Sociology notes


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Sociology notes

  1. 1. CONSERVATIVES. (new right)-universal credit (£26,000 cap)-child benefits frozen until 2013-£50,000 cut off CB (not qualified.)-Bedroom tax- 1 bedroom = 14% off 2 bedrooms= 25% off-Over 25 years old to get a house-Ulterate early intervention (social workers should have more power to take a child away from aproblemed family)CRITISISM AGAINST CONSERVATIVES.-Foulcoult: Criticises social workers having too much power thought police-Greer:Radical Feminist: a lot of conservatives perpetuates sexual D of labour, Big Societyencourages wives to stay at home.-Increases in homelessness.-Abott+Wallace: Marriage tax allowance promises SPF and cohabiting families material deprivation-Garnam: Criticises £26,000 cap effects extended families and their children. Freezing of childbenefits will effect children. Ulterate early intervention, Remove children from parents leads tocrime.-fawsett society- The conservatives cuts are hurting woman more than men short start centres cut,Women suffer smaller pentions.LABOUR.-Tony blaire: New deal + Gay equality-Gordon Brown: Maternity leave which is interchangeable with paternity leave this law will bepassed in 2018. Family intervention Project. Housing policy supporting the housing act of 1977which cost £20b pregnant teens get houses first priority. Gay equality.-Phillips:Labour created broken Britain (too much welfare). Disapproves of gay families.Lack of father figure causes a problem as children end up not respecting authority.-Tatchell: Breach of human right labour didnt create gay equality-David cameron: Trying to get the gay vote-Barlow and Duncan: New labour no different to conservatives they both strongly support N FAM
  2. 2. MARRIAGE AND COHABITATIONDecline in marriage rate in England and Wales.-Robert Chester: popularity of marriage1. people are marrying later in life- They are prioritising career before settling down to start afamily. 2. Economic Factors- Money is saved to cope with rising unemployment, economicinstability and greater housing costs. Reluctance to commit to a long term relationship.-Brown: Decline in forced marriage1. end to shotgun weddings- marriage rates have declined because the majority of parents nolonger insist on a marriage if the male partner has made his girlfriend pregnant. - MarriageBased on Shotgun weddings were unstable and caused great unhappiness between thecouple affected. Societies tolerance has meant that people can find alternatives to forcedmarriages.-Cameron: Make marriage more popular (Liberal democrats oppose unfair to SPF)1. he has pledged to introduce new tax breaks for married couples. It would give marriedcouples tax relief worth £150 per year.2. State should encourage more people to get married because marriage acts as a stabiliser-Tatchell: Gay marriage1. gay couples can have civil partnerships but cant get married in church.2. He said some heterosexual couples wanted civil partnerships because they objects to thepatriarchal history of marriage and being called husband and wifeFletcher: Remarriages create reconstituted familes– Divorce doesnt mean the end of the N FAM. Its a stepping stone from one nuclear FAM toanother.– People looking for the perfect marriage and so use failed experiences to make a success ofsecond one.Germaine Greer the whole woman: marriage traps women.-women are vulnerable, men have been exploiting women for 50,000 years-Patriarchy male dominance, They now want a matriarchy.-society that pressures women into becoming wives or female consorts of men. Women must beable to adore their husbands and serve his interests.-men use their power in the marriage to maxmize his freedom at the womans expense. Men needmarriage more than women to declare housework tasks the husband dont wanna do. MARRIAGESHOULD BE AVOIDED AT ALL COSTS.COHABITATIONcauses and consequences of co habitationJOHN CHANDLER (3 types of cohabitation)– short term- live together as partners to wait for their divorces to be finalised from previousmarriages (waiting until its legal) then they will get married and stop cohabiting– Medium term- Try before buy they test out living with the person and experience it beforedeciding to get married.– Long term- (life partners) tend to get equal divorcing rights.GIDDENS: plastic sexuality– He believes more people will co habit because plastic sexuality means that sex no longerleads to childbirth due to contraception. Allows couples to live together without havingchildren. Reducing the chanced of illegitimacy. There is more SERIAL MONOGOMY.DAVID CHEAL (post modernist) – Diverse going up.-Diversity families have fragmented marriage as individuals have much more choice about howthey live their lives. Causes secularisation which allows people to negotiate their relationship withothers.
