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1. INTRODUCTION
Region of Asia (1990 estimate population 442,500,000), c.1, 740,000 sq mi (4,506,600 sq
km), bounded rough...
2. COUNTRY NAME
1. BRUNEI
Flag of Brunei Map of Brunei
Physical characteristic
Brunei located on the north coast of the is...
Cultural characteristic
The culture of Brunei is predominantly Malay (reflecting its ethnicity), with heavy influences
fro...
Tourism Infrastructure
With over 2,500 rooms spread among 30 establishments ranging from guesthouses to the
super luxuriou...
Year total arrival estimate 2007-2009
International transport linkages
Brunei enjoys a convenient location at the heart of...
The excellent museums, resplendent mosques and scenic spots in the country will awe the
visitor. Most are located in and a...
Known as the oil town of Brunei due the first discovery of oil in the area. Several "nodding
donkeys" can be seen along th...
Physical characteristic
In the early 1970's, Cambodia plunged into civil war. From 1975 to 1979, the Khmer Rouge
implement...
especially the mother and the child to harm from the spirit world. A woman who dies in
childbirth—crosses the river (chhlo...
around a circle of happily married and respected couples to bless the union. After the
wedding, a banquet is held. Newlywe...
person, as the feet are the lowest part of the body and are considered to be impure.
When greeting people or to show respe...
ultimately Chinese origin is "pork broth rice noodle soup", similar to phở, called kuy tieu.
Indian influenced dishes incl...
International tourism number of arrivals in Cambodia
The International tourism; number of arrivals in Cambodia was last re...
3. INDONESIA
Physical characteristic
Indonesia is an archipelagic island country in Southeast Asia, lying between the Indi...
circumstances.
Area: Total land area: 1,919,440 km2
(land: 1,826,440 km2
, inland water: 93,000 km2
)
territorial area: 5,...
Cultural characteristic
The culture of Indonesia has been shaped by long interaction between original indigenous
customs a...
uniquely indigenous culture. Indigenous ethnic groups Mentawai, Asmat, Dani, Dayak,
Toraja and many others are still pract...
Dance
Indonesian dance reflects the diversity of culture from ethnic groups that composed the
nation of Indonesia. Austron...
Wayang, the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese shadow puppet theatre shows display
several mythological legends such as Ram...
Sculpture
Indonesia has a long history of stone, bronze and Iron Ages arts. The megalithic sculptures
can be found in nume...
Tourism characteristic
Tourism in Indonesia is an important component of the Indonesian economy as well as a
significant s...
Tourism attraction
Indonesia has a well-preserved, natural ecosystem with rainforests that stretch over about
57% of Indon...
visitors are at least in part keen to explore the historical relationships, many European
visitors are seeking the tropica...
Cultural characteristic
The culture of East Timor reflects numerous cultural influences, including Portuguese,
Roman Catho...
Timor Leste clothing comprises of mostly the traditional clothing of the country which are
made from home based textiles. ...
Cristo Rei de Dilin is located at the eastern end
of Dili is the 27 meter tall statue of Jesus, Cristo
Rei de Dili (Christ...
5. LAOS
Physical characteristic
Laos is a landlocked nation in Southeast
Asia, northeast of Thailand, west of
Vietnam, tha...
performing arts.
The Lao way of life is very much influenced by Buddhism, as can be seen in the way that Lao
people live a...
Laotian music is dominated by its national instrument, the khaen (a type of bamboo pipe).
Bands typically include a singer...
and was bombed by the US army. Up to 23,000 people lived in the caves, which contained a
hospital, military barracks, bake...
Physical characteristic
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia. It consists of thirteen
states an...
geological time are further transformed.
Cultural characteristic
Malays, Chinese, Indians and other ethnic groups have liv...
Malaysian batik is a textile art especially prevalent on the east coast of the country. The
method of Malaysian batik prod...
MOUNT KINABALU
With a summit height at 4,095 meters (13,435 ft), Mount
Kinabalu is the highest mountain in Borneo. The mou...
plantations and illegal hunting. The orphaned
orangutans are trained to survive again in the wild
and are released as soon...
1948.
The location of Burma, Myanmar at the Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and
the Bay of Bengal, between Ba...
Mountain
Burma is characterzed by its central lowlands with the Sittaung Valley and Chindwin Valley and the small
mountain...
including naturally curved eyebrows, smaller but still prominent ears, and a draping robe
Dance
Dance in Burma can be divi...
Dress
The typical garment of the Burmese is the Indian lungi or long gyia sarong worn by both men
and women. This replaced...
festivals.]
Most of the festivals are related to Burmese Buddhism and in any town or village
the local paya pwè (the pagod...
Bagan
The town of Bagan (formerly spelled as "Pagan"), central
Myanmar (Burma), located on the left bank of the Irrawaddy
...
attractions avail. This is also a center for silk and cotton weaving. The Mandalay hill, the
Maha Muni Buddha Image is the...
and has the highest mountain 'Mount Apo' of having 2954 meters above the sea level. The
country is surrounded by Philippin...
Typical Destinations
Travelers on holiday in the Philippines typically devote most of their time to the country's
variety ...
9. SINGAPORE
Physical characteristic
Singapore's main territory is a diamond-shaped island, although its territory include...
Singapore has reclaimed land with earth obtained from its own hills, the seabed, and
neighbouring countries. As a result, ...
Tourism characteristic
Tourism in Singapore is a major industry and contributor to the Singaporean economy,
attracting 13,...
as a fortress to defend against the Japanese during World War II.
10. THAILAND
Physical characteristic
Thailand has two ma...
Tourism characteristic
Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, is one of the world's top tourist destination cities.
MasterCard ...
the city was destroyed by the Burmese army, resulting in the collapse of the kingdom. The
city was re-founded a few kilome...
Art
Poetry has long been the most popular and powerful
form of literature in Vietnam, and poets have always
been highly re...
Tourism attraction
NhaTrang is Vietnam’s most popular
seaside resort town located along the
second most beautiful bays in ...
of the total of Vietnam’s agricultural output. Subsequently, life in the Mekong Delta revolves
much around the river, and ...
http://traveltips.usatoday.com/characteristics-tourism-philippines-62471.html
http://www.grandtouringcoaches.com/EastTimor...
