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Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations


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Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations

  1. 1. Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations CHAPTER 17 0
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Define attitudes, including their major components, and explain their relationship to personality, perception, and behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the importance of work-related attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify major personality traits and describe how personality can influence workplace attitudes and behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the four components of emotional intelligence and explain why they are important for today’s managers. </li></ul>0
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (contd.) <ul><li>Explain how people learn in general and in terms of individual learning styles. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the effects of stress and identify ways individuals and organizations can manage stress to improve employee health, satisfaction, and productivity. </li></ul>0
  4. 4. Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations <ul><li>Employees and managers bring their individual differences to work each day </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in attitudes, values, personality, and behavior influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how people interpret an assignment, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>whether they like to be told what to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how they handle challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how they interact with others </li></ul></ul>Managers need to understand the way individuals & groups act 0
  5. 5. Organizational Behavior <ul><li>Interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performance </li></ul></ul>Commonly called OB 0
  6. 6. Organizational Citizenship <ul><li>Tendency of people to help one another and put in extra effort that goes beyond job requirements to contribute to the organization’s success. </li></ul>0
  7. 7. Attitudes <ul><li>Cognitive and affective evaluation that predisposes a person to act in a certain way </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes determine how people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceive the work environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interact with others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behave on the job </li></ul></ul>0
  8. 8. Components of an Attitude Exhibit 17.1 0
  9. 9. Components of Attitudes <ul><li>Cognitive component includes the beliefs, opinions, and information the person has about the object of the attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Affective component is the person’s emotions or feelings about the object of the attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral component of an attitude is the person’s intention to behave toward the object of the attitude in a certain way </li></ul>Particularly important when attempting to change attitudes 0
  10. 10. High-Performance Work Attitudes <ul><li>Two attitudes that might relate to high performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Commitment </li></ul></ul>Managers of today’s knowledge workers often rely on job satisfaction to keep motivation and enthusiasm for the organization high 0
  11. 11. High-Performance Work Attitudes <ul><li>Job Satisfaction = positive attitude toward one’s job </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Commitment = loyalty to and heavy involvement in one’s organization </li></ul>0
  12. 12. Conflicts Among Attitudes <ul><li>Cognitive Dissonance = condition in which two attitudes or a behavior and an attitude conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leon Festinger – 1950s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People want to behave in accordance with their attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually will take corrective action </li></ul></ul>0
  13. 13. Perception <ul><li>Cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpreting information </li></ul></ul>0
  14. 14. The Perception Process Exhibit 17.4 0
  15. 15. Common Perceptual Distortions <ul><li>Tendency to assign an individual to a group or broad category and then attribute generalizations about the group to the individual </li></ul>Stereotyping 0
  16. 16. Common Perceptual Distortions <ul><li>Overall impression of a person or situation based on one characteristic, either favorable or unfavorable </li></ul>Halo Effect 0
  17. 17. Common Perceptual Distortions <ul><li>Tendency to see one’s own personal traits in other people </li></ul>Projection 0
  18. 18. Common Perceptual Distortions <ul><li>Tendency of perceivers to protect themselves by disregarding ideas objects, or people that are threatening to them </li></ul>Perceptual Defense 0
  19. 19. Attributions <ul><li>Judgments about what caused a person’s behavior—either characteristics of the person or of the situation </li></ul><ul><li>As people organize what they perceive, they often draw conclusions </li></ul>0
  20. 20. External or Internal Attributions Exhibit 17.6 0
  21. 21. Attribution Biases <ul><li>Fundamental Attribution Error = tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors on another’s behavior and to overestimate the influence of internal factors </li></ul><ul><li>Self-serving Bias = tendency to overestimate the contribution of internal factors to one’s successes and the contribution of external factors to one’s failures </li></ul>0
  22. 22. Personality <ul><li>Set of characteristics that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in response to ideas, objects, or people in the environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Big Five Personality Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extroversion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreeableness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional Stability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Openness to Experience </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  23. 23. Emotional Intelligence (EQ) Basic Components <ul><li>Self-awareness: basis for all other components, being aware of what you are feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Self-management: control disruptive or harmful emotions and balance one’s moods so they do not cloud thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Social awareness: understand others and practice empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship awareness: connect to others, build positive relationships, respond to emotions of others, and influence others </li></ul>0
  24. 24. Locus of Control <ul><li>Tendency to place primary responsibility for one’s success or failure either within oneself (internally) or on outside forces (externally) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal locus of control- your actions influence what happens to you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External locus of control- represents pawns of fate </li></ul></ul>0
  25. 25. Behaviors Influenced by Personality <ul><li>Authoritarianism = belief that power and status differences should exist within the organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerned with power and toughness </li></ul></ul>Obey recognized authority above them Stick to conventional values Critically judge others Oppose the use of subjective feelings 0
  26. 26. Behaviors Influenced by Personality <ul><li>Machiavellianism = tendency to direct much of one’s behavior toward the acquisition of power and the manipulation of other people for personal gain </li></ul>0
  27. 27. Problem Solving Styles <ul><li>Individuals differ in the way they solve problems and make decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Gathering and evaluating information are separate activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intuition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling </li></ul></ul></ul>Based on work of Carl Jung 0
  28. 28. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) <ul><li>Personality test that measures a person’s preference for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>introversion vs. extroversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sensation vs. intuition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thinking vs. feeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>judging vs. perceiving </li></ul></ul>0
  29. 29. Learning and Learning Styles <ul><li>Learning = change in behavior or performance that occurs as the result of experience </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodator </li></ul></ul>0
  30. 30. Stress and Stress Management <ul><li>Stress = physiological and emotional response to stimuli that place physical or psychological demands on an individual </li></ul><ul><li>Type A Behavior = pattern characterized by extreme competitiveness, impatience, aggressiveness, and devotion to work </li></ul><ul><li>Type B Behavior = pattern that lacks Type A and includes a more balanced, relaxed lifestyle </li></ul>0
  31. 31. Causes of Work Stress <ul><li>Four Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Job Tasks Demands </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Demands </li></ul><ul><li>Role Demand (Sets of expected behaviors) </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Demands </li></ul>0