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  1. 1. Sitaram naranjibhai patel inStitUte OF teCnOlOGY anD reSearCh Centre Near field communication Guided By: Prof.Bhavesh Patel Submitted By: Kinjal Pandya
  2. 2. Contents • Introduction • Near Field & Far Field • Technical Architecture • Technology Overview • Comparison of other technology • Communication Mode • Security Aspect • User & Application • Future NFC • Advantages and disadvantages • Conclusion
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • Near field communication (NFC) is a set of standards for smartsphones and similar devices to establish radio communication with each other by touching them together or bringing them into close proximity, usually no more than a few centimetres. Present and anticipated applications include contactless transactions, data exchange, and simplified setup of more complex communications such as Wi-Fi. • NFC is a short-range wireless technology. • NFC provides unique advantages over other available wireless technologies. • The design includes a near-field transmitter and receiver to send data from one computer to another
  4. 4. • NFC is mainly aimed for mobile or handheld devices. • NFC is an extension of Radio frequency identification or RFID technology. • RFID is mainly used for tracking and identification by sending radio waves. • Enables the exchange of data between devices over a distance of up to 20 centimeters.(4 cm Practically)
  5. 5. Near Field & Far Field • The terms “far field” and “near field” describe the fields around an antenna or, more generally, any electromagnetic- radiation source . • The names imply that two regions with a boundary between them exist around an antenna. • Actually, as many as three regions and two boundaries exist.
  6. 6. Technical Architecture
  7. 7. CARD EMULATION MODE • The NFC device behaves as a contactless smart card. • The external card reader accesses the secure elements of the device, such as Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) and embedded Secure Element (eSE), that are compatible with the contactless card technology. • This enables contactless payments and ticketing by NFC enabled phones without changing the existing infrastructure. Mobile payment, ticketing access control etc are use case of this category.
  8. 8. Card Emulation Mode Block Diagram Proprietary contactless card applicationse.g., payment, ticketing, access controlBased on ISO 14443 A/B .
  9. 9. READER WRITER MODE • In this use case, NFC enabled device (for example mobile phones) can read or write data to NFC tag. • NFC enabled smart poster is one example. Inside the poster there is embedded NFC tag where more information is written about the product. • Device and read and act accordingly what is written in the tag.
  10. 10. READER WRITER MODE DIAGRAM Define how to read and write NDEF data from/to a tag Types 1 and 2: Proprietary tags based on ISO14443 Type A Type 3: Proprietary tag based on FeliCa Type 4: Open tag based on ISO 14443 Type A or B and ISO 7816-4 NFC Forum-defined reference applications, e.g., connection handover, smart posterNFnC Forum-defined reference applications, e.g., connection handover, smart posterposter Proprietary applications that communicate with contactless cards, e.g., electronic purse balance reader, contactless ticket reader Proprietary tag- based applications using NDEF, e.g., reading information on medicine bottles
  11. 11. PEER TO PEER MODE • In this mode two NFC enabled devices can exchange data with each other. • Both devices take part in the communication. • One example could be business card exchange. • Another example could be pairing Bluetooth headset with the help of NFC enabled phone. • Third example could be NFC chat application where two phones can take part in data exchange as specified by NFC forum.
  12. 12. Peer to Peer Mode block diagram Link activation, supervision, deactivation Asynchronous balanced mode Protocol multiplexing Connectionless transport Connection oriented transport Protocol to allow the exchange of NDEF messages in Peer ModeAnalogous to tag operation specifications Provides standard bindings (e.g., port numbers) to NFC Forum registered protocols. Allows interoperable use of registered protocols Provides standard bindings (e.g., port numbers) to NFC Forum registered protocols. Allows interoperable use of registered protocols NFC Forum reference applications may be run over the Simple NDEF exchange protocol Peer to peer applications – e.g., printing from a camera, business card exchange, third party NDEF applications
  13. 13. Technology Overview • NFC is a set of short-range wireless technologies, typically requiring a distance of 4 cm or less. • NFC operates at 13.56 MHz on ISO/IEC 18000-3 air  interface and at rates ranging from 106 Kbit/s to 424 Kbit/s. • Supported data rates: 106, 212 or 424 kbit/s • NFC employs two different codlings to transfer data. If an active device transfers data at 106 kbit/s, a modified Miller coding with 100% modulation is used. In all other cases Manchester coding is used with a modulation ratio of 10%.
