Head injury ppt

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Head injury ppt

  1. 1. HEAD INJURY MANALI H. SOLANKI F.Y. M.SC. NURSING J G COLLEGE OF NURSING
  2. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HEAD:
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION SCALP INJURY: The scalp has many blood vessels, so any scalp injury may bleed profusely. Control bleeding with direct pressure SKULL INJURY: Skull injury includes fracture to cranium and the face. If severe enough there can be injury to the brain. BRAIN INJURY: Brain injury can be classified as direct or indirect. Direct injuries to the brain can occur in open head injuries
  4. 4. CONCUSION Concussions result from direct blows to the head, gunshot wounds, violent shaking of the head, or through a whiplash type of injury.
  5. 5. CONTUSION A contusionis a bleeding bruise to the brain caused by a direct impact to the head.
  6. 6. PENETRATION INJURY
  7. 7. SHAKEN BABY SYNDROME
  8. 8. LOCKED IN SYNDROME
  9. 9. RISK FACTORS: Colour blindness Alcohol addiction Youngsters Vertigo Males (about 1.5 times as likely as females to sustain a brain injury) Young children or teenagers (especially infants to 4- year-olds and 15–19-year-olds) Certain military personnel (for example, paratroopers) African Americans (who have the highest death rate from brain injury)
  10. 10. ETIOLOGY: Common causes of head injury include traffic accidents, falls, physical assault, and accidents at home, work, outdoors, or while playing sports.
  11. 11. SIGN AND SYMPTOMS: Dilatedpupils Changes in behaviour, such as irritability or confusion Trouble walking or speaking Drainage of bloody or clear fluids from ears or nose Vomiting Seizures Weakness or numbness in the arms or legs
  12. 12. DIAGNOSTIC INVESTIGATIONS:Complete blood count (e.g. Hb, RBC, WBC) Normal values: Hb: in male 13-18gm/dl Platelet: 1, 50,000-4, 50,000/cu mm WBC: 4,000-10,000 /cu mm S. NA+:135-145mEq/l S.k+:3.5-4.5mEq/l Arterial blood gas level PaO2:85-95 mm of Hg PaCO2:35-45 mm of Hg
  13. 13. CT SCAN:
  14. 14. MRI:
  15. 15. Brain ScansElectroencephalography (EEG) Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV)Electronystagmography (ENG)Ultrasound Imaging
  16. 16. COMPLICATIONS: Coma Chronic headaches Loss of or change in sensation, hearing, vision, taste, or smell Paralysis Seizures Speech and language problems Death
  17. 17. INITIAL MANAGEMENT A: Airway control including cervical spine immobilisation with a stiff collar. B: Breathing C: Circulation D: Dysfunction or Disability E: External Examination
  18. 18. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT: CLOSED HEAD INJURY: OPEN HEAD INJURY: DEPRESSED SKULL FRACTURE:
  19. 19. NURSING MANAGEMENT: Ineffective Cerebral tissue perfusion related to increased ICP and decreased CPP Fluid volume deficit related to decrease LOC and hormonal dysfunction. Risk for injury related to decreased level of consciousness. Knowledge deficit regarding the treatment modalities and current situation.
  20. 20.  Ineffective thermoregulation related to damage to hypothalamic centres. Risk for Impaired skin integrity related to compromised circulation shifting of fluid from intra vascular to interstitial space. Anxiety related to outcome of diseases as evidenced by poor concentration on work, isolation from others, rude behaviour
  21. 21. DIET PLAN Amino Acids Protein is used for the growth, repair and maintenance of nearly every tissue in the body and is composed of amino acids. Those with traumatic brain injuries require 0.55 to 0.73 grams of protein per pound of body weight
  22. 22. Other Foods A person living with a brain injury should consume a rounded diet that is rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Avoid saturated fat, hydrogenated fats and sodium because they may increase your risk of suffering a stroke.
  23. 23. CALORIE REQUIREMENTS The Glasgow Coma Scale is a tool used by medical professionals to measure someones level of consciousness. Someone with a GCS of 4 to 5 needs 22.7 to 27.3 calories per pound of body weight per day. Someone with a GCS of 6 to 7 needs 18.2 to 22.7 calories. Those with less-severe injuries who have a GCS of 8 to 12 require 13.6 to 16 calories.
  24. 24. JOURNALS: Nutrition Considerations in Traumatic Brain Injury Nutritional treatment of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during the first six months after injury
  25. 25. REHABILITATION:
  26. 26.  Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy Physical Therapy Speech Therapy Mental Rehabilitation Physical Exercise Occupational Therapy

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