Non-proliferation and Growth of Nuclear
Fuels
By :
Mr Manas Orpe
Mr Kapil Sathe
(TE Chemical Engineering)
Under the superv...
Introduction
• What is Non-Proliferation (NP) ?
•Proliferation of Weapons or Fuels?
• Why there is need to focus on NP?
Types of Proliferation
Horizontal proliferation Vertical proliferation
• Nation-states or non-state
entities that do not h...
Nuclear Activities in Countries
Countries No. of Warheads (Active/Total) Year of First Test
United States 2150/7700 1945 (...
India
Non-proliferation Efforts
Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty
• This treaty includes the five Nuclear Weapons States (NWS):
1. the People's Republic of China
2. France
3. Russian Feder...
• India and Pakistan have acknowledged their nuclear capabilities
and have tested weapons.
• Israel has not acknowledged.
...
International Cooperation
1. Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
Treaty
•It obligates the 5 original NWS not to transfer
...
2. Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems Treaty
• In 1972, the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic
Missile Systems (ABM Tr...
3. Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
•To control the testing of nuclear weapons.
•To prohibit nuclear test explosions in the...
Nuclear Fuels
• Nuclear fuel is a material that can be 'burned' by nuclear fission or
fusion to derive nuclear energy.
• M...
Types of Nuclear Fuels
India
• Current contribution of nuclear power : 2.9%
• Plans to increase contribution to 9% in next 25 years.
• As of 2009...
• U.S.-India Civil Nuclear Agreement
• When the agreement goes through, India is expected
to generate an additional 25,000...
Indian Nuclear
Power Program:
Current Status
Established Comprehensive
Indigenous Capabilities
For PHWRs
Development,
cons...
India's Nuclear Power Programme
• First Stage :
Uranium (Natural, Imported Enriched)(PHWRs & LWRs)
• Second Stage :
Pluton...
Future Plans
• DAE/NPCIL vision : 20,000 MWe by the year
2020.
• 8 indigenously designed 700 MWe PHWRs and
10 Light water ...
Future Forecast
Integrated Energy Policy
projections for next 25
years.
To meet 7-9 % GDP
growth
To raise per capita
consu...
•In energy terms, the Integrated Energy Policy of
India estimates share of nuclear power between
4.0 to 8.6% in the year 2...
Ref. WNA, 2012
State, District Mine Operating From tU per year
Jharkhand Jadugudu 1968 200 total
Bhatin 1967
Narwapahar 1995
Bagjata 1908...
Uranium Purification Plant
• The final product of this plant is Yellow cake.
• According to Department of Atomic Energy (D...
Smuggling of uranium
On February 18, 2008 :
•Police of Supaul district in Bihar seized 4 kg of
low-quality uranium.
•Arres...
Asia’s Nuclear Energy Growth
• In East and South Asia there are :
1.117 operable nuclear power reactors
2.44 under constru...
Country
Power Reactors
operable or in
Operation
Power Reactors
Under
Construction
Power Reactors
Planned Research Reactors...
Country Power Reactors
operable or in
Operation
Power Reactors
Under
Construction
Power Reactors
Planned
Research
Reactors...
Worldwide scenario
• France : 63258MWe
• Pakistan : 2782MWe
• Poland : 1640MWe
• Russia : 31639MWe
• Spain : 7519MWe
• Swe...
Role of Chemical Engineer in
Nuclear Industry
• Chemical engineers routinely work with
nuclear engineers to design, develo...
Challenges And Strategies
• Cannot afford to plan on the basis of large scale
import.
• Domestic fuel resources should be ...
• The nuclear power has come of age with
comprehensive capabilities.
• Pursue the three-stage program, develop and
commerc...
Conclusions
• More focus on increasing nuclear power
generators.
• Substitute for non-renewable energy sources.
• Disarmam...
References
• Verma N., "Westinghouse, Areva eye India nuclear
plants-paper”, Reuters, (2009).
• Srivastava S., "India's Ri...
• “Pursuit and Promotion of Science”, IISC, (2010),
ch29, p. 294-303.
• Inc., Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science,
...
Non-proliferation and Growth of Nuclear Fuels
Non-proliferation and Growth of Nuclear Fuels
Non-proliferation and Growth of Nuclear Fuels
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This was for a college seminar. This contains nuclear capabilities of India, nuclear power in India and the world.

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Non-proliferation and Growth of Nuclear Fuels

  1. 1. Non-proliferation and Growth of Nuclear Fuels By : Mr Manas Orpe Mr Kapil Sathe (TE Chemical Engineering) Under the supervision of: Prof A V Mohod Department of Chemical Engineering, AISSMS College of Engineering, Pune-1
  2. 2. Introduction • What is Non-Proliferation (NP) ? •Proliferation of Weapons or Fuels? • Why there is need to focus on NP?
