How Does Socioeconomic Status Affect Student Achievement? Megon Mancini * This project work is original and I have not submitted it for credit in any other course at ECU or any other higher education institution.
“Although class powerfully impacts education, and education certainlyimpacts class, discussions of class andeducation have been relatively scarce.” (Yeskel, 2008, pg. 8) QuickTimeª see this are needed to and a picture. TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
What is a Social Class?•A large group of people who share similareconomic and social position combined makeup our social-class identity.•Our social-class identity is based on wealth,income, status, and who and what you know.(Yeskel, 2008).•Socioeconomic status is typically broken intothree categories: high SES, middle SES, andlow SES.
Ways that socioeconomic status impacts education• Issues of access • Parental• Academic involvement preparation • Institutional policies• Curricular content and practices• School culture • Extracurricular activities (Yeskel, 2008)
Inequalities Based on Socioeconomic Status• Educational inequality starts early in life- it begins with uneven access to high-quality childcare.• K-12 education is often separate and unequal based on race, ethnicity, geography, family income, and language status.• Higher education becomes inaccessible due to insufficient monetary resources and/or ineffective academic preparation. (Yeskel, 2008)
Inequalities in Schools• Socioeconomic status increases segregation by race and class in school districts. (Goyette, 2008)• Lower-income and urban families of color tend to rely on non-neighborhood schools options where white, suburban, middle-income families select schools based on their neighborhood and residences. (Goyette)• In the United States the wealthiest 1% of families currently have more wealth than the bottom 90% put together (Yeskel, 2008).• The inequalities in schools will more than likely re- create and reinforce class inequality. (Yeskel, 2008)
Student outcomes related to SES• Socioeconomic status is positively related to outcomes in 12th grade (Battle & Lewis, 2002).• The following statistics are according to Sacks as stated in Spencer and Castano (2007):• The College Board released on average a high- school senior whose parents did not finish high school, scored 100 points lower on the SAT compared to the national average.• In 2005, out of college bound students, only 8% has parents whose income was $20,000 or less.• Furthermore, students of most selective colleges, only 3% are from low-SES backgrounds.
How to Minimize Learning Gaps• All students benefit from good teaching, however it gives the biggest boost to low achieving students.• “Good teaching is a powerful gap-closer” (Marshall, 2009).• Although teachers are under pressure due to high-stakes tests to cover the necessary curriculum, data needs to be analyzed and used to gear instruction.• When students don’t learn something, it is what schools do to help that child that makes the difference and has potential to close the gap.
Making a Difference• Research has shown that many factors give way to the underachievement of minority students (economics, parents, community, and the environment), however schools can make a difference (Kuykendall, 1991).• Teachers expectations are extremely important in developing a positive self-image.• Kuykendall stated in her publication, “Many black and lower-income children have a need to relate the learning process to their own experience” (Ch. 2, pg. 3).
• Education is “the access channel through which the American Dream can be realized” (Yeskel, 2008).• A college degree is becoming more vital and is equivalent to what used to be a high school degree in years past.
Expectations for Students• Since we all develop norms and values based on the culture in which we were raised, we need to be cognizant of those beliefs and work to be appreciative of the uniqueness of cultures that differ from ours.• According to a 1987 study by Cheyney et al, 60% of Black youth are involved in programs that do not lead to a strong value in history, literature, and access to higher order thinking skills. (Kuykendall, 1991)
NAEP• The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) stated that students from low socioeconomic backgrounds and many children of color regularly achieve below the national average in mathematics and language skills. As children continue through their school years the gap widens. (Bowman, 1994).
Stereotype Threat• Achievement gap in standardized testing between high and low socioeconomic status may be due to stereotype threat- when members of a group perform poorly on a task because they fear confirming a negative stereotype that is associated with their ingroup (Spencer & Castano, 2007).• Low-socioeconomic (SES) students perform worse on a test when it is presented as a means to diagnosing intelligence. On the other hand low-SES students do better in non-threatening conditions. (Spencer & Castano)
Stereotyping• According to the Educational Testing Service (ETS), as stated in Spencer and Castano (2007), students whose parents attended college do better than first generation college students on standardized tests such as the GRE and SAT. Parents with college degrees may motivate their children more and live in areas that allow their children to attend better quality schools.• Stereotyping may lead to diminished academic achievement when their SES was made important before taking a test.
Implications of Current Trends• Research reveals, “If current trends in educational achievement continue, millions of students will not obtain the education necessary for full participation in the economic and civic life of the country” (Bowman, 1994).