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Tdh 111 tourism geo group assg1

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Tdh 111 tourism geo group assg1

  1. 1. 1. INTRODUCTION Region of Asia (1990 estimate population 442,500,000), c.1, 740,000 sq mi (4,506,600 sq km), bounded roughly by the Indian subcontinent on the west, China on the north, and the Pacific Ocean on the east. The name "Southeast Asia" came into popular use after World War II and has replaced such phrases as "Further India," "the East Indies," "Indo-China," and "the Malay Peninsula," which formerly designated all or part of the region. Southeast Asia includes the Indochina Peninsula, which juts into the South China Sea, the Malay Peninsula, and the Indonesian and Philippine Archipelagos. Peninsular Southeast Asia is a rugged region traversed by many mountains and drained by great rivers such as the Thanlwin, Ayeyarwady, Chao Phraya, and Mekong. Insular Southeast Asia is made up of numerous volcanic and coral islands. Southeast Asia has a generally tropical rainy climate, with the exception of the northwestern part, which has a humid subtropical climate. The wet monsoon winds are vital for the economic well-being of the region. Tropical forests cover most of the area. Rice is the chief crop of the region; rubber, tea, spices, and coconuts are also important. The region has a great variety of minerals and produces most of the world's tin. The region has 10 independent countries: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, East Timor Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. 1
  2. 2. 2. COUNTRY NAME 1. BRUNEI Flag of Brunei Map of Brunei Physical characteristic Brunei located on the north coast of the island of Borneo, in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coastline with the South China Sea, it is completely surrounded by the state of Sarawak, Malaysia, and it is separated into two parts by the Sarawak district of Limbang. It is the only sovereign state completely on the island of Borneo, with the remainder of the island forming parts of Malaysia and Indonesia. The land surface is developed on bedrock of tertiary age comprising of sandstone, shale and clays. The terrain in the western part of Brunei Darussalam is predominantly hilly lowland below 91 metres, but rising in the hinterland to about 300 metres. The eastern part of the state consists predominantly of rugged mountain terrain, rising 1,850 metres above sea level at Bukit Pagon. The coast has a wide, tidal and swampy plain. 2
  3. 3. Cultural characteristic The culture of Brunei is predominantly Malay (reflecting its ethnicity), with heavy influences from Islam, but is seen as more conservative than Malaysia. Influences to Bruneian culture come from the Malay cultures of the Malay Archipelago. Four periods of cultural influence have occurred, animist, Hindu, Islamic, and Western. Islam had a very strong influence, and was adopted as Brunei's ideology and philosophy. As a Sharia country, the sale and public consumption of alcohol is banned. Non-Muslims are allowed to bring in a limited amount of alcohol from their point of embarkation overseas for their own private consumption. Tourism characteristic New taglines for tourism promotion - `The Green Heart of Borneo, Brunei - A Kingdom of Unexpected Treasures' have been used to describe Brunei. Neat, catchy, modern but peace abounds. Brunei Darussalam or `The Abode of Peace' which lives up to its name as its tranquillity is apparent, even to the casual visitor. Yet the country is current in infrastructure with wide roads, the latest cars and contemporary architecture dotting its city, Bandar Seri Begawan. Brunei Darussalam has 161 km of pristine coastline, filled with palm-lined beaches and blue waters. No wonder it has been called the `Pearl and Tropical Paradise of the East'. Brunei also has vast tracts of virgin, uninhabited rainforest. This is mostly in the Temburong District. For this reason, Temburong is known as the `Green Jewel' of Brunei. There are four districts in Brunei - Brunei-Muara, Tutong, Belait and Temburong. The capital), Bandar Seri Begawan, is located in Brunei-Muara, the smallest of the four districts. 3
  4. 4. Tourism Infrastructure With over 2,500 rooms spread among 30 establishments ranging from guesthouses to the super luxurious "7-star" Empire Hotel and Country Club, and with a dozen or so active inbound tour operators, Brunei has a well-established, yet underutilized tourism infrastructure attracting an increasing number of regional and international. Tourism arrivals Brunei recorded approximately 1 million foreign visitors in 2003, the vast majority arriving from Malaysia through land entry points. Based on estimates derived from hotel occupancy rates and on market intelligence gathered from inbound operators, Brunei Tourism estimates the number of bona fide leisure and business tourists to be around 100,000 in 2003, with a 3-day average length of stay. Most of these tourists originated from the short- and medium-haul markets, though a significant portion originated from long-haul markets, mainly UK and Germany. Brunei Tourism’s objective is to increase international tourist arrivals by a minimum average rate of 7% yearly, as well as to increase average length of stay and expenditure. Monthly total tourists arrival estimate 2007-2009 4
  5. 5. Year total arrival estimate 2007-2009 International transport linkages Brunei enjoys a convenient location at the heart of Southeast Asia and is well-connected to destinations worldwide. Air: Royal Brunei Airlines, the nation’s flagship carrier, flies non-stop or direct to most major Asia-Pacific destinations and the Middle East, as well as to Europe via London and Frankfurt. Meanwhile, Malaysia Airlines, Singapore Airlines, Thai Airways, Dragonair and Philippines Airlines serve Bandar Seri Begawan and offer one-stop connections to the rest of the world through their hubs in Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, Bangkok, Hong Kong and Manila. Sea: Ferries link Brunei with the Malaysian island of Labuan off the coast of Sabah, and to the Malaysian towns of Limbang and Lawas in Sarawak. Road: An extensive overland road network also connects Brunei to Sarawak and Sabah, while the Indonesian province of Kalimantan can be reached by road, air or boat via Sarawak or Sabah. Tourism attraction 5
  6. 6. The excellent museums, resplendent mosques and scenic spots in the country will awe the visitor. Most are located in and around the capital. Further out, tourist attractions tend to be more nature-inclined with lakes, forested hills and seashores being the predominant features. There are 5 districts in Brunei: MUARA DISTRICT The Royal Regalia Museum: Built to commemorate the 1992 Silver Jubilee of His Majesty's ascension to the throne, this ornate building with a distinctively gilded dome holds a veritable collection of precious ceremonial regalia. Priceless collections such as jewel- encrusted crowns, a royal chariot, gold and silver armoury, a replica throne and gifts that His Majesty has received plus a full documentation of the history of the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam are all exhibited here. The building, located at Jalan Sultan, is open to the public everyday of the week except Fridays when opening hours are shorter. Visitors are advised to remove their shoes prior to entering the building. BELAIT DISTRICT The Silver Jubilee Park: Built to commemorate the Silver Jubilee of His Majesty's accession to the throne; it is a beautiful site along Jalan Maulana, just 1 km from KB town. The 2,679- hectare park faces the beach and features exhibition huts and a 'Pintu Gerbang' (official decorative entrance) that symbolises the MIB (Malay Islamic Monarchy) concept of Brunei. There is also a kid’s playground. SERIA 6
  7. 7. Known as the oil town of Brunei due the first discovery of oil in the area. Several "nodding donkeys" can be seen along the road that never fails to amuse passers-by, especially kids. Tamu seria: It is a famous community market situated between Jalan Bolkiah and Jalan Nakhoda Manis Seria operating only on Saturdays (6am to 11am). The market sells fresh vegetables and fruits and edibles such as 'ikan salai' or barbequed fish. TUTONG DISTRICT Pantai Seri Kenangan: Located within five minutes from the town centre is a narrow split of land with the South China Sea on the side and Tutong River on the other. Pantai Seri Kenangan or the `beach of beautiful memories' is a popular haunt for weekenders. Shutters or `Pondok' are built along the coastal way for picnickers. There is a restaurant at the riverside opposite the playground, where you can savour the scenic view of the Tutong River while dining. TEMBURONG DISTRICT Batu Apoi Forest Reserve & the Ulu Temburong National Park: The Batu Apoi Forest Reserve is an endless spread of thick virgin jungle and inside lies 50,000 hectares of parkland that has seen very little human impact. Called the Ulu Temburong National Park, this tract features steep, swampy terrain and thick impenetrable jungle land. Because there are no roads that lead here, the only access is only by boat or' temuai'. A trail from the forest takes visitors to the Kuala Belalong Field Studies Centre, a research facility set up for the study of the abundant ecological treasures found in these parts. However, charting the difficult terrain to get there requires the help of a guide. This forest features a seven-kilometre walkway, tree houses about 30 meters high and hanging bridges intended for nature 66 observation of the surrounding mountains and the river and forest below. 2. CAMBODIA 7
