► Familiarize students with the terms, key concepts and basic principles associated with the climate of India.► Provide them idea about the mechanism of Indian monsoon.► Study the climate of India through the understanding and analysis of local climate.► Explore the causative factor of the spatial variations in the climate of the country.► Understand and analyze the variation of climatic phenomenon in the cycle of seasons.► Make students aware of the change in climate (global warming) at local level to understand it at national and global level.
Variations In Climate Varied land forms features
FACTORS AFFECTING INDIAN CLIMATE •The Himalayan Mt. •Surrounding Seas •Relief Features •Distance from Sea
Factors Affecting Climate of India The Himalayas • In winters act as a barrier against the bitterly cold winds from the Arctic . • In summer they trap the monsoon winds and bring rain to India.
Cold Wav e Cold Wav e Cold THE HIMALAYAS- CLIMATIC BARRIER Wav e Cold Wav e d Win oonM ons d n Win sooMon d Win on nso Mo d Win on nso Mo
RELIEF W estern Receives high rainfall Western slopes of Ghat M the Western Ghats get very heavy t. rain fall. d Places to the East in so on W W in d d Receives low receive low rain n n in M o o ns oo o n W rainfall fall. M so on M
DISTANCE FROM SEA SIMLA DELHI KOLKOTA MUMBAI CHENNAI Coastal areas have moderate climate where as Interior parts have extreme climate.
RHYTHM OF SEASONS HOT WEATHER HOT WEATHER RETREATING MONSOON RETREATING MONSOONCOLD WEATHER SOUTH WEST MONSOON SOUTH WEST MONSOON
Winter Season ► It extends from December to February. ► Average temperature in the Northern Plains is between 10° C and 15°C ► North India experiences intense cold. ► .There is light rainfall during winter. ► This is caused by Cyclonic storms which originate from the Mediterranean sea and Travel towards India These winds are WESTERN DISTURBANCE ► Occasional tropical cyclone visit eastern coast in this season. • They cause heavy snowfall in the Himalayas and rain in the plains.
WIND DIRECTION- WINTER No r the rn Pl ain Ganga Delta Tropical cyclone
WINTER RAINFALL RAINFALL DUE TO WESTERN DISTURBANCES RAINFALL DUE TO NORTH EAST WIND
The Summer Season Summmer starts from April andlasts till June.Northern Plains record highesttemperature.Deccan is comparatively coolerThe hot dry wind LOO blowsover Northern Plains.Kalbaisakhi Occurs in WestBengal and Assam.Mango showers occur inKarnataka and Kerala
SOUTH WEST MONSOONSEASON ► It extends from June to September. ► Intense heating in north west India creates low pressure HIGH TEMPERATURE LOW PRESSURE region. ► Low pressure attract the wind from the surrounding region. ► After having rains for a few days sometime monsoon fails to occur for one or more weeks is known as break in the monsoon.
MONSOON WIND Arabian sea Bay of Bengal Branch Branch EQUATOR e ad e e e ad ad ad Tr Tr Tr Tr SE SE SE SE
ONSET OF SW MONSOON e Jun 15 th y Jul y th Jul 15 1 st e Jun th 10 ne th Ju ne 5 st Ju 1
RETREATING MONSOON SEASON ► It extends from October to November. ► In October the temperature starts dropping there is LOW PRESSURE ZONE in LOW PRESSURE Northern India and cannot attract monsoon winds. ► The south -west winds retreat gradually. ► They blow from land to sea. ► They do not cause any rain except in Tamilnadu.
DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALL ► Broadly ,India can be divided into Four rainfall regions ► Very heavy rainfall ► heavy rainfall > 200cm ► moderate 100-200cm rainfall ► scanty rainfall 50-100 cm < 50cm
Very heavy rainfall Heavy rainfall regionsregions:more than 200cm :between 100to 200cmOf rain in a year. of rain in a year.• the Western Coastal • The Ganga plains in Plains Bihar and West Bengal.• The western slopes of • The Himalayan region. theWestern Ghats. • The Northwestern part of• Most of the northeastern the Peninsular Plateau states. • Parts of the Western Ghats. • The east coast and the north east India
Moderate rainfall region: Scanty rainfall regionAnnual rainfall between 50— lessthan 50 cm100cm• The upper Ganga plain • Western Rajasthan• Eastern Rajasthan Southern Punjab and Punjab Haryana and Northern Gujarat. Soutern Kashmir • Eastern slopes of the• Parts of the Deccan Western Ghats. Plateau –Karnataka, • Northern Parts of Andhra Pradesh& Kashmir. Tamilnadu.
HOT WEATHER SEASON May 480C April 380C March 300C
STORMS IN HOT WEATHER SEASON FAQ BARDOLI CHHEERHA LOO KALBAISAKHI MANGO SHOWER BLOSSOM SHOWER Rhythm of Seasons
TEMPERATURE- JULY 250C 20 0C 300C 25 0 C 20 0 C 30 0 C 30 0C
CLIMATE CHANGE & INDIA► India has long coast line► India has long coast line and rise of sea level will and rise of sea level will submerge large area. submerge large area.► A population of 7.1► A population of 7.1 million living in coastal million living in coastal areas will be affected. areas will be affected.► Production of crops like► Production of crops like wheat, rice etc will wheat, rice etc will KOLKOTA decrease. decrease. MUMBAI► The natural disasters► The natural disasters like cyclone, floods and like cyclone, floods and CHENNAI drought will increase in drought will increase in frequency as well as frequency as well as intensity. intensity.
Let’sEvaluate• Mention the Three factors which affect India’s climate.• Why are the Himalayas important in determinig India’s climate• Give the four Major seaons of India.• What are western disturbances in which area do they cause rain?• Which months are known for the retreating monsoon?• Which is the rain shadow area?• Name the four rainfall regions.• Which region receives the the least amount of rainfall.