  14. 14. Comparison with RFID technology • Basically, the technologies Radio Frequency Identification and Near Field Communication use the same working standards. • However, the essential extension of RFID is the communication mode between two active devices. • In addition to contactless smart cards (ISO 14443 [7]), which only support communication between powered devices and passive tags, NFC also provides peer-to-peer communication
  15. 15. Comparison with Bluetooth • NFC and Bluetooth are both short-range communication technologies . • NFC operates at slower speeds than Bluetooth, but consumes far less power and doesn’t require pairing. • NFC sets up faster than standard Bluetooth. • The connection between two NFC devices is automatically established quickly: in less than a tenth of a second. • The maximum data transfer rate of NFC (424 kbit/s) is slower than that of Bluetooth V2.1 (2.1 Mbit/s).
  17. 17. ACTIVE MODE • Both initiator and target device communicate by alternately generating their own fields. A device deactivates its RF field while it is waiting for data. In this mode, both devices typically have power supplies.
  18. 18. PASSIVE MODE • The initiator device provides a carrier fields and the target device answers by modulating the existing field. In this mode, the target device may draw its operating power from the initiator-provided electromagnetic field.
  19. 19. HOW IT WORKS • In the reader (phone) , when the NFC in the device is active then it continuously generates periodic sine wave signal at frequency 13.56 MHz center frequency. • tag gets energy from the magnetic fluxes and create counter frequency • The changes are detected by the phone and phone knows that there is a tag nearby. • RFID systems communicating on very short range are commonly known as close couple systems. • Range 0 to 1 cm.
  20. 20. • This means that the tag has to be placed either in the reader or more or less pressed against the reader device. • The benefit from these short distances is that a rather large amount of energy can be extracted from the magnetic field by the tag. • Close coupling is also preferred for systems with high security requirements.
  21. 21. Security Aspect
  22. 22. The solution
  23. 23. USE OF NFC • NFC technology is currently mainly aimed at being used with mobile phones. There are three main use cases for NFC: – card emulation: the NFC device behaves like an existing contactless card – reader mode: the NFC device is active and read a passive RFID tag, for example for interactive advertising – P2P mode: two NFC devices are communicating together and exchanging information.
  24. 24. APPLICATIONS • Commerce: NFC devices can be used in contactless payment systems, similar to those currently used in credit cards and electronic ticket smartcards, and allow mobile payment to replace or supplement these systems. • Social networking: Sharing contacts, photos, videos or files , and entering multiplayer mobile games in the field of social networking it is very useful to exchange the contacts & other files. • Smartphone automation and NFC tags : Smart phones equipped with NFC can be paired with NFC tags or stickers which can be programmed by NFC apps to automate tasks.
  25. 25. ANDROID BEAM • Android Beam is a feature of the Android mobile operating system to allow data to be transferred via near field communication (NFC) . • It allows the rapid short-range exchange of web bookmarks, contact info, directions, YouTube videos, and other data. Android Beam was introduced in Android version 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich).
  26. 26. GOOGLE WALLET • Google Wallet is a mobile payment system developed by Google that allows its users to store debit cards, credit cards, loyalty cards, and gift cards among other things, as well as redeeming sales promotions on their mobile phone. • Google Wallet can use near field communication (NFC) to "make secure payments fast and convenient by simply tapping the phone on any PayPass-enabled terminal at checkout.“
  27. 27. ADVANTAGES • High convenience to the user, because the data exchange is done by bringing two mobiles together. • Versatility • Reduces cost of electronic issuance . • Secure communication. • No special software. • No search and pair procedure.
  28. 28. DISADVANTAGES • The system has the limitation that it can be operated only with devices under a short range i.e around 10 cm. • The data transfer rate is very less at about 106kbps, 212 kbps and 424kbps. • Can be costly for merchant companies to initially adopt the technology.
  29. 29. FUTURE OF NFC • Vehicle Ignition • Electronic Ticketing • Electronic Money • Travel Card • Identity Document • Mobile commerce • Electronic keys— car keys, house/office keys, hotel room keys, etc. • NFC can be used to configure and initiate other wireless network connections such s Bluetooth , Wi-Fi or Ultra-wideband. • NFC for Health Monitoring in Daily Life .
  30. 30. Latest News about NFC • Google is working with Citi group and MasterCard on NFC mobile payment solution. • Airlines move closer to NFC tech for passengers-NFC allows a smartphone to be used to “tap and check-in” or “tap and board” their flight. • “Ra-One” is the first Indian movie to be marketed through NFC.
  31. 31. CONCLUSION • Mobile handsets are the primary target for NFC and soon NFC will be implemented in most handheld devices. Even though NFC have the shortest range among radio frequency technologies, combining them with existing technologies like Bluetooth or Infrared can increase its range of applications.