  8. 8. Physical characteristic In the early 1970's, Cambodia plunged into civil war. From 1975 to 1979, the Khmer Rouge implemented one of the most radical and brutal restructuring of society ever attempted. Its goal was to transform Cambodia into a Maoist peasant agrarian cooperative, with China as advisor. One wonders what lessons, if any, China has learned from this profound failure. Within two weeks of coming to power, the entire population of the capital and provincial towns, including everyone in the hospitals was forced to march out into the countryside. Cambodia lies between Thailand and Vietnam in mainland southeast Asia, with a smaller stretch of the northern border adjoining Laos. The most central region culturally and economically is the lowland flood plain of the Mekong River and Tonle Sap Lake. The Sap River meets the Mekong at Phnom Penh, where the river soon divides again into the Bassac and the Mekong, which flow through southern Vietnam to the South China Sea. Although Cambodia also has a coastline on the Gulf of Thailand, the coast is separated from the central flood plain by mountains; only since the 1950s have railroads and roads provided ready access to the coastal port towns. The ancient capital of the Khmer Empire was at Angkor, close to present-day Siem Reap. In the fifteenth century, the capital was moved to the area of the intersection of the Sap and Mekong rivers, near present-day Phnom Penh, perhaps to enhance trade. The most densely populated areas now are along the rivers in the provinces near Phnom Penh. Cultural characteristic Ways of life: Birth and death rituals The birth of a child is a happy event for the family. According to traditional beliefs, however, confinement and childbirth expose the family, and 8
  9. 9. especially the mother and the child to harm from the spirit world. A woman who dies in childbirth—crosses the river (chhlong tonle) in Khmer is believed to become an evil spirit. In traditional Khmer society, a pregnant woman respects a number of food taboos and avoids certain situations. These traditions remain in practice in rural Cambodia, but they have become weakened in urban areas. Childhood and adolescence A Cambodian child may be nursed until two to four years of age. Up to the age of three or four, the child is given considerable physical affection and freedom. Children around five years of age also may be expected to help look after younger siblings. Children's games emphasize socialization or skill rather than winning and losing. Courtship, marriage, and divorce In Cambodia, premarital sex is deplored. The choice of a spouse is a complex one for the young male, and it may involve not only his parents and his friends, as well as those of the young woman, but also a matchmaker and a Haora. In theory, a girl may veto the spouse her parents have chosen. Courtship patterns differ between rural and urban Khmer; romantic love is a notion that exists to a much greater extent in larger cities. A man usually marries between the ages of nineteen and twenty-five, a girl between the ages of sixteen and twenty-two. After a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other to make sure its child is marrying into a good family. In rural areas, there is a form of bride-service; that is, the young man may take a vow to serve his prospective father-in-law for a period of time. The traditional wedding is a long and colourful affair. Formerly it lasted three days, but in the 1980s it more commonly lasted a day and a half. Buddhist priests offer a short sermon and recite prayers of blessing. Parts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting, tying cotton threads soaked in holy water around the bride's and groom's wrists, and passing a candle 9
  10. 10. around a circle of happily married and respected couples to bless the union. After the wedding, a banquet is held. Newlyweds traditionally move in with the wife's parents and may live with them up to a year, until they can build a new house nearby. Divorce is legal and relatively easy to obtain, but not common Divorced persons are viewed with some disapproval. Each spouse retains whatever property he or she brought into the marriage, and jointly-acquired property is divided equally. Divorced persons may remarry, but the woman must wait ten months. Custody of minor children is usually given to the mother, and both parents continue to have an obligation to contribute financially toward the rearing and education of the child. The divorced male doesn't have a waiting period before he can re-marry. In reality, the majority of "married" Cambodian couples did not obtain legal marriage documents. This practice continues today. Couples have a ceremony and a party. But they are not legally married. Therefore, when a couple separate, they likewise need not obtain divorce documents. Men who leave their families typically do not support their other children, especially when they leave one woman for another woman. The new woman and her family will not accept children from a previous relationship. Social organization Khmer culture is very hierarchical. The greater a person's age, the greater the level of respect that must be granted to them. Cambodians are addressed with a hierarchical title corresponding to their seniority before the name. When a married couple becomes too old to support themselves, they may invite the youngest child's family to move in and to take over running the household. At this stage in their lives, they enjoy a position of high status. Customs In Khmer culture a person's head is believed to contain the person's soul—therefore making it taboo to touch or point one's feet at it. It is also considered to be extremely disrespectful to use the feet to point out a person, or to sit or sleep with the soles of the feet pointing at a 10
  11. 11. person, as the feet are the lowest part of the body and are considered to be impure. When greeting people or to show respect in Cambodia people do the "sampeah" gesture, identical to the Indian namaste and Thai wai. Clothing Clothing in Cambodia is one of the most important aspects of the culture. Cambodian fashion differs according to ethnic group and social class. Khmer people traditionally wear a checkered scarf called a Krama. The "krama" is what distinctly separates the Khmer (Cambodians) from their neighbours the Thai, the Vietnamese, and the Laotians. The scarf is used for many purposes including for style, protection from the sun, an aid (for the feet) when climbing trees, a hammock for infants, a towel, or as a "sarong". A "krama" can also be easily shaped into a small child's doll for play. Under the Khmer Rouge, krama of various patterns were part of standard clothing. Cuisine Khmer cuisine is similar to that of its Southeast Asian neighbors. It shares many similarities with Thai cuisine, Vietnamese cuisine and Teochew cuisine. Cambodian cuisine also uses fish sauce in soups, stir-fried cuisine, and as dippings. The Chinese influence can be noted in the common chha and in the use of many variations of rice noodles. A particular popular dish of 11
  12. 12. ultimately Chinese origin is "pork broth rice noodle soup", similar to phở, called kuy tieu. Indian influenced dishes include many types of curry known as kari that call for dried spices such as star anise, cardamom, cinnamon, nutmeg and fennel as well as local ingredients like lemongrass, garlic, kaffir lime leaves, shallots and galangal that give dishes a distinctive Cambodian flavor. Banh Chaew the Khmer version of the Vietnamese Bánh xèo, is also a popular dish. Tourism characteristic Tourism in Cambodia is one of the most important sectors in Cambodia's economy. In 2012, tourism arrivals increased by 24.8 percent year on year, with business travellers increasing 47 percent. 12
  13. 13. International tourism number of arrivals in Cambodia The International tourism; number of arrivals in Cambodia was last reported at 2399000 in 2010, according to a World Bank report published in 2012. International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival.This page includes a historical data chart, news and forecasts for International tourism; number of arrivals in Cambodia. Tourist’s arrivals statistics in Cambodia 13
  14. 14. 3. INDONESIA Physical characteristic Indonesia is an archipelagic island country in Southeast Asia, lying between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. It is in a strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean. The country's variations in culture have been shaped— although not specifically determined—by centuries of complex interactions with the physical environment. Although Indonesians are now less vulnerable to the effects of nature as a result of improved technology and social programs, to some extent their social diversity has emerged from traditionally different patterns of adjustment to their physical 14
  15. 15. circumstances. Area: Total land area: 1,919,440 km2 (land: 1,826,440 km2 , inland water: 93,000 km2 ) territorial area: 5,193,250 km2 total area (including exclusive economic zone): around 7.9 million km2 Land boundaries: Total: 2,830 km border countries: Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km, East Timor 228 km Other nearby countries: India NW of Aceh, Australia, Singapore, Philippines, Brunei. Coastline: 54,716 km Maritime claims: Measured from claimed archipelagic baselines exclusive economic zone: 200 nmi (230.2 mi; 370.4 km) territorial sea: 12 nmi (13.8 mi; 22.2 km) Elevation extremes: Lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m(sea surface level), Wetar Basin in east of Banda Sea at -7,440 m (northwest of Tanimbar Islands & southeast of Ceram Island), where subduction zone is highest point: Puncak Jaya (also known as Carstenz Pyramid) 4,884 m Land use: Arable land: 9.9% permanent crops: 7.2% other: 82.9% (1998 estimate) Irrigated land: 48,150 km2 (1998 estimate) 15
