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CBAHI STANDARDS
 RD.8 The radiology department has a
documented and implemented safety plan.
 RD.8.1 There is a safety plan that indicates
the periodic inspection, maintenance, and
calibration of all equipment.
 RD.8.2 The safety plan involves the
management of radioactive materials used for
therapeutic and diagnostic purposes,
particularly with regard to handling, storing,
and transportation.
 RD.8.3 The safety plan involves posting of
safety warnings on the doors.
CBAHI STANDARDS
 RD.8.4 The safety plan involves checking female
patients for pregnancy before exposure.
 RD.8.5 The safety plan indicates monitoring of the staff
for radiation exposure, at least quarterly.
 RD.8.6 The safety plan involves the provision and regular
testing of radiation protection aprons and thyroid and
gonad shields for staff and patients
 RD.8.7 Records are available indicating the radiation
dosimetry tools and staff radiation exposure for the past
twelve months.
 RD.8.8 The safety plan is implemented as evidenced by
the daily practice.
CBAHI STANDARDS
 RD.10 The radiology department ensures the
safety of diagnostic imaging equipment.
 RD.10.1 The radiology department ensures the
following tests are conducted at least annually:
o RD.10.1.1 Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) test.
o RD.10.1.2 Kvp reproducibility and repeatability.
o RD.10.1.3 Half Value Layer test.
o RD.10.1.4 Alignment of collimator and x-ray field.
o RD.10.1.5 Mean glandular dose test (for
mammography).
 RD.10.2 The radiology department implements
corrective actions accordingly.
JCI STANDARDS
 AOP.6.3 A radiation
safety program is in
place, followed, and
documented, and
compliance with the
facility management
and infection control
programs is
maintained.
ANNUAL DOSE FROM
BACKGROUND RADIATION
Total US average dose equivalent = 360 mrem/year
Total exposure Man-made sources
Radon
Internal 11%
Cosmic 8% Terrestrial 6%
Man-Made 18%
55.0%
Medical X-Rays
Nuclear
Medicine 4%
Consumer
Products 3%
Other 1%
11%
WHAT ARE THE RESULTS OF ABOVE
PERMISSIBLE LEVELS OF RADIATION?
Physical Effects
It May be immediate
or delayed
Genetic
Effects
Birth defects due
to irradiation to
reproductive
cells before
conception
Teratogenic
Effects
Cancer or
congenital
malformation due
to radiation
exposure to fetus
in uterus
RADIATION EXPOSURE
 The risk of exposure should
balance the medical benefits.
 Optimize radiation doses by
exposing the patient only to enough
radiation to get a clear image.
 There is a growing concern about
the risk of giving the patient large
doses of radiation
BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF
RADIATION
 Radiation may…
 Deposit Energy in Body
 Cause DNA Damage
 Create Ionizations in Body
oLeading to Free Radicals
 Which may lead to biological damage
Remember to minimize your
exposure at all possible times.
1. Minimize Exposure
2. Measure Your Radiation Dose
-Dosimeters-
 Use to measure the occupational
dose equivalent from x-ray, gamma,
and high energy beta emitters.
 Always practice ALARA
(AS LOW AS REASONABLY
ACHIEVABLE)
some people’s DNA is more resistant
or susceptible to damage, and some
people have an increased risk of
cancer after exposure to ionizing
radiation.
3. Three Effective Strategies
-Time-
Minimize the time and you will
minimize the dose.
Pre-plan the procedure to
minimize exposure time.
 Doubling the distance from the source
can reduce your exposure intensity by
25%. (Inverse Square Law)
 Know the radiation intensity where
you perform most of your work, and
move to lower dose areas during work
delays.
4. Three Effective Strategies -
Distance-
 Position shielding between yourself and
the source of radiation at all permissible
times. Take advantage of permanent
shielding (i.e. equipment or existing
structures).
 Select appropriate shielding material
during the planning stages of the
procedure.
5. Three Effective
Strategies -Shielding-
6. ROOM SHIELDING
Lead lined plaster board Lead glass viewing window
7. RADIATION PROTECTION IN X-
RAY
 Lead aprons attenuate scattered radiation
by 95%
Recommendations (SUMMARY)
 Shield thyroid & gonads, always
wear lead aprons and use dosimeter
to monitor the exposure.
 CT scans should be more justified.
 Patient education is important.
 There should be a universal x-ray
bank where patient x-ray can be
accessible anywhere, from any
hospital.
