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Living with Flood: The
Political Ecology of Flood
Hazards in Central Thailand
Nuttavikhom Phanthuwongpakdee (Kay)
King’s C...
Outline
 Background
 Research Question
 Theoretical Frameworks
 Data Collection
 Result Analysis + Discussion
Flood
2005 Flood in New
Orleans
2007 African Flood 2010 China Flood
2010 Pakistan Flood 2011 Thailand Flood 2013-2014 Floo...
Flood in Central Thailand
Flood in Central Thailand
Physical Features of Thailand
Flood in Central Thailand
Thailand 2011 Mega Flood
Thailand 2011 Mega Flood
Question
Despite Massive Investments In Prevention,
Why Does Flood Remain As A Problem in
Central Thailand?
Climate Change
Deforestation
Political Divide
Mismanagement
Not Enough Protections
Theoretical Framework
 Political Ecology
 The vulnerabilities of people to disaster is not
“natural”, but is rather the ...
The Pressure and Release (PAR) Model
By Blaikie et al. (1994)
Data Collection
Case 1
Case 2
Case 3
Flood was Thai Way Of Life
Flood was Thai Way Of Life
1. Modernization
 Initially to Counter Colonization
 Change from Water-based Society to
Land-based one
 Technocratic So...
2. Marginalization or Facilitation
 Neoliberal Economy
 Patronage System
 Centralization
 Thai Cultural System
3. Ideo...
 Technocratic Policies
 Centralized Policies
 Rapid Laissez-faire urban growth and expansion of
industrial areas and ot...
 Physical
 Higher Flood Risk, Exposure and Vulnerability
 Unfair Structural Protections
 Economic
 Too dependent on a...
After The 2011 Mega Flood
Further Research
 Urban Land planning
 Climate Change
 Institutional Gaps
 Local Adaptation
 Local Participation
ขอบคุณครับ! (khob-khun-kub!)
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Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 1 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 2 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 3 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 4 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 5 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 6 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 7 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 8 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 9 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 10 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 11 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 12 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 13 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 14 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 15 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 16 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 17 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 18 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 19 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 20 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 21 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 22 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 23 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 24 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 25 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 26 Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Slide 27
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Through the political ecology, this paper investigates the historical and contemporary impact of flood hazards in Central Thailand. It examines how these factors influence flood perceptions and attitudes among individuals and communities living in the flood-prone area. Data were gathered from fieldwork as well as in-depth interviews with government officials and local residents in three localities – an urban area in Samut Sakorn Province, a peri-uran area in Ayutthaya Province and a rural area in Pichit Province. The cross-case analysis uncovers that, even in the midst of the rapidly-changing landscapes and the difference in flood-acceptance levels among inhabitants of dissimilar areas, most interviewees perceive recurring floods, and occasional big ones, as natural phenomena and believe them to be normative. Given the periodic nature of the floods, local residents have been adapting to flood hazards from experience and native knowledge. This paper shows that the 2011 Mega Flood was different, as it was unexpected and of colossal scale. While numerous residents see climate change as the chief factor for this crisis, many also believe that politics plays a major part. The study has found that residents are knowledgeable about the socio-political elements, which have increased flood vulnerability in their communities, but are powerless to react to most issues. Indeed, the implementation of growth-oriented development strategies, technocratic and centralized policies, ongoing political tribulations and the marginalization of some groups through unjust water infrastructure, since the past, have increased undesirable impacts of flood and lowered the coping and adaptive capacities of the local residents.