  16. 16. Cultural characteristic The culture of Indonesia has been shaped by long interaction between original indigenous customs and multiple foreign influences. Indonesia is centrally-located along ancient trading routes between the Far East and the Middle East, resulting in many cultural practices being strongly influenced by a multitude of religions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Islam and Christianity, all strong in the major trading cities. The result is a complex cultural mixture very different from the original indigenous cultures. Examples of cultural fusion include the fusion of Islam with Hindu in Javanese Abangan belief, the fusion of Hinduism, Buddhism and animism in Bodha, and the fusion of Hinduism and animism in Kaharingan; others could be cited. Balinese dances have stories about ancient Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms, while Islamic art forms and architecture are present in Sumatra, especially in the Minangkabau and Aceh regions. Traditional art, music and sport are combined in a martial art form called Pencak Silat. Western culture has greatly influenced Indonesia in science, technology and modern entertainment such as television shows, film and music, as well as political system and issues. India has notably influenced Indonesian songs and movies. A popular type of song is the Indian-rhythmical, which is often mixed with Arab and Malay folk music. Despite the influences of foreign culture, some remote Indonesian regions still preserve 16
  17. 17. uniquely indigenous culture. Indigenous ethnic groups Mentawai, Asmat, Dani, Dayak, Toraja and many others are still practicing their ethnic rituals, customs and wearing traditional clothes. Music Indonesia is home to various styles of music, with those from the islands of Java, Sumatra and Bali being frequently recorded. The traditional music of central and East Java and Bali is the gamelan. Kroncong is a musical genre that uses guitars and ukulele as the main musical instruments. This genre had its roots in Portugal and was introduced by Portuguese traders in the 15th century. There is a traditional Keroncong Tugu music group in North Jakarta and other traditional Keroncong music groups in Maluku, with strong Portuguese influences. This music genre was popular in the first half of the 20th century; a contemporary form of Kroncong is called Pop Kroncong. 17
  18. 18. Dance Indonesian dance reflects the diversity of culture from ethnic groups that composed the nation of Indonesia. Austronesian roots and Melanesian tribal dance forms are visible, and influences ranging from neighbouring Asian countries; such as India, China, and Middle East to European western styles through colonization. Each ethnic group has their own distinct dances; makes total dances in Indonesia are more than 3000 Indonesian original dances. However, the dances of Indonesia can be divided into three eras; the Prehistoric Era, the Hindu/Buddhist Era and the Era of Islam, and into two genres; court dance and folk dance. Drama and theatre 18
  19. 19. Wayang, the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese shadow puppet theatre shows display several mythological legends such as Ramayana and Mahabharata, and many more. Wayang Orang is Javanese traditional dance drama based on wayang stories. Various Balinese dance drama also can be included within traditional form of Indonesian drama. Another form of local drama is Javanese Ludruk and Ketoprak, Sundanese Sandiwara, and Betawi Lenong. All of these drama incorporated humor and jest, often involving audiences in their performance. Randai is a folk theatre tradition of the Minangkabau people of West Sumatra, usually performed for traditional ceremonies and festivals. It incorporates music, singing, dance, drama and the silat martial art, with performances often based on semi-historical Minangkabau legends and love story. Modern performing art also developed in Indonesia with their distinct style of drama. Notable theatre, dance, and drama troupe such as Teater Koma are gain popularity in Indonesia as their dramas often portray social and political satire of Indonesian society. 19
  20. 20. Sculpture Indonesia has a long history of stone, bronze and Iron Ages arts. The megalithic sculptures can be found in numerous archaeological sites in Sumatra, Java to Sulawesi. The native Indonesians tribes have their own distinct tribal sculpture styles, usually created to depict ancestors, deities and animals. The pre-Hindu-Buddhist and pre-Islamic sculptures can be traced in the artworks of indigenous Indonesian tribes. The most notable sculptures are those of Asmat wooden sculpture of Papua, the Dayak wooden mask and sculpture, the ancestral wooden statue of Toraja, also the totem-like sculpture of Batak and Nias tribe. The stone sculpture art form particularly flourished in 8th-to-10th-century Java and Bali, which demonstrate the influences of Hindu-Buddhist culture, both as stand-alone works of art and also incorporated into temples. Most notable sculpture of classical Hindu-Buddhist era of Indonesia are the hundreds of meters of relief and hundreds of stone buddhas at the temple of Borobudur in central Java. 20
  21. 21. Tourism characteristic Tourism in Indonesia is an important component of the Indonesian economy as well as a significant source of its foreign exchange revenues. The vast country of sprawling archipelago has much to offer; from natural beauty, historical heritage to cultural diversity. In year 2012, 8,044,462 international visitors entered Indonesia, staying in hotels for 7.70 nights and spent an average of US$] 1,133.81 per person during their visit, or US$147, 22 per person per day. Statistic ten most tourist destinations in Indonesia recorded by Central Statistics Agency (BPS) are Bali, West Java, Central Java, East Java, Jakarta, North Sumatra, Lampung, South Sulawesi, South Sumatra, Banten and West Sumatra (which would make it 11 provinces today due to Banten previously having been a part of West Java). As with most countries, domestic tourists are by far the largest market segment. The biggest movement of domestic tourists is during the annual Eid ul-Fitr, locally known as "lebaran". During this period, which is a two-week holiday after the month of fasting during Ramadan, many city-dwelling Muslim Indonesians visit relatives in their home towns. Intercity traffic is at its peak and often an additional surcharge is applied during this time. 21
  22. 22. Tourism attraction Indonesia has a well-preserved, natural ecosystem with rainforests that stretch over about 57% of Indonesia's land (225 million acres), approximately 2% of which are mangrove systems. One reason why the natural ecosystem in Indonesia is still well-preserved is because only 6,000 islands out of 17,000 are permanently inhabited. Forests on Sumatra and Java are examples of popular tourist destinations. Moreover, Indonesia has one of longest coastlines in the world, measuring 54,716 kilometres (33,999 mi), with a number of beaches and island resorts, such as those in southern Bali, Lombok, Bintan and Nias Island. However, most of the well-preserved beaches are those in more isolated and less developed areas, such as Karimunjawa, the Togian Islands, and the Banda Islands. Three quarters of Indonesia's visitors come from the Asia-Pacific region, with Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, Japan and China among the top countries of origin. The United Kingdom, France, and Germany are the largest sources of European visitors. Although Dutch 22
  23. 23. visitors are at least in part keen to explore the historical relationships, many European visitors are seeking the tropical weather at the beaches in Bali. 4. EAST TIMOR Physical characteristic Southeast Asia (or Oceania depending on definitions)[a] , northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago; note - East Timor includes the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Ocussi-Ambeno region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor, and the islands of Atauro and Jaco Geographic coordinates : 8°50 S 125°55 E′ ′ Area : Total: 14,874 km² , Land: 14,874 km², Water: 0 km² Land boundaries : Total: 228 km (142 mi), Border countries: Indonesia (228 km or 142 mi) Coastline : 706 km (439 mi) 23
  24. 24. Cultural characteristic The culture of East Timor reflects numerous cultural influences, including Portuguese, Roman Catholic and Malay, on the indigenous Austronesian cultures of Timor. Legend tells that a giant crocodile was transformed into the island of Timor, or Crocodile Island, as it is often called. Like Indonesia, the culture of East Timor has been heavily influenced by Austronesian legends, although the Catholic influence is stronger, the population being mainly Roman Catholics. Illiteracy is still widespread, but there is a strong tradition of poetry. As for architecture, some Portuguese-style buildings can be found, although the traditional totem houses of the eastern region, known as uma lulik also survive. Craftmanship is also widespread, as is the weaving of traditional scarves or tais. Music East Timor's music reflects its history under the control of both Portugal and Indonesia, who have imported music like gamelan and fado. The most widespread form of native folk music was the likurai dance, performed to by women to welcome home men after war. They used a small drum and sometimes carried enemy heads in processions through villages; a modern version of the dance is used by women in courtship. Hair removal Another interesting point of culture is that it is duty for adult women ( from the age of 15) in East Timor to remove all body hair (besides their head). Custom 24
