Earth Quake


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Earth Quake

  1. 1. Earthquake Hazards and Safety<br />An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. Earthquakes are measured using observations from seismometers<br />
  2. 2. The Earth<br />
  3. 3. Know Your ZOne<br />
  4. 4. Earthquake Zones in World Map<br />
  5. 5. Interior Structure of Earth <br />CRUST (0-100 KM )<br />The Earth's outermost surface is called the crust. The crust is relatively light and brittle. Most earthquakes occur within the crust. Scientists believe that below the lithosphere is a relatively narrow, mobile zone in the mantle called the asthenosphere (from asthenes, Greek for weak).<br />MANTLE (100-2900 KM )<br />The region just below the crust and extending all the way down to the Earth's core is called the<br />mantle. The mantle, a dense, hot layer of semisolid rock.<br />Core (100-2900 KM )<br />Beneath the mantle is the Earth's core. The Earth's core consists of a fluid outer core and a solid inner core.<br />Inner Core (2900-5100 Km) Outer Core (5100 -6378 Km)<br />
  6. 6. Focus and Epicenter of Earthquake<br />
  7. 7. What Causes Earthquake? <br />The sudden slip at the fault causes the earthquake…….a violent shaking of the Earth when large elastic strain energy released spreads out through seismic waves <br />that travel through the body and along the surface of the Earth.<br />
  8. 8. Fault<br />Earthquakes occur on faults. A fault is a thin zone of crushed rock between two blocks of rock, and can be any length, from centimeters to thousands of kilometers. <br />When an earthquake occurs on one of these faults, the rock on one side of the fault slips <br />with respect to the other. The fault surface can be vertical, horizontal, or at some angle to the surface of the earth. The slip direction can also be at any angle. We classify these into two basic cases: strikeslip and dip-slip motion.<br />
  9. 9. General Characteristics<br />Earthquake Vibration<br />Earthquake vibrations occur in a variety of frequencies and velocities. The actual rupture process may last from a few seconds to as long as one minute for a major earthquake. Seismic waves generated by the rupture can last from several seconds to a few minutes.<br />Ground shaking is caused by body waves and surface waves<br />Depth of Earhquake<br />Measurement Scale<br /> Deep (300-700 Km)<br />Magnitude- Richter (Charles Richter) Measures the magnitude of the <br />Intensity , degree of damage (Mercilli)<br />Intermediate (300-60 Km)<br />Shallow (60-0 Km)<br />
  10. 10. Determining the magnitude of an earthquake<br />Magnitude-- measure of energy released during earthquake. <br />There are several different ways to measure magnitude. <br />Most common magnitude measure is Richter Magnitude, named for the renowned seismologist, Charles Richter. <br /> <br />Richter Magnitude<br /><ul><li>Measure amplitude of largest S wave on seismograph record.
  11. 11. Take into account distance between seismograph & epicenter. </li></ul> <br />Richter Scale<br /><ul><li>Logarithmic numerical (NOT a physical) scale
  12. 12. Increasing one whole unit on Richter Scale represents 10 times greater magnitude.
  13. 13. Going up one whole unit on Richter Scale represents about a 30 times greater release of energy.</li></ul>Intensity <br /><ul><li>Intensity refers to the amount of damage done in an earthquake
  14. 14. Mercalli Scale is used to express damage</li></li></ul><li>
  15. 15. Family Readiness<br /><ul><li>Create a family Earthquake plan
  16. 16. Know the safe spot in each room
  17. 17. Know the danger spots
  18. 18. Decide where your family will reunite if separated
  19. 19. Keep a list of emergency phone numbers
  20. 20. Develop a survival kit for work, car, and home</li></li></ul><li>Hazards associated with Quakes<br /><ul><li>Shaking:</li></ul> Frequency of shaking differs for different seismic waves. <br />High frequency body waves shake low buildings more. <br />Low frequency surface waves shake high buildings more. <br /> Intensity of shaking also depends on type of subsurface material. <br />Unconsolidated materials amplify shaking more than rocks do. <br /> Fine-grained, sensitive materials can lose strength when shaken. They lose strength by liquefaction. <br /> Buildings respond differently to shaking depending on construction styles, materials <br /> Wood -- more flexible, holds up well <br /> Earthen materials -- very vulnerable to shaking. <br /><ul><li>Ground displacement:</li></ul> Ground surface may shift during an earthquake (esp. if focus is shallow). <br /> Vertical displacements of surface produce fault scarps. <br /><ul><li>Tsunamis (NOT tidal waves)</li></ul> Tsunamis are huge waves generated by earthquakes undersea or below coastal areas. <br /> If earthquake displaces sea surface, wave is generated that can grow as it moves over sea surface.<br /><ul><li>Fires</li></ul> Usually occurs from shifting of subsurface utilities (gas lines)<br />
  21. 21. Home Preparedness<br /><ul><li>Learn how to shut off gas, water, and electricity
  22. 22. Check chimneys, roofs, and wall foundations for stability
  23. 23. Secure heavy furnishings
  24. 24. Secure water heater and appliances
  25. 25. Keep heavy objects on lower shelves
  26. 26. Maintain emergency food, water, medicine, first aid kit, tools, and clothing</li></li></ul><li>Emergency Supplies<br /><ul><li>First Aid supplies Band-Aids antibiotic ointment latex gloves cold/hot packs ace bandages arm sling Tylenol or Advil diarrhea medication
  27. 27. Equipment work gloves shovel tents sleeping bags ready to eat foods clothing radio, flashlights CASH</li></li></ul><li>Emergency Food<br /><ul><li>Camp or backpacking stove propane tank
  28. 28. Canned foods manual can opener
  29. 29. MRE’s
  30. 30. Granola bars
  31. 31. Energy bars</li></li></ul><li>Safe Drinking Water<br /><ul><li>Store a supply of water 1 and 5 gallon containers do not store on concrete
  32. 32. Purifying tap water 8 drops bleach per gal of water add bleach when storing or, boil for 10 minutes
  33. 33. Water from water heater turn off gas or electric turn off cold water supply once cooled, drain at bottom
  34. 34. Other sources toilet storage tank melted ice cubes water trapped in pipes</li></li></ul><li>During an Earthquake<br /><ul><li>Stay away from windows, bookcases, file cabinets, heavy mirrors, and other heavy objects that could fall
  35. 35. Duck under a desk or sturdy table
  36. 36. Watch for falling plaster or ceiling tiles
  37. 37. Stay undercover until the shaking stops, and hold onto your cover
  38. 38. If the desk or table you are under moves… move with it
  39. 39. If in your car, stop, but not on a bridge, or under trees or a power line
  40. 40. If outside, stay outside, and move to an area clear of overhead trees, power lines, or objects that could fall from a structure
  41. 41. Don’t forget about aftershocks</li></li></ul><li>After The Earthquake<br /><ul><li>Be prepared for aftershocks, plan for cover when they occur
  42. 42. Check for injuries, give first aid as necessary
  43. 43. Remain calm, try to reassure others
  44. 44. Wear shoes to avoid injury from broken glass
  45. 45. Check for fire and take appropriate actions
  46. 46. Check gas, water, and electric lines
  47. 47. Tune to emergency broadcast system on radio</li></li></ul><li>How to Shut Off Utilities<br />
  48. 48. Gas Shutoff<br />
  49. 49. Water Shutoff<br />
  50. 50. Electricity Shutoff<br />
  51. 51. Thanks to: All My Friends for being a part<br />