Sitaram naranjibhai patel inStitUte OF
teCnOlOGY anD reSearCh Centre
Near field communication
• Near Field & Far Field
• Technical Architecture
• Technology Overview
• Comparison of other technology
• Communication Mode
• Security Aspect
• User & Application
• Future NFC
• Advantages and disadvantages
• Near field communication (NFC) is a set of standards
for smartsphones and similar devices to establish
radio communication with each other by touching them together or
bringing them into close proximity, usually no more than a few
centimetres. Present and anticipated applications include contactless
transactions, data exchange, and simplified setup of more complex
communications such as Wi-Fi.
• NFC is a short-range wireless technology.
• NFC provides unique advantages over other available wireless
• The design includes a near-field transmitter and receiver to send data
from one computer to another
• NFC is mainly aimed for mobile or handheld devices.
• NFC is an extension of Radio frequency identification
or RFID technology.
• RFID is mainly used for tracking and identification by
sending radio waves.
• Enables the exchange of data between devices over
a distance of up to 20 centimeters.(4 cm Practically)
Near Field & Far Field
• The terms “far field” and “near field” describe the fields
around an antenna or, more generally, any electromagnetic-
radiation source .
• The names imply that two regions with a boundary between
them exist around an antenna.
• Actually, as many as three regions and two boundaries exist.
CARD EMULATION MODE
• The NFC device behaves as a contactless smart card.
• The external card reader accesses the secure
elements of the device, such as Universal Subscriber
Identity Module (USIM) and embedded Secure
Element (eSE), that are compatible with the
contactless card technology.
• This enables contactless payments and ticketing by
NFC enabled phones without changing the existing
infrastructure. Mobile payment, ticketing access
control etc are use case of this category.
Card Emulation Mode Block Diagram
Proprietary contactless card applicationse.g.,
payment, ticketing, access controlBased on
ISO 14443 A/B .
READER WRITER MODE
• In this use case, NFC enabled device (for example mobile
phones) can read or write data to NFC tag.
• NFC enabled smart poster is one example. Inside the
poster there is embedded NFC tag where more
information is written about the product.
• Device and read and act accordingly what is written in
READER WRITER MODE DIAGRAM
Define how to read and write NDEF data from/to a tag
Types 1 and 2: Proprietary tags based on ISO14443 Type A
Type 3: Proprietary tag based on FeliCa
Type 4: Open tag based on ISO 14443 Type A or B and ISO 7816-4
NFC Forum-defined reference
applications, e.g., connection handover,
smart posterNFnC Forum-defined
reference applications, e.g., connection
handover, smart posterposter
Proprietary applications that
communicate with contactless
cards, e.g., electronic purse balance
reader, contactless ticket reader
using NDEF, e.g.,
PEER TO PEER MODE
• In this mode two NFC enabled devices can exchange
data with each other.
• Both devices take part in the communication.
• One example could be business card exchange.
• Another example could be pairing Bluetooth headset
with the help of NFC enabled phone.
• Third example could be NFC chat application where
two phones can take part in data exchange as
specified by NFC forum.
Peer to Peer Mode block diagram
Link activation, supervision, deactivation
Asynchronous balanced mode
Connection oriented transport
Protocol to allow the exchange of NDEF
messages in Peer ModeAnalogous to tag
Provides standard bindings (e.g., port numbers) to
NFC Forum registered protocols. Allows
interoperable use of registered protocols
bindings (e.g., port
numbers) to NFC
NFC Forum reference applications
may be run over the Simple NDEF
Peer to peer
from a camera,
• NFC is a set of short-range wireless technologies,
typically requiring a distance of 4 cm or less.
• NFC operates at 13.56 MHz on ISO/IEC 18000-3 air
interface and at rates ranging from 106 Kbit/s to 424
• Supported data rates: 106, 212 or 424 kbit/s
• NFC employs two different codlings to transfer data. If
an active device transfers data at 106 kbit/s, a
modified Miller coding with 100% modulation is used.
In all other cases Manchester coding is used with a
modulation ratio of 10%.
Comparison with RFID technology
• Basically, the technologies Radio Frequency
Identification and Near Field Communication use the
same working standards.
• However, the essential extension of RFID is the
communication mode between two active devices.