  25. 25. Timor Leste clothing comprises of mostly the traditional clothing of the country which are made from home based textiles. The traditional textile of Timor Leste is known as Tais and they are being made in two styles which are called mane and feto. Mane Tais is the piece of Timor Leste clothing which is worn following the style of sarong around the waist of a person. Feto Tais is another piece of Timor Leste Clothing which is sewn into a long tube and the women steps inside it and wears it like a dress. The history of these two pieces of Timor Leste clothing goes back to the ancient times when it was bartered with live stock and gold and silver ornaments. The special significance of the Tais remains in the fact that some kinds of symbols and designs are painted on them. The history of East Timor is reflected in the designs and the cultural importance of the various places also comes out through them. Tourism characteristic Tourism attractions Atauro Island (also Ilha de Atauro, Ata'uro) is a small island situated 25km north of Dili, East Timor, on the extinct Wetar segment of the volcanic Inner Banda Arc, between the Indonesian islands of Alor and Wetar. Politically it comprises one of the subdistricts of the Dili District of East Timor. It is about 25 km long and 9 km wide, about 105 km² in area, and is inhabited by about 8,000 people. The nearest island is the Indonesian island of Liran, 12 km to the northeast. 25
  26. 26. Cristo Rei de Dilin is located at the eastern end of Dili is the 27 meter tall statue of Jesus, Cristo Rei de Dili (Christ the King of Dili). It was modeled on Rio de Janeiro’s Christ the Redeemer. The statue was opened by President Soeharto in 1996 and was given to the East Timorese people as a present to mark the 20th anniversary of the country’s integration with Indonesia. Now expats and locals flock to the statue in the early morning and evening for exercise. You too can pound (or walk) up the steps to get to the top of the statue. The view of the ocean and Dili’s harbour from the top is spectacular and you shouldn’t miss it. The Dare Memorial cafe does give beautiful sweeping views of Dili, and that's one of the reasons why it's been included in this list. The site is a memorial to the Australian and East Timorese's who fought together against the Japanese occupation of East Timor during World War II. At the cafe can watch a short and interesting documentary about the memorial and enjoy a serve of their yummy toasties with a piping hot cup of East Timorese coffee. Don’t forget your mosquito spray, there are some big ones flying around up there. 26
  27. 27. 5. LAOS Physical characteristic Laos is a landlocked nation in Southeast Asia, northeast of Thailand, west of Vietnam, that covers 236,800 square kilometers in the center of the Southeast Asian peninsula, is surrounded by Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its location has often made it a buffer between more powerful neighboring states, as well as a crossroads for trade and communication. Migration and international conflict have contributed to the present ethnic composition of the country and to the geographic distribution of its ethnic groups. Laos has a tropical monsoon climate, with a pronounced rainy season from May through October, a cool dry season from November through February, and a hot dry season in March and April. Cultural characteristic THERAVADA is the oldest surviving branch of Buddhism Laos has its own distinct culture. Through Theravada Buddhism it has influences from India and has also influences from China. These influences are reflected throughout Laos in its language as well as in art, literature and the 27
  28. 28. performing arts. The Lao way of life is very much influenced by Buddhism, as can be seen in the way that Lao people live and behave. They are taught to be patient and to accept people. In the past, when law enforcement was not in place, Buddhism was the only thing that bound people together, taught people to be good, and discouraged detrimental behaviour. An important festival in Laos is Boun Pha Vet celebrated once a year. This is a two day Buddhist Festival that involves the entire community. Traditionally the Boun Pha Vet is held in January or February depending on the moon cycle. During the ceremony the monks give a sermon of all chapters of the Maha Wetsandon Chadok, otherwise called the Great Birth Sermon. The primary language in Laos is Lao, however there are other Laotian dialects spoken by the ethnic minority groups living in Laos. The Lao language is a very polite language with multiple tiers of politeness including common polite particles such as "Jao" and "Doi". Buddhism culture 28
  29. 29. Laotian music is dominated by its national instrument, the khaen (a type of bamboo pipe). Bands typically include a singer/rapper (mor lam) and a khaen player (mor khaen) alongsidefiddlers and other musicians. Lam saravane is the most popular genre of Laotian music, but ethnic Lao in Thailand have developed an internationally-best selling form called mo lam sing. Top tourism attractions Laos is a mountainous and landlocked country in South-East Asia that has long been isolated from the outside world. A visit to Laos is, in many ways, a trip back in time. Travelers are drawn here by a laid-back lifestyle that has disappeared elsewhere in the region. Even the capital Vientiane feels like a relaxed riverfront town. As the country opens up, with an increasing number of roads and bridges being built the amazing tourist attractions in Laos are becoming more and more accessible. The Vieng Xai caves are an extensive network of caves that served as hidden city during the Vietnam War. The area was home to the Communist army, who were fighting the royalist forces based in Vientiane 29
  30. 30. and was bombed by the US army. Up to 23,000 people lived in the caves, which contained a hospital, military barracks, bakeries, shops, and even a theater. The Lao government hopes to promote the caves as a tourism destination, similar to the C Chi tunnels in Vietnamủ The Pak Ou Caves are located north of Luang Prabang on the Mekong river and can be reached by road or river boat. The caves are famous for their miniature Buddha sculptures. Hundreds of very small and mostly damaged wooden Buddhist figures are laid out over the wall shelves. They take many different arrangements, including meditation, teaching, peace, rain, and reclining (nirvana). Wat Phu (or Vat Phou) is a ruined Khmer temple complex located at the base of mount Phu Kao, in the Champasak province. The Hindu temple structures date from the 11th to 13th centuries. Wat Phu is small compared with the monumental Angkor-era sites in Cambodia but the tumbledown pavilions, enigmatic crocodile stone and tall trees that shroud much of the site give Wat Phu a mystical atmosphere. The temple is still in use as a Buddhist site today. 6. MALAYSIA 30
  31. 31. Physical characteristic Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia. It consists of thirteen states and three federal territories and has a total landmass of 329,847 square kilometres (127,350 sq mi) separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions,Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. Land borders are shared with Thailand,Indonesia, and Brunei, and maritime borders exist with Singapore, Vietnam, and the Philippines. The capital city is Kuala Lumpur, while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government. In 2010 the population was 28.33 million, with 22.6 million living on the Peninsula. The country is multi- ethnic and multi-cultural, which plays a large role in politics. The constitution declares Islam the state religion while protecting freedom of religion. The government system is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on English Common Law. The head of state is the King, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. He is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister. Malaysia is mountainous. In Peninsular Malaysia, the Main Range or Banjaran Titiwangsa divides the western from the eastern parts like a rugged spine, as it runs from the Thai border southwards to Negeri Sembilan. In Sabah, the Crocker Range, averaging between 450 and 900 metres in height, separates the narrow lowland of the northwest coast from the interior. Mount Kinabalu, the highest mountain in Malaysia and in Southeast Asia, is located in the Crocker Range. Sarawak boasts the mighty Rajang River and the subterranean calcium carbonate formations-stalactites and stalagmites—of the Mulu Caves. Limestone also characterizes the geography of the Langkawi Islands and the vertical-sided hills of Pahang, Kedah, Perlis and Kelantan. The geological features and their rock and soil foundations are eroded and weathered by the tropical climate and over long periods of 31
