Keller sbm3 01

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  • Keller sbm3 01

    1. 1. 1.1CHAPTER 1:CHAPTER 1:BRANDS & BRAND MANAGEMENTBRANDS & BRAND MANAGEMENTKevin Lane KellerKevin Lane KellerTuck School of BusinessTuck School of BusinessDartmouth CollegeDartmouth College
    2. 2. 1.2What is a brand?What is a brand? For the American Marketing Association (AMA), a brand is aFor the American Marketing Association (AMA), a brand is a“name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them,“name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them,intended tointended to identifyidentify the goods and services of one seller or groupthe goods and services of one seller or groupof sellers and toof sellers and to differentiatedifferentiate them from those of competition.”them from those of competition.” These different components of a brand that identify andThese different components of a brand that identify anddifferentiate it aredifferentiate it are brand elementsbrand elements..
    3. 3. 1.3What is a brand?What is a brand? Many practicing managers refer to a brand as more than thatMany practicing managers refer to a brand as more than that——as something that has actually created a certain amount ofas something that has actually created a certain amount ofawareness, reputation, prominence,awareness, reputation, prominence, and so on in the marketplace.and so on in the marketplace. We can make a distinction between the AMA definition of aWe can make a distinction between the AMA definition of a“brand” with a small b and the industry’s concept of a “Brand”“brand” with a small b and the industry’s concept of a “Brand”with a capital b.with a capital b.
    4. 4. 1.4Brands vs. ProductsBrands vs. Products AA productproduct is anything we can offer to a market foris anything we can offer to a market forattention, acquisition, use, or consumption that mightattention, acquisition, use, or consumption that mightsatisfy a need or want.satisfy a need or want. AA productproduct may be a physical good, a service, a retailmay be a physical good, a service, a retailoutlet, a person, an organization, a place, or even anoutlet, a person, an organization, a place, or even anidea.idea.
    5. 5. 1.5Five Levels of Meaning for a ProductFive Levels of Meaning for a Product TheThe core benefit levelcore benefit level is the fundamental need or want thatis the fundamental need or want thatconsumers satisfy by consuming the product or service.consumers satisfy by consuming the product or service. TheThe generic product levelgeneric product level is a basic version of the product containingis a basic version of the product containingonly those attributes or characteristics absolutely necessary for itsonly those attributes or characteristics absolutely necessary for itsfunctioning but with no distinguishing features. This is basically afunctioning but with no distinguishing features. This is basically astripped-down, no-frills version of the product that adequatelystripped-down, no-frills version of the product that adequatelyperforms the product function.performs the product function. TheThe expected product levelexpected product level is a set of attributes or characteristics thatis a set of attributes or characteristics thatbuyers normally expect and agree to when they purchase abuyers normally expect and agree to when they purchase aproduct.product. TheThe augmented product levelaugmented product level includes additional product attributes,includes additional product attributes,benefits, or related services that distinguish the product frombenefits, or related services that distinguish the product fromcompetitors.competitors. TheThe potential product levelpotential product level includes all the augmentations andincludes all the augmentations andtransformations that a product might ultimately undergo in thetransformations that a product might ultimately undergo in thefuture.future.
    6. 6. 1.6 A brand is therefore more than a product, as itA brand is therefore more than a product, as itcan have dimensions that differentiate it in somecan have dimensions that differentiate it in someway from other products designed to satisfy theway from other products designed to satisfy thesame need.same need.
    7. 7. 1.7 Some brands create competitive advantages withSome brands create competitive advantages withproduct performance; other brands createproduct performance; other brands createcompetitive advantages through non-product-competitive advantages through non-product-related means.related means.
    8. 8. 1.8Why do brands matter?Why do brands matter? What functions do brands perform that makeWhat functions do brands perform that makethem so valuable to marketers?them so valuable to marketers?
    9. 9. 1.9Importance of Brands to ConsumersImportance of Brands to Consumers Identification of the source of the productIdentification of the source of the product Assignment of responsibility to product makerAssignment of responsibility to product maker Risk reducerRisk reducer Search cost reducerSearch cost reducer Promise, bond, or pact with product makerPromise, bond, or pact with product maker Symbolic deviceSymbolic device Signal of qualitySignal of quality
    10. 10. 1.10Reducing the Risks in Product DecisionsReducing the Risks in Product Decisions Consumers may perceive many different types of risks in buyingConsumers may perceive many different types of risks in buyingand consuming a product:and consuming a product: Functional riskFunctional risk——The product does not perform up toThe product does not perform up toexpectations.expectations. Physical riskPhysical risk——The product poses a threat to the physical well-The product poses a threat to the physical well-being or health of the user or others.being or health of the user or others. Financial riskFinancial risk——The product is not worth the price paid.The product is not worth the price paid. Social riskSocial risk——The product results in embarrassment from others.The product results in embarrassment from others. Psychological riskPsychological risk——The product affects the mental well-being ofThe product affects the mental well-being ofthe user.the user. Time riskTime risk——The failure of the product results in an opportunityThe failure of the product results in an opportunitycost of finding another satisfactory product.cost of finding another satisfactory product.