• In addition to contactless smart cards (ISO 14443
), which only support communication between
powered devices and passive tags, NFC also provides
Comparison with Bluetooth
• NFC and Bluetooth are both short-range communication
• NFC operates at slower speeds than Bluetooth, but consumes far
less power and doesn’t require pairing.
• NFC sets up faster than standard Bluetooth.
• The connection between two NFC devices is automatically
established quickly: in less than a tenth of a second.
• The maximum data transfer rate of NFC (424 kbit/s) is slower than
that of Bluetooth V2.1 (2.1 Mbit/s).
• Both initiator and target device communicate by alternately
generating their own fields. A device deactivates its RF field
while it is waiting for data. In this mode, both devices typically
have power supplies.
• The initiator device provides a carrier fields and the target
device answers by modulating the existing field. In this mode,
the target device may draw its operating power from the
initiator-provided electromagnetic field.
HOW IT WORKS
• In the reader (phone) , when the NFC in the device is active
then it continuously generates periodic sine wave signal at
frequency 13.56 MHz center frequency.
• tag gets energy from the magnetic fluxes and create counter
• The changes are detected by the phone and phone knows
that there is a tag nearby.
• RFID systems communicating on very short range are
commonly known as close couple systems.
• Range 0 to 1 cm.
• This means that the tag has to be placed either in the reader
or more or less pressed against the reader device.
• The benefit from these short distances is that a rather large
amount of energy can be extracted from the magnetic field
by the tag.
• Close coupling is also preferred for systems with high security
USE OF NFC
• NFC technology is currently mainly aimed at being
used with mobile phones. There are three main use
cases for NFC:
– card emulation: the NFC device behaves like an existing
– reader mode: the NFC device is active and read a passive
RFID tag, for example for interactive advertising
– P2P mode: two NFC devices are communicating together
and exchanging information.
• Commerce: NFC devices can be used in contactless payment
systems, similar to those currently used in credit cards and
electronic ticket smartcards, and allow mobile payment to
replace or supplement these systems.
• Social networking: Sharing contacts, photos, videos or files ,
and entering multiplayer mobile games in the field of social
networking it is very useful to exchange the contacts & other
• Smartphone automation and NFC tags : Smart phones
equipped with NFC can be paired with NFC tags or stickers
which can be programmed by NFC apps to automate tasks.
• Android Beam is a feature of the Android mobile operating
system to allow data to be transferred via near field
communication (NFC) .
• It allows the rapid short-range exchange of web bookmarks,
contact info, directions, YouTube videos, and other data.
Android Beam was introduced in Android version 4.0 (Ice
• Google Wallet is a mobile payment system developed by
Google that allows its users to store debit cards, credit cards,
loyalty cards, and gift cards among other things, as well as
redeeming sales promotions on their mobile phone.
• Google Wallet can use near field communication (NFC) to
"make secure payments fast and convenient by simply
tapping the phone on any PayPass-enabled terminal at
• High convenience to the user, because the
data exchange is done by bringing two
• Reduces cost of electronic issuance .
• Secure communication.
• No special software.
• No search and pair procedure.
• The system has the limitation that it can be operated
only with devices under a short range i.e around 10
• The data transfer rate is very less at about 106kbps,
212 kbps and 424kbps.
• Can be costly for merchant companies to initially
adopt the technology.
FUTURE OF NFC
• Vehicle Ignition
• Electronic Ticketing
• Electronic Money
• Travel Card
• Identity Document
• Mobile commerce
• Electronic keys— car keys, house/office keys, hotel room keys, etc.
• NFC can be used to configure and initiate other wireless network
connections such s Bluetooth , Wi-Fi or Ultra-wideband.
• NFC for Health Monitoring in Daily Life .
Latest News about NFC
• Google is working with Citi group and
MasterCard on NFC mobile payment solution.
• Airlines move closer to NFC tech for
passengers-NFC allows a smartphone to be
used to “tap and check-in” or “tap and board”
• “Ra-One” is the first Indian movie to be
marketed through NFC.
• Mobile handsets are the primary target for NFC and
soon NFC will be implemented in most handheld
devices. Even though NFC have the shortest range
among radio frequency technologies, combining
them with existing technologies like Bluetooth or
Infrared can increase its range of applications.