  32. 32. geological time are further transformed. Cultural characteristic Malays, Chinese, Indians and other ethnic groups have lived together for generations. All these cultures have blended to create a truly Malaysian identity. Music Traditional Malay music and performing arts appear to have originated in theKelantan- Pattani region with influences from India, China, Thailand and Indonesia. The music is based around percussion instruments, the most important of which is the gendang (drum). There are at least 14 types of traditional drums. Besides drums, other instruments (some made of shells) include: the rebab (a bowed string instrument), the serunai (a double-reed oboe-like instrument), the seruling (flute), and trumpets. Music is traditionally used for storytelling and celebrating life-cycle events such as harvests. Drama One of Malaysia’s most prominent art forms is mak yong, a traditional form of Malay drama in which the performers sing, dance and act out heroic legends about sultans and princesses. These performances are backed by Gamelan orchestras; with musicians playing mainly metal percussion instruments including gongs, xylophones and drums. Mak yong is considered the most authentic and representative of Malay performing arts because it is mostly untouched by external sources. Although most traditional Malay dances were influenced by India, Java and other parts of South East Asia, mak yong’s singing and musical repertoire is unique. A performance begins by paying respect to the spirits with an offering, followed by dancing, acting and improvised dialogues. Batik 32
  33. 33. Malaysian batik is a textile art especially prevalent on the east coast of the country. The method of Malaysian batik production is quite different from that of Indonesian Javanese batik as the patterns are larger and simpler and the colours tend to be lighter and more vibrant than the deep hues of Javanese batik. The most popular motifs are leaves and flowers. Malaysian batik depicting humans or animals are rare because Islam norms forbid animal images as decoration. However, the butterfly theme is a common exception. In line with the “1Malaysia” concept, the Malaysian government endorsed Malaysian batik as a national dress and they encouraged home designers to create new batik designs which reflect the “1Malaysia” concept. Tourism characteristic Top tourism attractions PULAU TIOMAN Tioman is a small island located off the east coast of peninsular Malaysia. In the 1970s, Time Magazine selected Tioman as one of the world’s most beautiful islands. Tourists have surged to the island ever since, seeking a taste of paradises. The island is surrounded by numerous white coral reefs, making it a haven for scuba divers while the interior is densely forested. Visitors outnumber villagers outside the monsoon (November to February), but Tioman can be virtually deserted at other times. 33
  34. 34. MOUNT KINABALU With a summit height at 4,095 meters (13,435 ft), Mount Kinabalu is the highest mountain in Borneo. The mountain is known worldwide for its tremendous botanical and biological species biodiversity. Over 600 species of ferns, 326 species of birds, and 100 mammalian species have been identified at Mount Kinabalu and its surrounding. The main peak of the mountain can be climbed easily by a person with a good physical condition, and requires no mountaineering equipment although climbers must be accompanied by guides at all times. PETRONAS TWIN TOWERS The Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur were the world’s tallest buildings before being surpassed in 2004 by Taipei 101. However, the towers are still the tallest twin buildings in the world. The 88-floor towers are constructed largely of reinforced concrete, with a steel and glass facade designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art, a reflection of Malaysia’s Muslim religion. The Petronas Twin Towers feature a sky bridge between the two towers on the 41st and 42nd floors. SEPILOK REHABILITION CENTRE Sepilok Orang Utan Rehabilitation opened in 1964 for rescued orphaned baby orangutans from logging sites, 34
  35. 35. plantations and illegal hunting. The orphaned orangutans are trained to survive again in the wild and are released as soon as they are ready. The Orang Utan sanctuary is located within the Kabili- Sepilok Forest Reserve, much of which is virgin rainforest. About 60 to 80 orangutans are living free in the reserve. It is one of Sabah’s top tourist attractions and a great stopover on any Malaysia itinerary. 7. MYANMAR Flag of Myanmar Geography of Burma Physical characteristic Britain conquered Burma over a period of 62 years (1824-1886) and incorporated it into its Indian Empire. Burma was administered as a province of India until 1937 when it became a separate, self-governing colony; independence from the Commonwealth was attained in 35
  36. 36. 1948. The location of Burma, Myanmar at the Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand. The geographic coordinates is 2 00 N, 98 00 E. The land area of land at Burma is 657,740 sq km, for the water area is 20,760 sq km. All total of the area is 678,500 sq km. The land comparative of Burma is slightly smaller than Texas. Border countries of Burma are Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, and Thailand 1,800 km. So all total of land boundaries is 5, 876 km. The land use for arable land is 15.19% and the permanent crops is 0.97%, the total is 83.84%, and this is estimate in 2001. Natural hazards also happen in Burma. That is destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September), and also periodic droughts. Wildlife The country's slow economic growth has contributed to the preservation of much of its environment and ecosystems. Forests, including dense tropical growth and valuable teak in lower Burma, cover over 49% of the country, including areas of acacia, bamboo, ironwood and michelia champaca. In much of central Burma (the Dry Zone), vegetation is sparse and stunted. Climate Tropical monsoon in Burma are cloudy, rainy, hot, and humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September). It will less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, and lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April). Natural resources Natural resources that available in Burma are petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas, and hydropower. 36
  37. 37. Mountain Burma is characterzed by its central lowlands with the Sittaung Valley and Chindwin Valley and the small mountain ranges of Zeebyu Taungdan, Min-wun Taungdan, Hman-kin Taungdan and Gangaw Taungdan as well as the Bago Yoma. The Central Valley Region is ringed by steep, rugged highlands, with the country's highest point at the 5,881 m (19,295 ft) Hkakabo Razi located in the northern end of the country. River The Irrawaddy is the main river of Burma, flows from north to south through the Central Burma Basin and ends in a wide delta. The Mekong runs from the Tibetan Plateau through China's Yunnan province entering Northeastern Burma into Laos. Cultural characteristic The culture of Burma (or Myanmar) has been heavily influenced by Buddhism and the Mon people. Burmese culture has also been influenced by its neighbors India, Thailand and China. In more recent times, British colonial rule and westernization have influenced aspects of Burmese culture, including language and education. Art A collection of Burmese lacquerware from Bagan Historically, Burmese art was based on Buddhist or Hindu cosmology and myths. There are several regional styles of Buddha images, each with certain distinctive characteristics. For example, the Mandalay style, which developed in the late 1800s, consists of an oval-shaped Buddha with realistic features, 37
  38. 38. including naturally curved eyebrows, smaller but still prominent ears, and a draping robe Dance Dance in Burma can be divided into dramatic, folk and village, and nat dances, each having distinct characteristics. Although Burmese dance has been influenced by the dance traditions of its neighbors, in particular Thailand (yodaya aka), it retains unique qualities that distinguish it from other regional styles, including angular, fast-paced and energetic movements and emphasis on pose, not movement. Music Various types of Burmese music use an array of traditional musical instruments, assembled in an orchestra known as hsaing waing which the Burmese saing saya Kyaw Kyaw Naing has made more widely known in the West. Traditional folk music is atypical in Southeast Asian music, as it is characterized by sudden shifts in rhythm and melody as well as change in texture and timbre. An instrument unique to Burma is the saung-gauk, an arched harp that can be traced to pre-Hittite times. Classical traditions of Burmese music are found in the Mahagita, an extensive collection of classical songs and are typically divided into indoor and outdoor ensembles. These songs tend to be about various legends in Pali and subsequently in Burmese intermingled with Pali, related to religion or the power and glory of monarchs, and then the natural beauty of the land, forests and the seasons, eventually feminine beauty, love, passion and longing, in addition to folk music sung in the paddy fields. Pop music, both adopted and homegrown, however, dominates the music of Burma today. 38