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Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand

  1. 1. Living with Flood: The Political Ecology of Flood Hazards in Central Thailand Nuttavikhom Phanthuwongpakdee (Kay) King’s College London & National University of Singapore
  2. 2. Outline  Background  Research Question  Theoretical Frameworks  Data Collection  Result Analysis + Discussion
  3. 3. Flood 2005 Flood in New Orleans 2007 African Flood 2010 China Flood 2010 Pakistan Flood 2011 Thailand Flood 2013-2014 Flood in the UK and Ireland To cause, to fill, or become covered with water, especially in a way that causes problems. (Cambridge Dictionaries Online)
  4. 4. Flood in Central Thailand
  5. 5. Flood in Central Thailand
  6. 6. Physical Features of Thailand
  7. 7. Flood in Central Thailand
  8. 8. Thailand 2011 Mega Flood
  9. 9. Thailand 2011 Mega Flood
  10. 10. Question Despite Massive Investments In Prevention, Why Does Flood Remain As A Problem in Central Thailand?
  11. 11. Climate Change Deforestation Political Divide Mismanagement Not Enough Protections
  12. 12. Theoretical Framework  Political Ecology  The vulnerabilities of people to disaster is not “natural”, but is rather the result of political, economic, and social systems;  Pressure and Release (PAR) Model.  Social Nature  Social Construction of Nature;  By Noel Castree and Bruce Braun in 2001;  Nature is social and we cannot separate the two.
  13. 13. The Pressure and Release (PAR) Model By Blaikie et al. (1994)
  14. 14. Data Collection
  15. 15. Case 1
  16. 16. Case 2
  17. 17. Case 3
  18. 18. Flood was Thai Way Of Life
  19. 19. Flood was Thai Way Of Life
  20. 20. 1. Modernization  Initially to Counter Colonization  Change from Water-based Society to Land-based one  Technocratic Society  Model after the European “Civilized” Nation-State  Growing Population  Green Revolution Root Causes
  21. 21. 2. Marginalization or Facilitation  Neoliberal Economy  Patronage System  Centralization  Thai Cultural System 3. Ideologies Root Causes  Limited Access to Power  Too Much Access to Power
  22. 22.  Technocratic Policies  Centralized Policies  Rapid Laissez-faire urban growth and expansion of industrial areas and other important amenities into floodplain  Disparagement of traditional beliefs and practices  Government Corruption  Inefficient Officials Dynamic Pressures
  23. 23.  Physical  Higher Flood Risk, Exposure and Vulnerability  Unfair Structural Protections  Economic  Too dependent on activities in the floodplains  Social  Change in Lifestyle  Indifference towards indigenous knowledge  Cognitive & Political Biases  Low Risk Perception  Governance  Lack of Public Participation  Institutional Gaps  Struggle for Power Unsafe Condtions
  24. 24. After The 2011 Mega Flood
  25. 25. Further Research  Urban Land planning  Climate Change  Institutional Gaps  Local Adaptation  Local Participation
  26. 26. ขอบคุณครับ! (khob-khun-kub!)
  • AnneSophieGavin

    May. 3, 2016
  • TipIsarangula

    Aug. 16, 2015
  • macchiatoism

    Apr. 15, 2014

Through the political ecology, this paper investigates the historical and contemporary impact of flood hazards in Central Thailand. It examines how these factors influence flood perceptions and attitudes among individuals and communities living in the flood-prone area. Data were gathered from fieldwork as well as in-depth interviews with government officials and local residents in three localities – an urban area in Samut Sakorn Province, a peri-uran area in Ayutthaya Province and a rural area in Pichit Province. The cross-case analysis uncovers that, even in the midst of the rapidly-changing landscapes and the difference in flood-acceptance levels among inhabitants of dissimilar areas, most interviewees perceive recurring floods, and occasional big ones, as natural phenomena and believe them to be normative. Given the periodic nature of the floods, local residents have been adapting to flood hazards from experience and native knowledge. This paper shows that the 2011 Mega Flood was different, as it was unexpected and of colossal scale. While numerous residents see climate change as the chief factor for this crisis, many also believe that politics plays a major part. The study has found that residents are knowledgeable about the socio-political elements, which have increased flood vulnerability in their communities, but are powerless to react to most issues. Indeed, the implementation of growth-oriented development strategies, technocratic and centralized policies, ongoing political tribulations and the marginalization of some groups through unjust water infrastructure, since the past, have increased undesirable impacts of flood and lowered the coping and adaptive capacities of the local residents.

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