    11. 11. 1.11Importance of Brands to FirmsImportance of Brands to Firms To firms, brands represent enormously valuableTo firms, brands represent enormously valuablepieces of legal property, capable of influencingpieces of legal property, capable of influencingconsumer behavior, being bought and sold, andconsumer behavior, being bought and sold, andproviding the security of sustained futureproviding the security of sustained futurerevenues.revenues.
    12. 12. 1.12Importance of Brands to FirmsImportance of Brands to Firms Identification to simplify handling or tracingIdentification to simplify handling or tracing Legally protecting unique featuresLegally protecting unique features Signal of quality levelSignal of quality level Endowing products with unique associationsEndowing products with unique associations Source of competitive advantageSource of competitive advantage Source of financial returnsSource of financial returns
    13. 13. 1.13Can everything be branded?Can everything be branded? Ultimately a brand is something that resides inUltimately a brand is something that resides inthe minds of consumers.the minds of consumers. The key to branding is that consumers perceiveThe key to branding is that consumers perceivedifferences among brands in a product category.differences among brands in a product category. Even commodities can be branded:Even commodities can be branded: Coffee (Maxwell House), bath soap (Ivory), flourCoffee (Maxwell House), bath soap (Ivory), flour(Gold Medal), beer (Budweiser), salt (Morton),(Gold Medal), beer (Budweiser), salt (Morton),oatmeal (Quaker), pickles (Vlasic), bananasoatmeal (Quaker), pickles (Vlasic), bananas(Chiquita), chickens (Perdue), pineapples (Dole), and(Chiquita), chickens (Perdue), pineapples (Dole), andeven water (Perrier)even water (Perrier)
    14. 14. 1.14An Example of Branding a CommodityAn Example of Branding a Commodity De Beers Group added the phrase “A DiamondDe Beers Group added the phrase “A DiamondIs Forever”Is Forever”
    15. 15. 1.15What is branded?What is branded? Physical goodsPhysical goods ServicesServices Retailers and distributorsRetailers and distributors Online products and servicesOnline products and services People and organizationsPeople and organizations Sports, arts, and entertainmentSports, arts, and entertainment Geographic locationsGeographic locations Ideas and causesIdeas and causes
    16. 16. 1.16Source of Brands StrengthSource of Brands Strength “The real causes of enduring market leadershipare vision and will. Enduring market leaders have arevolutionary and inspiring vision of the massmarket, and they exhibit an indomitable will torealize that vision. They persist under adversity,innovate relentlessly, commit financial resources,and leverage assets to realize their vision.”Gerald J. Tellis and Peter N. Golder, “First to Market, First toFail? Real Causes of Enduring Market Leadership,” MIT SloanManagement Review, 1 January 1996
    17. 17. 1.17Importance of Brand ManagementImportance of Brand Management The bottom line is that any brandThe bottom line is that any brand——no matterno matterhow strong at one point in timehow strong at one point in time——is vulnerable,is vulnerable,and susceptible to poor brand management.and susceptible to poor brand management.
    18. 18. What are the strongest brands?What are the strongest brands?
    19. 19. 1.19Top Ten Global BrandsTop Ten Global BrandsBrandBrand 2006 ($Billion)2006 ($Billion) 2005 ($ Billion)2005 ($ Billion)1.1. Coca-ColaCoca-Cola2.2. MicrosoftMicrosoft3.3. IBMIBM4.4. GEGE5.5. IntelIntel6.6. NokiaNokia7.7. ToyotaToyota8.8. DisneyDisney9.9. McDonald’sMcDonald’s10.10. Mercedes-BenzMercedes-Benz67.0067.0056.9356.9356.2056.2048.9148.9132.3232.3230.1330.1327.9427.9427.8527.8527.5027.5021.8021.8067.5367.5359.9459.9453.3853.3847.0047.0035.5935.5926.4526.4524.8424.8426.4426.4426.0126.0120.0020.00
    20. 20. 1.20Branding Challenges and OpportunitiesBranding Challenges and Opportunities Savvy customersSavvy customers Brand proliferationBrand proliferation Media fragmentationMedia fragmentation Increased competitionIncreased competition Increased costsIncreased costs Greater accountabilityGreater accountability
    21. 21. 1.21The Brand Equity ConceptThe Brand Equity Concept No common viewpoint on how it should beNo common viewpoint on how it should beconceptualized and measuredconceptualized and measured It stresses the importance of brand role inIt stresses the importance of brand role inmarketing strategies.marketing strategies. Brand equity is defined in terms of the marketingBrand equity is defined in terms of the marketingeffects uniquely attributable to the brand.effects uniquely attributable to the brand. Brand equity relates to the fact that different outcomes resultBrand equity relates to the fact that different outcomes resultin the marketing of a product or service because of its brandin the marketing of a product or service because of its brandname, as compared to if the same product or service did notname, as compared to if the same product or service did nothave that name.have that name.
    22. 22. 1.22Strategic Brand ManagementStrategic Brand Management It involves the design and implementation ofIt involves the design and implementation ofmarketing programs and activities to build,marketing programs and activities to build,measure, and manage brand equity.measure, and manage brand equity. TheThe Strategic Brand Management ProcessStrategic Brand Management Process is defined asis defined asinvolving four main steps:involving four main steps:1. Identifying and establishing brand positioning and values1. Identifying and establishing brand positioning and values2. Planning and implementing brand marketing programs2. Planning and implementing brand marketing programs3. Measuring and interpreting brand performance3. Measuring and interpreting brand performance4. Growing and sustaining brand equity4. Growing and sustaining brand equity
    23. 23. 1.23Strategic Brand Management ProcessStrategic Brand Management ProcessMental mapsCompetitive frame of referencePoints-of-parity and points-of-differenceCore brand valuesBrand mantraMixing and matching of brand elementsIntegrating brand marketing activitiesLeveraging of secondary associationsBrand value chainBrand auditsBrand trackingBrand equity management systemBrand-product matrixBrand portfolios and hierarchiesBrand expansion strategiesBrand reinforcement and revitalizationKey ConceptsStepsGrow and sustainbrand equityIdentify and establishbrand positioning and valuesPlan and implementbrand marketing programsMeasure and interpretbrand performance

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