  39. 39. Dress The typical garment of the Burmese is the Indian lungi or long gyia sarong worn by both men and women. This replaced the traditional paso for men and tamein for women by the 20th century. For business and formal occasions, Bamar men wear a Manchu Chinese jacket over an English collar shirt, and sometimes a turban called gaung baung, while Bamar women wear a blouse buttoned at the front, called yinzi or to the side, called yinbon and a shawl. In urban areas, skirts and pants are becoming more common, particularly among the young. The hnyat-phanat is a traditional sandal. Marriage A wedding procession, with the groom and bride dressed in traditional Burmese wedding clothes, reminiscent of royal attire. Traditional Burmese folklore considers love to be destiny, as the Hindu god Brahma writes one's destiny in love on a child's brow when he or she is six days old, called na hpuza ("destiny on the forehead"). A Burmese wedding can be religious or secular and extravagant or simple. Traditionally, a marriage is recognized with or without a ceremony when the man's longyi (sarong) is seen hanging from a rail of the house or if the couple eats from the same plate. Dowries are typically unheard of, and arranged marriage is not a custom of the Burmese. Weddings are traditionally avoided during the Buddhist lent, which lasts three months from July to October Traditional festivals There are twelve months in the traditional Burmese calendar and twelve corresponding 39
  40. 40. festivals.] Most of the festivals are related to Burmese Buddhism and in any town or village the local paya pwè (the pagoda festival) is the most important one. The most well-known festival is Thingyan, a four-day celebration of the coming lunar new year. This festival is held prior to the Burmese New Year, the first day of Tagu which falls in mid-April. Similar to other Southeast Asian new year festivals (e.g. Songkran), people splash water on one another. However, Thingyan has religious significance, marking the days in which Buddhists are expected to observe the Eight Precepts of Buddhism. Tourism characteristic Tourism in Burma (Myanmar) is a slowly developing sector. Although Burma possesses great tourist potential and attractions in many fields, much of the industry remains to be developed. Also, the number of visitors to Burma is comparatively small compared to her neighbours - even outpaced by Laos. This is primarily due to its current political situation. Tourism in Burma has been developed mainly by the government, but many private enterprises do exist, catering to a wide range of tourists. Statistics In the 2010-2011 fiscal year, tourists comprised 73.84% (313,127 arrivals) of overseas visitors, primarily entering the country by air, representing 69.26% of arrivals, followed by land and sea, which represented 29.97% and 0.77% of arrivals respectively. An additional 110,914 visitors arrived through other visa types and represented an additional 26.16% of the total. In 2012, revenues from tourism jumped to over $534 million in 2012, up from $315 million in 2011. Top tourism attractions 40
  41. 41. Bagan The town of Bagan (formerly spelled as "Pagan"), central Myanmar (Burma), located on the left bank of the Irrawaddy River and approximately 90 miles (145 km) southwest of Mandalay. The site of an old capital city of Myanmar, Pagan is a pilgrimage centre and contains very old Buddhist shrines that have been restored and repaint and are in current use. Ruins of other shrine and pagodas cover a wide area. The most attractive of the temples are Ananda Temple, Dhammayangyi Temple, Shwezigon Pagoda, and Thatbyinnyu Temple. Mount Popa A side trip from Bagan set in the middle of lovely hill and forest landscape, Mt. Popa is a steep-sided volcanic peak devoted to the famous "Nat" spirits of Myanmar. A shrine to these fear and appreciated conventional character lies at the foot of "Taungkalat", a volcanic plug. The nearby and the Mount Popa itself are enclosed with leafy and lush forest which is in abundance filled with various species of flora and fauna. It can be called an oasis in the central dry zone of Myanmar. Mandalay It is second largest city and the last Royal Capital of Myanmar. Many historical buildings and attractive sights, temples and pagodas, with excursions to close by 41
  42. 42. attractions avail. This is also a center for silk and cotton weaving. The Mandalay hill, the Maha Muni Buddha Image is the ideal images of Buddhism. Mandalay houses at smallest amount a third of the nation's 150,000 monks and nuns. Mandalay is surrounded by its ancient neighboring cities as Mingun, Sagaing, Innwa (Ava), and Amarapura. 8. PHILIPPINES Physical characteristic Philippines mostly comprises of many of the beautiful islands in the western pacific ocean. There are almost seven thousand islands mostly having volcanic origin. It is located in south east asian regions and is famous for its islands. Its islands are almost 7107 in number and share their borders with Indonesia, Malaysis, Vietnam. It has the total area of 300,000 square meter. The overall climate of the country is quite hot and tropical. It has large ranges of mountains 42
  43. 43. and has the highest mountain 'Mount Apo' of having 2954 meters above the sea level. The country is surrounded by Philippine in the east, south china sea on the west and Celebes sea on its south. The Philippines is part of a western Pacific arc system characterized by active volcanoes. Among the most notable peaks are Mount Mayon near Legazpi City, Taal Volcano south of Manila, and Mount Apo in Mindanao. All of the Philippine islands are prone to earthquakes. Cultural characteristic The culture of the Philippines reflects the country's complex history. It is a blend of the Malayo-Polynesian and Hispanic cultures, with influences from Chinese. The Philippines was first settled by Melanesians, today they preserve a very traditional way of life and culture, although their numbers are few. After them, the Austronesians or more specifically, Malayo- Polynesians, arrived on the islands. Today the Austronesian culture is very evident in the ethnicity, language, food, dance and almost every aspect of the culture. These Austronesians engaged in trading with China, India, Japan, the Ryukyu islands, the Middle East, Borneo, and other places. As a result, those cultures have also left a mark on Filipino culture. Tourism characteristic Located in Southeast Asia, with the South China Sea to the west and the Philippine Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, the Philippines comprise more than 7,000 islands. The nation is the second-largest archipelago in the world. Amid the many islands, visitors can find a wealth of natural sights, from sandy beaches to inland hill country. 43
  44. 44. Typical Destinations Travelers on holiday in the Philippines typically devote most of their time to the country's variety of natural sights. The beaches around Sipalay, SiquijorBoracay are particularly popular for those seeking sun and surf. Inland sights include the Chocolate Hills of Bohol and the Rice Terraces. Snorkeling and diving off the coast is a popular attraction, and the shipwrecks around Coron attract a good deal of attention. As most visitors fly in and out via Manila, it's also common to dedicate a couple days to sightseeing around the capital. Safety and Security While the Philippines has much to offer visitors, the country has a history of political instability. The southern island, Mindanao, and the Sulu Archipelago have experienced multiple acts of violence at the hands of the Abu Sayyaf Group, Jema'ah Islamiyah and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front or Moro National Liberation Front. In addition, the capital city of Manila has experienced bombings and gang activity. The violence predominantly has been directed at Filipino nationals, though groups such as the New People's Army have historically also targeted foreigners in their kidnappings. Before traveling, check for current safety and security information with the U.S. Embassy. Weather Conditions Visitors to the Philippines can expect dramatically varied weather depending on the timing of their trips. In most parts of the country, the dry season lasts from November to early May, and the rainy season stretches from June through October. Along the eastern coast, the wet and dry seasons are reversed. Inland, the monsoon pattern is less pronounced, and rain is likely at any time of year. Typhoons are most likely between June and November. Expect the hottest weather in May, when temperatures can hover around 100 degrees Fahrenheit. 44
  45. 45. 9. SINGAPORE Physical characteristic Singapore's main territory is a diamond-shaped island, although its territory includes surrounding smaller islands. The farthest outlying island is PedraBranca. Singapore is slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, D.C. Of Singapore's dozens of smaller islands, Jurong Island, PulauTekong, PulauUbin and Sentosa are the larger ones. Most of Singapore is no more than 15 meters above sea level. The highest point of Singapore is Bukit Timah, with a height of 165 m (538 ft) and made up of igneous rock, granite. Hills and valleys of sedimentary rock dominate the northwest, while the eastern region consists of sandy and flatter land. Singapore has no natural lakes, but reservoirs and water catchment areas have been constructed to store fresh water for Singapore's water supply. 45
  46. 46. Singapore has reclaimed land with earth obtained from its own hills, the seabed, and neighbouring countries. As a result, Singapore's land area has grown from 581.5 km² in the 1960s to 723.2 km² today, and may grow by another 100 km² by 2033. Cultural characteristic The culture of the Philippines reflects the country's complex history. It is a blend of the Malayo-Polynesian and Hispanic cultures, with influences from Chinese. The Philippines was first settled by Melanesians; today they preserve a very traditional way of life and culture, although their numbers are few. After them, the Austronesians or more specifically, Malayo-Polynesians arrived on the islands. Today the Austronesian culture is very evident in the ethnicity, language, food, dance and almost every aspect of the culture. These Austronesians engaged in trading with China, India, Japan, the Ryukyu Islands, the Middle East, Borneo, and other places. As a result, those cultures have also left a mark on Filipino culture. When the Spanish colonized the islands, after more than three centuries of colonization, they had heavily impacted the culture. The Philippines being governed from both Mexico and Spain, had received a little bit of Hispanic influence. Mexican and Spanish influence can be seen in the dance and religion many other aspects of the culture. After being colonized by Spain, the Philippines became a U.S. territory for about 40 years. Influence from the United States is seen in the wide use of the English language, and the modern pop culture. 46
