Non-proliferation and Growth of Nuclear
Mr Manas Orpe
Mr Kapil Sathe
(TE Chemical Engineering)
Under the supervision of:
Prof A V Mohod
Department of Chemical Engineering,
AISSMS College of Engineering, Pune-1
• What is Non-Proliferation (NP) ?
•Proliferation of Weapons or Fuels?
• Why there is need to focus on NP?
Types of Proliferation
Horizontal proliferation Vertical proliferation
• Nation-states or non-state
entities that do not have, but
are acquiring, nuclear
weapons or developing the
capability and materials for
• Nation-states that do
possess nuclear weapons
and are increasing their
stockpiles of these weapons,
improving the technical
sophistication or reliability of
their weapons, or developing
Nuclear Activities in Countries
Countries No. of Warheads (Active/Total) Year of First Test
United States 2150/7700 1945 ("Trinity")
Russia 1740/8500 1949 ("RDS-1")
United Kingdom 160/225 1952 ("Hurricane")
France 290/300 1960 ("Gerboise Bleue")
China NA/240 1964 ("596")
India NA/80-100 1974 ("Smiling Buddha")
Pakistan NA/90-110 1998 ("Chagai-I")
North Korea NA/<10 2006
Israel NA/80-200 Unknown (possibly 1979)
Ref. FAS, 2010.
• This treaty includes the five Nuclear Weapons States (NWS):
1. the People's Republic of China
3. Russian Federation
5. United States.
• Notable non-signatories to the NPT are Israel, Pakistan, and India.
• India and Pakistan have acknowledged their nuclear capabilities
and have tested weapons.
• Israel has not acknowledged.
• North Korea was once a signatory but withdrew in January 2003.
1. Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
•It obligates the 5 original NWS not to transfer
nuclear weapons, other nuclear explosive
devices, or their technology to any non–nuclear-
2. Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems Treaty
• In 1972, the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic
Missile Systems (ABM Treaty) between the United States
and Soviet Union was signed in Moscow.
• The United States withdrew from the treaty in 2002 in
order to permit work on a national missile defence
system, work that had been prohibited by the treaty.
3. Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
•To control the testing of nuclear weapons.
•To prohibit nuclear test explosions in the atmosphere, in
space, or underseas.
•Still tests conducted underground or by simulation.
• Nuclear fuel is a material that can be 'burned' by nuclear fission or
fusion to derive nuclear energy.
• Most nuclear fuels contain heavy fissile elements that are capable
of nuclear fission.
• The most common fissile nuclear fuels are uranium-235 (235
• Current contribution of nuclear power : 2.9%
• Plans to increase contribution to 9% in next 25 years.
• As of 2009, India stands at 9th
in the world in terms of
no. of operational nuclear power reactors.
• By 2020, India's installed nuclear power generation
capacity will increase to 20,000 MW.
• U.S.-India Civil Nuclear Agreement
• When the agreement goes through, India is expected
to generate an additional 25,000 MW of nuclear
power by 2020, bringing total estimated nuclear
power generation to 45,000 MW.
of & 540MWe
Mgmnt. , R & M, Safety
Fast Breeder Test
500 MWe Prototype
Fast Breeder Reactor
using U233 fuel
Set up LWR’s with
Design of 700 MWe PHWR
Potential 10,000 MWe Potential 53,000 MWeVery large Potential
India's Nuclear Power Programme
• First Stage :
Uranium (Natural, Imported Enriched)(PHWRs & LWRs)
• Second Stage :
Plutonium (Reprocessed Spent Fuel)(FBRs)
• Third Stage :
Uranium 233 (Converted from Th-232)(AHWR)
• DAE/NPCIL vision : 20,000 MWe by the year
• 8 indigenously designed 700 MWe PHWRs and
10 Light water Reactors of about 1000 MWe
each, based on imports.
