incrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double Jeopard...
8 th  Amendment: Cruel and Unusual Punishment <ul><li>Can it be considered “cruel and unusual”  punishment? </li></ul>Capi...
The Right to Privacy <ul><li>The word “privacy” does not appear </li></ul><ul><li>in the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ho...
Abortion Rights <ul><li>Roe v. Wade (1973) </li></ul>
Private Sexual Conduct <ul><li>Key sexual privacy cases </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Griswold v. Connecticut  (1965) </li></u...
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Civil Liberties

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Civil Liberties

  1. 1. Civil Liberties Michael P. Fix
  2. 2. Early Interpretation of the Bill of Rights <ul><li>Early Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Seen as weak institution </li></ul><ul><li>Cases are primarily about: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>distribution of power among branches of government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relationship between state and federal government </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Early Interpretation of the Bill of Rights <ul><li>Bill of Rights does not </li></ul><ul><li>apply to the States </li></ul>Barron v. Baltimore
  4. 4. Incorporation of the 14 th Amendment <ul><li>After the Civil War, 14th Amendment added to the Constitution </li></ul>No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws
  5. 5. Incorporation of the 14 th Amendment Judges must determine what protections, if any, are provided by the phrases : Due process of law Equal protection of the laws Privileges or immunities of citizens
  6. 6. Incorporation of the 14 th Amendment Incorporation The process through which the Supreme Court examines individual provisions of the Bill of Rights and applies them against state and local officials
  7. 7. Incorporation of the 14 th Amendment <ul><li>First step towards incorporation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5th Amendment “Takings” Clause </li></ul></ul>From dmla.clan.lib.nv.us
  8. 8. Incorporation of the 14 th Amendment <ul><li>Lawyers ask Supreme Court to interpret the Due Process Clause in such a way as to protect individual rights against state and local governments </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court refuses to incorporate a personal right until 1925 decision in Gitlow v. New York (1925) </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1 st Amendment Rights The First Amendment Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
  10. 10. 1 st Amendment Rights <ul><li>Preferred Freedoms </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1 st Amendment Rights: Freedom of Speech Free speech laws must balance individual liberties and societal interests
  12. 12. 1 st Amendment Rights: Freedom of Speech <ul><li>“ Clear and Present Danger Test” </li></ul>From www.impawards.com
  13. 13. 1 st Amendment Rights: Freedom of Speech Symbolic Speech When people take an action designed to communicate an idea
  14. 14. 1 st Amendment Rights: Freedom of Speech <ul><li>Symbolic Speech can be granted 1 st Amendment protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tinker v. Des Moines (1969) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Texas v. Johnson (1989) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 1 st Amendment Rights: Freedom of Speech <ul><li>Reasonable restrictions on assemblies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hate speech </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fighting words </li></ul></ul></ul>When can restrictions be put on first amendment rights?
  16. 16. 1 st Amendment Rights: Freedom of Speech <ul><li>What about Commercial Speech? </li></ul>
  17. 17. 1 st Amendment Rights: Freedom of Speech <ul><li>Obscenity and community standards </li></ul>From www.new-york-usa.com and www.picturesofengland.com
  18. 18. 1 st Amendment Rights: Freedom of the Press <ul><li>Near v. Minnesota (1931) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court rules against the use of prior restraint of publications that criticize the government </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. 1 st Amendment Rights: Freedom of the Press <ul><li>Press interests versus governmental priorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporter’s privilege </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shield Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Because there is no constitutional right protecting reporters nationwide, reporters may be found in contempt of court if they refuse to cooperate with criminal investigations </li></ul>
  20. 20. 1 st Amendment Rights: Freedom of Religion <ul><li>Establishment Clause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion….” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free Exercise Clause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.” </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. 1 st Amendment Rights: Freedom of Religion <ul><li>Separationist </li></ul><ul><li>Government must avoid contacts with religion, especially those that lead to government support or endorsement of religious activities </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodationist </li></ul><ul><li>Would permit the government to provide support for religion and associated activities </li></ul>Two Interpretations of the Establishment Clause
  22. 22. 1 st Amendment Rights: Freedom of Religion <ul><li>In the 1960s the Supreme Court adopts the Seperationist Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engel v. Vitale (1962) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School District of Abington Township, Pennsylvania v. Schempp (1963) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>How does the Supreme Court decide cases that involve the Establishment Clause? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lemon test: a standard developed in the 1971 case Lemon v. Kurtzman. The court must ask three questions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Does the law or practice have a secular purpose? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Does the primary intent or effect of the law either advance or inhibit religion? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Does the law or practice create an excessive entanglement of government and religion? </li></ul></ul>1 st Amendment Rights: Freedom of Religion
  24. 24. 1 st Amendment Rights: Freedom of Religion <ul><li>Free Exercise Clause: key cases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minersville School District v. Gobitis (1940) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Virginia v. Barnette (1943) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment Division of Oregon v. Smith (1990) </li></ul></ul>From cnn.com
  25. 25. 2 nd Amendment: Right to Bear Arms <ul><li>The Supreme Court has never treated the final part of the amendment as a separate clause that provides individual citizens with a right to own guns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US v. Miller (1939) </li></ul></ul>A well-regulated Militia, being necessary for the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
  26. 26. 2 nd Amendment: Right to Bear Arms <ul><li>The Bush Administration and the 2 nd Amendment </li></ul>
  27. 27. Criminal Rights <ul><li>Exclusionary Rule (4 th Amendment) </li></ul><ul><li>Under this rule, evidence that is obtained improperly by the police cannot be used to prosecute someone accused of a crime </li></ul><ul><li>In 1970s and 1980s, the Supreme Court became more conservative and many exceptions were made to the exclusionary rule </li></ul>
  28. 28. Criminal Rights <ul><li>5 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Incrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double Jeopardy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to an attorney </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights at trial </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. 8 th Amendment: Cruel and Unusual Punishment <ul><li>Can it be considered “cruel and unusual” punishment? </li></ul>Capital Punishment
  30. 30. The Right to Privacy <ul><li>The word “privacy” does not appear </li></ul><ul><li>in the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>However, in 1965, Supreme Court determined that the right to privacy could be found in “penumbras and emanations” from other amendments </li></ul>
  31. 31. Abortion Rights <ul><li>Roe v. Wade (1973) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Private Sexual Conduct <ul><li>Key sexual privacy cases </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bowers v. Hardwick (1986) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lawrence v. Texas (2003) </li></ul></ul></ul>

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