  3. 3. ALLAN AND CROWE ( popularity of cohabitation)– more people cohabiting because there is more social tolerance in society. Cohabitation is nolonger seen as living in sin. sexual freedom– teenagers going to universities has freed them from parental influence and lef to greaterchances of them cohabiting.– Banks are more likely to allow cohabiting couple to take out mortgae– the divorcee may find another sexual partner and start the process again.MORGAN (danger of cohabitation) 2012 57% cohabitation families have children, less than 4%stay together-Marriage is going out of fashion- Worry trend where less people are getting married, causingserious decline in marriage rate, cohabitation is replacing marriage.-cohabitation is unstable- causes more broken families.SAM ROSENIL (gay cohabitation) main form of gay marriages-tolerance has allowed gay/les fams to live cohabiting openly before civil partnership-decline of the heterosexual life cycle allowed gay couples to have equal status to the nuclear lifecycle. Individuals are being released from heterosexual scripts and the patters of straight marriage.DIVORCE (FOR DIVORCE) divorce should be made easierCOLIN GIBSON:changing social attitudes1. marriage is temporary: Marriage is seen as a relationship rather than contract for life. Lessstatus and authority.2. Divorce accepted in society: Divorce is an acceptance solution to a failed marriage and away out of a marital difficulties. There is less stigma attached to divorce.3. Increase in Selfishness: Thatcherism in the 1980s creased more selfishness in society sodivorce became more popular as partners wanted to maximise their personal wealth throughdivorce.4. Secularisation: Decline of religious values in society has meant that marriafe gas lessimportance in peoples lives.CAROL SMART – impact of john major. 199 family low act made divorce harder because itprevented a clean break of the partners. Couples ought to go through meditation with a view tocreating reconciliation rather than divorce.SOMERVILLE: liberal fem.– Greated freedom for women- women have made towards equality in the UK, woman havebecome more assertive and confident.– Divorce creates symmetry in marriage: when men do not take on their full share ofresponsibilities, they should be shown the door.– Divorce reflects the increased pluralism of the family until in societyGERMAINE GREER the whole woman– divorce is the way out! It is an escape from patriarchy the hight divorce rate in the uk is dueto unhappiness of wives.– Women realised that they dont need to be trapped into empty shell marriages. The childrensuffer more harm when couples are forced to stay together. Divorce can mean an end tounnecessary stress.SEGREGATED FAMILIES.Women should be encouraged to divorce and live in SPFs and develop Lesbian relationships sothey can escape from patriarchy.FLETCHER (agrees with somerville)-High divorce supports N FAM.- the rise in the divorce rate is evidence that people expect anddemand more from their marriages. People divorce because they want to be in a perfect marriage.Which they see is attainable with a different partner.
  4. 4. ARGUEMENTS AGAINST DIVORCEMURRAY (NEW RIGHT) hostility in divorce- against casual sex.– Divorce is dysfunctional- an increase divorce rate means more single parent families, whichare harmful to society. SPF lack father figures and therefore lack respect for authority insociety.– SPF;s are responsible for many social problems such as crime, drug culture and educationalfailure. They live in an underclass and are dependant on welfare. Divorce is evidence ofMoral Decay which links back to David Camerons “Broken Britain”– Social Policy is harmful- he criticises the uk divorce laws and says that they made Britainthe divorce capital of Europe. They have led to social and moral disintegration of society.– The state reassessed the importance or the N FAM by making it clear that divorce is notacceptable. eg. Divorce is banned for the Philippines.DENNIS (Divorce and the loss of functions in the N FAM)– Divorce has reduced the number of N FAM in society which means it can no longer carryout its functions effectively. The family plays less of a role in health, wealthfare oreducation, because there is only one parent present.– He argues that the close and supportive relationship that used to exist have disappearedbecause of the high divorce rate.DR KIERNAN. (effects of broken home)– Divorce causes a lot of negative side effects for children. They have higher rates ofexperiencing behavioural problems.– They are distracted and under considerable emotional pressure dinging it hard toconcentrate.– They seek the attention of their divorcing parents by being truant and developing an anti-school sub- culture. There is a significant increase in anti social behaviour and teenagepregnancies with these children.– They may experience other problems such as financial hardship, stress from family conflictsand declining ability of the parents to cope with their parental roles.BURGHES (link between education and divorce)– good education creates higher income. Money smooths out the rough edges of a marriage.– If students drop out of uni or A levels they are more likely to drop out of marriage– failiour to study = poor education= poor job= poverty= divorce.