  3. 3. Types of Proliferation Horizontal proliferation Vertical proliferation • Nation-states or non-state entities that do not have, but are acquiring, nuclear weapons or developing the capability and materials for producing them. • Nation-states that do possess nuclear weapons and are increasing their stockpiles of these weapons, improving the technical sophistication or reliability of their weapons, or developing new weapons.
  4. 4. Nuclear Activities in Countries Countries No. of Warheads (Active/Total) Year of First Test United States 2150/7700 1945 ("Trinity") Russia 1740/8500 1949 ("RDS-1") United Kingdom 160/225 1952 ("Hurricane") France 290/300 1960 ("Gerboise Bleue") China NA/240 1964 ("596") India NA/80-100 1974 ("Smiling Buddha") Pakistan NA/90-110 1998 ("Chagai-I") North Korea NA/<10 2006 Israel NA/80-200 Unknown (possibly 1979) Ref. FAS, 2010.
  5. 5. India
  6. 6. Non-proliferation Efforts
  7. 7. Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty
  8. 8. • This treaty includes the five Nuclear Weapons States (NWS): 1. the People's Republic of China 2. France 3. Russian Federation 4. UK 5. United States. • Notable non-signatories to the NPT are Israel, Pakistan, and India.
  9. 9. • India and Pakistan have acknowledged their nuclear capabilities and have tested weapons. • Israel has not acknowledged. • North Korea was once a signatory but withdrew in January 2003.
  10. 10. International Cooperation 1. Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty •It obligates the 5 original NWS not to transfer nuclear weapons, other nuclear explosive devices, or their technology to any non–nuclear- weapons state.
  11. 11. 2. Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems Treaty • In 1972, the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems (ABM Treaty) between the United States and Soviet Union was signed in Moscow. • The United States withdrew from the treaty in 2002 in order to permit work on a national missile defence system, work that had been prohibited by the treaty.
  12. 12. 3. Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty •To control the testing of nuclear weapons. •To prohibit nuclear test explosions in the atmosphere, in space, or underseas. •Still tests conducted underground or by simulation.
  13. 13. Nuclear Fuels • Nuclear fuel is a material that can be 'burned' by nuclear fission or fusion to derive nuclear energy. • Most nuclear fuels contain heavy fissile elements that are capable of nuclear fission. • The most common fissile nuclear fuels are uranium-235 (235 U) and plutonium-239 (239 Pu).
  14. 14. Types of Nuclear Fuels
  15. 15. India • Current contribution of nuclear power : 2.9% • Plans to increase contribution to 9% in next 25 years. • As of 2009, India stands at 9th in the world in terms of no. of operational nuclear power reactors. • By 2020, India's installed nuclear power generation capacity will increase to 20,000 MW.
  16. 16. • U.S.-India Civil Nuclear Agreement • When the agreement goes through, India is expected to generate an additional 25,000 MW of nuclear power by 2020, bringing total estimated nuclear power generation to 45,000 MW.
  17. 17. Indian Nuclear Power Program: Current Status Established Comprehensive Indigenous Capabilities For PHWRs Development, construction Commissioning, of & 540MWe PHWRs Developed Ageing Mgmnt. , R & M, Safety upgrades Fast Breeder Test Reactor already generating electricity Construction of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor In progress FIRST STAGE SECOND STAGE THIRD STAGE Experimental reactor using U233 fuel in operation Set up LWR’s with Imported technology IMPORTED ROUTE Design of 700 MWe PHWR completed Potential 10,000 MWe Potential 53,000 MWeVery large Potential
  18. 18. India's Nuclear Power Programme • First Stage : Uranium (Natural, Imported Enriched)(PHWRs & LWRs) • Second Stage : Plutonium (Reprocessed Spent Fuel)(FBRs) • Third Stage : Uranium 233 (Converted from Th-232)(AHWR)
  19. 19. Future Plans • DAE/NPCIL vision : 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. • 8 indigenously designed 700 MWe PHWRs and 10 Light water Reactors of about 1000 MWe each, based on imports. • In addition, preproject activities for setting up of 4 FBRs and an Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR).
  20. 20. Future Forecast Integrated Energy Policy projections for next 25 years. To meet 7-9 % GDP growth To raise per capita consumption to 1000 KWh Total installed capacity 0f 700 GWe by 2032 Ref. “A Strategy for Growth of Electrical Energy in India, document 10, August 2010, DAE
  21. 21. •In energy terms, the Integrated Energy Policy of India estimates share of nuclear power between 4.0 to 8.6% in the year 2031-32. •Estimates the nuclear share to be about 8.6% by the year 2032 and 16.6% by the year 2052.
