(204) Lecture 1


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(204) Lecture 1

  1. 1. Engl 204 Ms. Manar Al-Harbi Ms.Manar Al-Harbi
  2. 2. What is translation? Translation is the communication of the meaning of  a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. Whereas interpreting undoubtedly antedates writing. Translate (v) Translator (n)  Source text : original text Target text: translated text.  Ms.Manar Al-Harbi
  3. 3. Types of translation There are so many types of translations: Literary  translation, Religious translation… and .one of them is scientific translation scientific translation: Scientific articles are packed with loads of scientific  terms. Translation in general is transferring the meaning , but in scientific translation it is needed to transfer the exact order of ideas, words, and to find the exact translation for scientific Ms.Manar Al-Harbi
  4. 4. Scientific translation It is unquestionable that English–Arabic scientific translation is increasingly becoming a topic of much concern and importance today. Oil on the Arab side and technology on the Western side contribute to this importance. This paper highlights the problems that are likely to be encountered in English–Arabic scientific translation and tries to establish certain possible factors which may finally lead to a theory of this sort of translation. It also identifies certain differences that exist between scientific texts and literary ones. The paper also proposes a model for English–Arabic scientific translation in further attempts driving at a more extensive study. Ms.Manar Al-Harbi
  5. 5. Requirements of Scientific translator According to London Institute of Linguistics, to be a scientific translator one should have: 1. broad knowledge of the subject-matter of the text to be translated; 2. a well-developed imagination that enables the translator to visualize the equipment or process being described; http://muse.dillfrog.com/ambiguous_words.php 3. intelligence, to be able to fill in the missing links in the original text; 4. a sense of discrimination, to be able to choose the most suitable equivalent term from the literature of the field or from dictionaries; 5. the ability to use one’s owns language with clarity, conciseness and precision; and 6. practical experience in translating from related fields. In short, to be technical translator one must be a scientist, or engineer, a linguist and a writer (cf. Gasagrade, 1954: 335-40; Giles, 1995; Latfipour, 1996). Ms.Manar Al-Harbi
  6. 6. Problems facing scientific translator However, a part from the cultural gap, the problem of  scientific translation from English into Arabic remains mostly a matter of understanding and representing the techniques, the processes, and the details which science and technology involve. In this regard, Farghal and Shunnaq (1999:210) state that “the major problem facing translators at present is terminology standardization and dissemination in the sphere of science and technology”. “When it comes to Arabic”, they continue, “scientific discourse is a translation activity, as Arabic is usually a target language, and creation and reasoning are done in another language”. Ms.Manar Al-Harbi
  7. 7. What is terminology Term: is used to refer to any scientific expression.  Example: technology Word: smallest unit of a language which carries  meaning. Example: hour.  Ms.Manar Al-Harbi
  8. 8. Arabization If there is no equivalent for a term and it can not be translated, Arabization is a way of inserting a new word inside Arabic language. It is the translation of loan words into the Arabic alphabet and some times adjustment of pronunciation to suit the Arabic phonology. Lap top = Ms.Manar Al-Harbi
  9. 9. Methods of Arabization 1- transcription “transference” – It is the literal spelling of the English term in Arabic letters as it exactly pronounced e.g: penciling = 2- naturalization It is the adaption of the Englisj term to Arabic pronounciation, alphabet, grammar, by modifying its pronouciation , changing the spelling of one or more of its letters into Arabic ones. e.g: oxidate = Ms.Manar Al-Harbi
  10. 10. Scientific dictionary suggestions Ms.Manar Al-Harbi
  11. 11. Ms.Manar Al-Harbi
  12. 12. http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=agj3CBFP3  HM Ms.Manar Al-Harbi