• In addition, preproject activities for setting up
of 4 FBRs and an Advanced Heavy Water
Integrated Energy Policy
projections for next 25
To meet 7-9 % GDP
To raise per capita
consumption to 1000 KWh
Total installed capacity 0f
700 GWe by 2032
Ref. “A Strategy for Growth of
Electrical Energy in India,
document 10, August 2010, DAE
•In energy terms, the Integrated Energy Policy of
India estimates share of nuclear power between
4.0 to 8.6% in the year 2031-32.
•Estimates the nuclear share to be about 8.6%
by the year 2032 and 16.6% by the year 2052.
State, District Mine Operating From tU per year
Jharkhand Jadugudu 1968 200 total
Turamdih 2008 190 total
Tummalapalle 2012 220
(KPM), (Domiasiat), Wa
Ref. WNA, 2012
Uranium Purification Plant
• The final product of this plant is Yellow cake.
• According to Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) ,
the ore from this mine is of 0.065 grade.
• 1,000 kg of ore to extract 65 grams of usable
• The plant processes 2,190 tonnes uranium ore per
Smuggling of uranium
On February 18, 2008 :
•Police of Supaul district in Bihar seized 4 kg of
•Arrested one Indian and five Nepali smugglers.
•The market value of the seized uranium was
estimated at Rs.5,00,00,000 (US$910,000) on
the international market
Asia’s Nuclear Energy Growth
• In East and South Asia there are :
1.117 operable nuclear power reactors
2.44 under construction and firm plans to build
a further 92
3.Many more are proposed.
• The greatest growth in nuclear generation is
expected in China, South Korea and India.
operable or in
Planned Research Reactors
Bangla 2 1
China 15 26 51 13
India 20 7 18 5
Indonesia 2 3
Japan 50 3 10 18
S. Korea 23 4 5 2
N. Korea 1
Pakistan 3 2 0 1
Ref. WNA, 2012
Country Power Reactors
operable or in
Vietnam 4 1
117 44 92 56
Ref. WNA, 2012
• France : 63258MWe
• Pakistan : 2782MWe
• Poland : 1640MWe
• Russia : 31639MWe
• Spain : 7519MWe
• Sweden : 9328MWe
• United Kingdom : 13193MWe
• United States of America : 806TW
Role of Chemical Engineer in
• Chemical engineers routinely work with
nuclear engineers to design, develop, monitor,
and operate nuclear power plants in the
safest, most efficient manner possible.
• These scientists are also involved with the
production, handling, use, and safe disposal of
Challenges And Strategies
• Cannot afford to plan on the basis of large scale
• Domestic fuel resources should be a priority for us.
• Nuclear power must contribute about a quarter of
the total electric power required 50 years from now.
• The nuclear power has come of age with
• Pursue the three-stage program, develop and
commercially deploy technologies.
• The fruition of international cooperation will open up
• The Indian nuclear power sector and industry needs
to evolve faster to meet the associated challenges.
• More focus on increasing nuclear power
• Substitute for non-renewable energy sources.
• Disarmament of Nuclear weapons.
• Safe and peaceful environment.
• Verma N., "Westinghouse, Areva eye India nuclear
plants-paper”, Reuters, (2009).
• Srivastava S., "India's Rising Nuclear Safety Concerns“,
Asia Sentinel, (2011).
• Robert S. Norris and Hans M. Kristensen, "Global
nuclear stockpiles, 1945-2006," Bulletin of the Atomic
Scientists Issue 62(4)(2008)64-66.
• Lewis, Jeffery. "The ambiguous arsenal," Bulletin of the
Atomic Scientists, Issue 61(3)(2009)52-59
• IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), “Energy
and Nuclear Power Estimates”, Reference Data Series,
No. 1, 1988 through 2008 Editions.
• “Pursuit and Promotion of Science”, IISC, (2010),
ch29, p. 294-303.
• Inc., Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science,
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Educational
Foundation for Nuclear Science, Inc., p. 25.
• Brian Alexander and Alistair Millar,”Tactical
nuclear weapons : emergent threats in an
evolving security environment”, (1. ed. ed.),
(2006), Washington DC:Brassey's, p. 7.