Rowan-Salisbury Schools• Rowan-Salisbury Schools is a relatively rural set school district in the Piedmont region of North Carolina.• There are 20 elementary schools, 8 middle schools, and 8 high schools (including 1 Alternative Middle School serving students in grades Kindergarten- eighth grades and 1 Alternative High School serving students in grades eight –twelve).
A Look at NC School Report Cards• The following slides will examine how Rowan-Salisbury Schools compared to the State in standardized testing.
QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.• School size in relation to the State shows that Rowan-Salisbury Schools has slightly smaller elementary and high schools, and is remotely larger in middle school size.
• As a district, Rowan-Salisbury Schools scored below the state in all End-Of-Grade tests in grades three-eight.
End-of-Grade Testing Grades 3-8• Economically disadvantaged (E.D) students scored extremely lower than not economically disadvantaged (N.E.D) students in the district (41.9% to 73.3%).• The states overall average E.D students are outscores by N.E.D students by 30.1% on the End-of-Grade tests.
End-of-Course Testing Grades 9-12 • E.D students scored 0.8% higher in the district than the QuickTimeª and a state percentage are needed to see this picture. whereas N.E.DTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor students scored 0.1% lower than than the state percentage.
Adequate Yearly Progress AYP • According to NCLB, students are divided into 10 groups that must make AYP. QuickTimeª • see this picture. are needed toand a student groupTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor must have Each at least 40 students in the tested grade levels to be included in AYP. The student must attend a school for 140 days to be counted as well. • To make AYP, the tested grades must meet proficiency targets in reading and math.
Conclusion• It is apparent that we need to reform the funding system to ensure that all children are worthy of quality education, not only the ones whose parents can afford it (Yeskel, 2008).• “The evidence is now overwhelming that if you take an average low-income child and put him into an average American public school, he will almost certainly come out poorly educated” (Marshall, 2009, pg. 653).• Tests are unsuccessful in separating culture from development. The tests associate a child’s inability to perform a particular task to a developmental delay (Bowman,1994).
Last Word As educators, it is imperative that we teach all students with high expectations regardless QuickTimeª and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor of socioeconomic status. are needed to see this picture. Students are capable of what we expect and setting the bar too low only proves to be an injustice to and for them.
ReferencesBattle, J., & Lewis, M. (2002). The Increasing significance of class: The relative effects of race and socioeconomic status on academic achievement. Journal of Poverty, 6(2), 21-36. Retrieved March 15, 2010 from, http://web.ebscohost.com.jproxy.lib.ecu.edu/ehost/detail?vid=9&hid=8&sid=d1807f86-0406-47c1-8f44- 89aef9a19441%40sessionmgr13&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=9869488Bowman, B. (1994). Cultural diversity and academic achievement. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory Retrieved March 15, 2010 from, http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/leadrshp/le0bow.htmGoyette, K. (2008). Race, social background, and school choice options. Equity & Excellence in Education. 4(1), 114-129. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from, http://web.ebscohost.com.jproxy.lib.ecu.edu/ehost/detail?vid=12&hid=8&sid=d1807f86-0406-47c1-8f44- 89aef9a19441%40sessionmgr13&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=31334446Kuykendall,C. (1991). Improving black student achievement by enhancing students self image. Retrieved February 17, 2010 from, http://www.maec.org/achieve/achieve.html
ReferencesMarshall, K. (2009). A how-to plan for widening the gap. Phi Delta Kappan, 90(9), 650-655. Retrieved March 20, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.com.jproxy.lib.ecu.edu/ehost/detail?vid=5&hid=8&sid=d1807f86-0406- 47c1-8f44- 89aef9a19441%40ses sionmgr13&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=38812293North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. (2009). Education first NC school report cards. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from, http://www.ncreportcards.orgSpencer, B., & Castano, E. (2007). Social Justice Research, 20(4), 418-432. Retrieved March 15, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.com.jproxy.lib.ecu.edu/ehost/detail?vid=7&hid=8&sid=d1807f86-0406-47c1-8f44- 89aef9a19441%40ses sionmgr13&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=27829944Yeskel, F. (2008). Coming to class: Looking at education through the lens of class introduction to the class and education special issue. Equity & Excellence in Education, 41(1), 1-11. Retrieved March 20, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.com.jproxy.lib.ecu.edu/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=8&sid=d1807f86-0406-47c1-8f44- 89aef9a19441%40ses sionmgr13&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=31334453