HIGH QUALITY
COMMUNICATION
HIGH QUALITY
IMAGES
HIGH QUALITY
PATIENT CARE

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Radiology Safety Plan Standards

  • 1.
  • 2. CBAHI STANDARDS  RD.8 The radiology department has a documented and implemented safety plan.  RD.8.1 There is a safety plan that indicates the periodic inspection, maintenance, and calibration of all equipment.  RD.8.2 The safety plan involves the management of radioactive materials used for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes, particularly with regard to handling, storing, and transportation.  RD.8.3 The safety plan involves posting of safety warnings on the doors.
  • 3. CBAHI STANDARDS  RD.8.4 The safety plan involves checking female patients for pregnancy before exposure.  RD.8.5 The safety plan indicates monitoring of the staff for radiation exposure, at least quarterly.  RD.8.6 The safety plan involves the provision and regular testing of radiation protection aprons and thyroid and gonad shields for staff and patients  RD.8.7 Records are available indicating the radiation dosimetry tools and staff radiation exposure for the past twelve months.  RD.8.8 The safety plan is implemented as evidenced by the daily practice.
  • 4. CBAHI STANDARDS  RD.10 The radiology department ensures the safety of diagnostic imaging equipment.  RD.10.1 The radiology department ensures the following tests are conducted at least annually: o RD.10.1.1 Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) test. o RD.10.1.2 Kvp reproducibility and repeatability. o RD.10.1.3 Half Value Layer test. o RD.10.1.4 Alignment of collimator and x-ray field. o RD.10.1.5 Mean glandular dose test (for mammography).  RD.10.2 The radiology department implements corrective actions accordingly.
  • 5. JCI STANDARDS  AOP.6.3 A radiation safety program is in place, followed, and documented, and compliance with the facility management and infection control programs is maintained.
  • 6. ANNUAL DOSE FROM BACKGROUND RADIATION Total US average dose equivalent = 360 mrem/year Total exposure Man-made sources Radon Internal 11% Cosmic 8% Terrestrial 6% Man-Made 18% 55.0% Medical X-Rays Nuclear Medicine 4% Consumer Products 3% Other 1% 11%
  • 7. WHAT ARE THE RESULTS OF ABOVE PERMISSIBLE LEVELS OF RADIATION? Physical Effects It May be immediate or delayed Genetic Effects Birth defects due to irradiation to reproductive cells before conception Teratogenic Effects Cancer or congenital malformation due to radiation exposure to fetus in uterus
  • 8. RADIATION EXPOSURE  The risk of exposure should balance the medical benefits.  Optimize radiation doses by exposing the patient only to enough radiation to get a clear image.  There is a growing concern about the risk of giving the patient large doses of radiation
  • 9. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION  Radiation may…  Deposit Energy in Body  Cause DNA Damage  Create Ionizations in Body oLeading to Free Radicals  Which may lead to biological damage
  • 10. Remember to minimize your exposure at all possible times. 1. Minimize Exposure
  • 11. 2. Measure Your Radiation Dose -Dosimeters-  Use to measure the occupational dose equivalent from x-ray, gamma, and high energy beta emitters.  Always practice ALARA (AS LOW AS REASONABLY ACHIEVABLE) some people’s DNA is more resistant or susceptible to damage, and some people have an increased risk of cancer after exposure to ionizing radiation.
  • 12. 3. Three Effective Strategies -Time- Minimize the time and you will minimize the dose. Pre-plan the procedure to minimize exposure time.
  • 13.  Doubling the distance from the source can reduce your exposure intensity by 25%. (Inverse Square Law)  Know the radiation intensity where you perform most of your work, and move to lower dose areas during work delays. 4. Three Effective Strategies - Distance-
  • 14.  Position shielding between yourself and the source of radiation at all permissible times. Take advantage of permanent shielding (i.e. equipment or existing structures).  Select appropriate shielding material during the planning stages of the procedure. 5. Three Effective Strategies -Shielding-
  • 15. 6. ROOM SHIELDING Lead lined plaster board Lead glass viewing window
  • 16. 7. RADIATION PROTECTION IN X- RAY  Lead aprons attenuate scattered radiation by 95%
  • 17. Recommendations (SUMMARY)  Shield thyroid & gonads, always wear lead aprons and use dosimeter to monitor the exposure.  CT scans should be more justified.  Patient education is important.  There should be a universal x-ray bank where patient x-ray can be accessible anywhere, from any hospital.
  • 18.