  22. 22. Ref. WNA, 2012
  23. 23. State, District Mine Operating From tU per year Jharkhand Jadugudu 1968 200 total Bhatin 1967 Narwapahar 1995 Bagjata 1908 Jharkhand, East Singhbum dist. Turamdih 2008 190 total Banduhurang 2007 Mohuldih 2012* Andhra Pradesh, Kadapa dist. Tummalapalle 2012 220 Andhra Pradesh, Nalgonda dist. Lambapur-Peddagattu 2016 (under construction) 130 Karnataka, Gulbarga dist. Gogi 2014 (under construction) 130 Meghalaya Kylleng-Pyndeng- Sohiong- Mawthabah (KPM), (Domiasiat), Wa 2017 (under construction) 340 Ref. WNA, 2012
  24. 24. Uranium Purification Plant • The final product of this plant is Yellow cake. • According to Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) , the ore from this mine is of 0.065 grade. • 1,000 kg of ore to extract 65 grams of usable uranium. • The plant processes 2,190 tonnes uranium ore per day.
  25. 25. Smuggling of uranium On February 18, 2008 : •Police of Supaul district in Bihar seized 4 kg of low-quality uranium. •Arrested one Indian and five Nepali smugglers. •The market value of the seized uranium was estimated at Rs.5,00,00,000 (US$910,000) on the international market
  26. 26. Asia’s Nuclear Energy Growth • In East and South Asia there are : 1.117 operable nuclear power reactors 2.44 under construction and firm plans to build a further 92 3.Many more are proposed. • The greatest growth in nuclear generation is expected in China, South Korea and India.
  27. 27. Country Power Reactors operable or in Operation Power Reactors Under Construction Power Reactors Planned Research Reactors Australia 1 Bangla 2 1 China 15 26 51 13 India 20 7 18 5 Indonesia 2 3 Japan 50 3 10 18 S. Korea 23 4 5 2 N. Korea 1 Malaysia 1 Pakistan 3 2 0 1 Ref. WNA, 2012
  28. 28. Country Power Reactors operable or in Operation Power Reactors Under Construction Power Reactors Planned Research Reactors Philippines 1 Thailand 2 Vietnam 4 1 117 44 92 56 Ref. WNA, 2012
  29. 29. Worldwide scenario • France : 63258MWe • Pakistan : 2782MWe • Poland : 1640MWe • Russia : 31639MWe • Spain : 7519MWe • Sweden : 9328MWe • United Kingdom : 13193MWe • United States of America : 806TW
  30. 30. Role of Chemical Engineer in Nuclear Industry • Chemical engineers routinely work with nuclear engineers to design, develop, monitor, and operate nuclear power plants in the safest, most efficient manner possible. • These scientists are also involved with the production, handling, use, and safe disposal of nuclear fuels.
  31. 31. Challenges And Strategies • Cannot afford to plan on the basis of large scale import. • Domestic fuel resources should be a priority for us. • Nuclear power must contribute about a quarter of the total electric power required 50 years from now.
  32. 32. • The nuclear power has come of age with comprehensive capabilities. • Pursue the three-stage program, develop and commercially deploy technologies. • The fruition of international cooperation will open up opportunities. • The Indian nuclear power sector and industry needs to evolve faster to meet the associated challenges.
  33. 33. Conclusions • More focus on increasing nuclear power generators. • Substitute for non-renewable energy sources. • Disarmament of Nuclear weapons. • Safe and peaceful environment.
  34. 34. References • Verma N., "Westinghouse, Areva eye India nuclear plants-paper”, Reuters, (2009). • Srivastava S., "India's Rising Nuclear Safety Concerns“, Asia Sentinel, (2011). • Robert S. Norris and Hans M. Kristensen, "Global nuclear stockpiles, 1945-2006," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Issue 62(4)(2008)64-66. • Lewis, Jeffery. "The ambiguous arsenal," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Issue 61(3)(2009)52-59 • IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), “Energy and Nuclear Power Estimates”, Reference Data Series, No. 1, 1988 through 2008 Editions.
  35. 35. • “Pursuit and Promotion of Science”, IISC, (2010), ch29, p. 294-303. • Inc., Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, Inc., p. 25. • Brian Alexander and Alistair Millar,”Tactical nuclear weapons : emergent threats in an evolving security environment”, (1. ed. ed.), (2006), Washington DC:Brassey's, p. 7. Contd. References

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