  47. 47. Tourism characteristic Tourism in Singapore is a major industry and contributor to the Singaporean economy, attracting 13,171,303 tourists in 2011, over twice Singapore's total population.[1] Its cultural attraction can be attributed to its cultural diversity that reflects its colonial history and Chinese, Malay, Indian and Arab ethnicities. It is also environmentally friendly, and maintains natural and heritage conservation programs. Along with this, it also has one of the world's lowest crime rates. As English is the dominant one of its four official languages, it is generally easier for tourists to understand when speaking to the local population of the country, for example, when shopping. Transport in Singapore exhaustively covers most, if not all public venues in Singapore, which increases convenience for tourists. This includes the well-known Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) system. Tourism attractions popular tourist attractions include the Singapore Zoo and Night Safari, which allows people to explore Asian, African and American habitats at night without any visible barriers between guests and the wild animals. The Singapore Zoo has embraced the 'open zoo' concept whereby animals are kept in enclosures, separated from visitors by hidden dry or wet moats, instead of caging the animals. Jurong Bird Park is another zoological garden centredaround birds, which is dedicated towards exposing the public to as much species and varieties of birds from around the world as possible, including a flock of one thousand flamingos. The tourist island of Sentosa, which attracts 19 million visitors in 2011, is located in the south of Singapore, consists of about 20–30 landmarks, such as Fort Siloso, which was built 47
  48. 48. as a fortress to defend against the Japanese during World War II. 10. THAILAND Physical characteristic Thailand has two major rivers Thailand. The two major rivers are the Chao Phraya and the Mekong. It is also by the South China Sea, and by the Andaman River. It borders Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Burma. Cultural characteristic The culture of Thailand came from the origins of India, China, Cambodia, and pre-historic Southeast Asia. In this culture they do a lot of things different from the United States. Thailand marriages are different from ours instead of giving the bride a diamond ring Thailand grooms give gold to the bride's parents. 48
  49. 49. Tourism characteristic Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, is one of the world's top tourist destination cities. MasterCard ranked Bangkok as the global top destination city by international visitor arrivals in its Global Destination Cities Index, with 15.98 million projected visitors in 2013. The city is ranked fourth in cross-border spending, with 14.3 billion dollars projected for 2013, after New York, London and Paris. Euromonitor International ranked Bangkok sixth in its Top City Destinations Ranking for 2011. Bangkok has also been named "World's Best City" by Travel + Leisure magazine's survey of its readers for three consecutive years since 2010. Tourism attractions Ko Tarutao is one of the 51 islands that belong to the Tarutao National Marine Park archipelago in southern Thailand. One of Tarutao’s greatest attraction is its wildlife: sea turtles, whales, monitor lizards, crab- eating macaques, mouse deer and more all call the island and its surrounding waters home. Compared to other Andaman islands the waters of Ko Tarutao are to murky to snorkel, but for most, the unspoilt beaches, waterfalls, great hiking and views more than compensate for this. Ayuthaya was founded in 1350 AD by King U Thong as the second capital of Siam after Sukhothai. Throughout the centuries, the ideal location between China, India and the Malay Archipelago made Ayutthaya the trading capital of Asia. By 1700 Ayutthaya had become one of the largest cities in the world with a total of 1 million inhabitants. In 1767 49
  50. 50. the city was destroyed by the Burmese army, resulting in the collapse of the kingdom. The city was re-founded a few kilometers to the east of the ruins, which now form the Ayutthaya historical park. Most of the remains are temples and palaces, as those were the only buildings made of stone at that time. 11. VIETNAM Physical characteristic Vietnam is a long narrow country extending from China. It also shares a border with Laos to the east. It is full of hills, mountains (the tallest being Fansipan, at 3,142 meters). and fertile valleys, where many people live. The two largest rivers are the Mekong River and the Red River. Many people live and find work in the deltas of these rivers. In addition to the mountains and rivers, Vietnam has a lot of plains and flatlands which the people use to support the large agricultural industry in Vietnam. Cultural characteristic Religion Vietnam contains a rich mixture of religions, reflecting the influences of many cultures. Traditional Vietnamese religion included elements from Indian beliefs and three Chinese religious systems: Mahayana Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. Other religions include relatively new sects such as HoaHao, associated with Buddhism, and Caodaism, a synthesis of Christianity, Buddhism, and Confucianism. Christianity, particularly the Roman Catholic church, claims as many as 6 million followers. 50
  51. 51. Art Poetry has long been the most popular and powerful form of literature in Vietnam, and poets have always been highly respected. Most people can recite at least a few verses of "Kim Van Kieu," a poem that deals with love and sacrifice. This work of more than 3,000 lines was written by the poet Nguyen Du, who lived during the late 1700's and early 1800's. Novels began to gain wide popularity in Vietnam during the years of French rule. They remain popular, especially in the south. But the Communist leaders now carefully regulate the books the people may read. Vietnamese painting shows the influence of both ancient Chinese and modern French art. Examples of traditional Vietnamese architecture include mostly pagodas (temples), tombs, and old royal palaces. 51
  52. 52. Tourism attraction NhaTrang is Vietnam’s most popular seaside resort town located along the second most beautiful bays in the country. It features beautiful beaches with fine and clean sand and clear ocean water with mild temperatures. The city has about 300,000 inhabitants and is more lively and urban in character than other beach destinations like Mui Ne and PhuQuoc. It’s also the scuba diving center of Vietnam. The Cu Chi Tunnels are an immense network of connecting underground tunnels located about 40 km northwest of Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon). The tunnels were used by Viet Cong guerrillas as hiding spots during the Vietnam War, and were the base of operations for the T tế Offensive in 1968. The tunnels have become a popular tourist attraction, and visitors are invited to crawl around in the safer parts of the tunnel system. The Mekong Delta is the region in southern Vietnam where the Mekong River approaches and empties into the sea. It is a very rich and lush area, covered with rice fields, that produces about half 52
  53. 53. of the total of Vietnam’s agricultural output. Subsequently, life in the Mekong Delta revolves much around the river, and all the villages are often accessible by river rather than by road. REFERENCES http://education.yahoo.com/reference/encyclopedia/entry/SthEAs http://www.google.com.my/imgres?imgurl=http://3.bp.blogspot.com http://www.google.com.my/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons http://www.angelfire.com/ca3/viet/culture.html http://www.touropia.com/tourist-attractions-in-vietnam http://www.agc.gov.bn/agc1/images/LAWS/Gazette_PDF/2008/EN http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brunei http://bn2.mofcom.gov.cn/article/hostcountry/geographyhost/200608/20060803024962.shtml http://www.seardf.org/historical.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Cambodia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tourism_in_Cambodia http://www.everyculture.com/Bo-Co/Cambodia.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Malaysia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Malaysia http://www.geographia.com/malaysia/cultures.html http://www.dalat.org/pdf/malaysianculture.pdf http://www.touropia.com/tourist-attractions-in-malaysia/ http://www.yoursingapore.com/content/traveller/en/browse/see-and-do/family- fun/attraction.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Singapore http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Singapore http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/singapore.html http://easttimorgovernment.com/culture.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tourism_in_Singapore http://easttimorgovernment.com/geography.htm 53
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