A - Cheyne-Stokes: may follow diffuse
cortical injury, but more often reflects
bilateral thalamic injury.
B - Central neurogenic
hyperventilation: pontomesencephalic regi
C - Apneustic: lateral tegmentum of the
lower half of the pons
D - Ataxic
(Biot’s): lower dorsomedial medulla
• Forest plot (forest plot shows information
from individual studies that went into meta-
analysis at a glance. They show the amount of
variation between the studies and an estimate
of the overall result.
• Each square symbol represents a study
contributing to metanalysis and the area of
square corresponds to the weight of the
corresponding study to the metaanalysis.
• The horizontal line through the square shows
the confidence interval. The solid vertical line
represents no effect.
• The diamond represents the overall estimate
from the meta-analysis.
• The centre of diamond represents the pooled
point estimate and the horizontal tips
represent the confidence interval.
(a) 'shotgun' scatter, with low correlation, (b) strong positive correlation,
(c) strong negative correlation, (d) and (e) low correlation, with very little
change in one variable compared with the other, (f) this scatter would
generate a spurious high correlation because of the effect of the five points
enclosed by the shaded area
1. Cochlear nerves - waves I and II
2. Cochlear nucleus - wave III
3. Superior olivary complex - wave IV
4. Nulclei of lateral lemniscus - wave V
5. Inferior colliculus - waves VI and VII
TABLE I : CRITERIA FOR PASSING APPETITE TEST
Body weight Minimum amount of RUTF
(kg) to be consumed for passing
the Appetite Test (mL or grams)
4 –6.9 25
7 –9.9 35
10 –14.9 50
SEVERE ACUTE MALNUTRITION
Calculation of Target Height and Target Height Centile. Measure the parent’s heights and
make a note of their heights on the chart. Calculate the child’s target height (TH) and plot it at
18 years and mark it with an arrow on the growth chart. This represents the child’s projected
height and the target range is produced by plotting two points 7.5 cms above and below for a
boy and 6 cm above and below for a girl (representing the 10th and the 90th centile for that
. In the example shown above, the 50th percentile for the general population is the 90th centile
for the child measured and
the 10th centile for the child is below the 10th centile for the population.
Source: Cowell CT. Short
In: Clinical Pediatric
3rd edn. Ed. Brook CGD.
1995; pp 136-172.
Principles of Development
Cephalo → Caudal
Proximal → Distal
Simple → Complex
General → Specific
Involuntary → Voluntary
Sequence same, Rate varies
Maturation AND Environment