Presentation and analysis and interpretation of data
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data Presented By: Lovely Ann F. Hezoli Ryan Batangantang Glenn dela Cueva
ObjectivesAfter studying this lesson you are expected to:1. Be able to present the results of your collected data.2. Make good analysis of the tabulated or graphically presented data,3. Make effective interpretation of the data/finding/results, and4. Draw implications or inferences and generations from the analysis and interpretation of findings.
This chapter presents the findings of the study. Presentation should be clear and scholarlydone and may come in the form of tables, figures orcharts. Analysis refers to the skill of the researcher indescribing, delineating similarities and differences,highlighting the significant findings or data and abilityto extract information or messages out of thepresented data. Interpretation is the explanation orsuggestions inferred from the data, their implicationsbut not conclusions.
Lesson 1: Presentation of findingsTwo forms of communicating your findings in research:Verbal – describes and narrates to readers what the researcher has done and the results that he or she has obtainedSymbolic – uses graphic representation, tables or statistical values.
The Format The immediate purpose of writing a research report is to tell other scientists about your work, about the new knowledge you have discovered. The research report should be clear enough that any scientist could replicate your study without telephoning you to ask for details. In addition, the research must be explained clearly enough that a scientist could evaluate its merits and flaws, solely on the basis of the written word.
The American Psychological Association(APA) Format or style The APA Style is the format approved by the Open University Academic Council to be adopted at the PUP Open University, however, in the Graduate School, each discipline has a preferred format. The Public Administration Programs use the APA Format. The American Psychological Association (APA) has strict guidelines for the editorial style and organizational format of written research reports. There are accepted conventions for the mechanics of writing the report. For example, how will you write the title of your table? Should the table number be written in Arabic or Roman numeral? Will the title be indented and in capital letters or in small letters except the first letter of the key words? A more detailed discussion of the APA will be found in the last module dealing with references.
Organization of your presentation The organization of the presentation and interpretation of findings vary according to the research method used. In descriptive research, especially the survey type, the presentation of results follow a pattern. The findings presented will follow the sequence of the sub-problems raised in Chapter 1. It would be a good idea if reports assist in the analysis, interpretation and clarification of the next materials. Properly chosen, carefully drawn, and accurately presented, they can make many of the statements appearing in the body of the report more meaningful. Do not present your findings by recasting your sub-problems in Chapter 1. Remember that your whole Chapter 4 is the exposition of the answers of findings to your research questions specially stated in Chapter 1. Your answers become the subheadings of your Chapter 4.
Examples: For Research Problem 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, educational attainment, civil status and position? Your subheading in Chapter 4 should be: 1. Profile of the Respondents In Terms of Age, Sex, Educational Attainment, Civil Status and PositionFor research Problem No. 2What is the leadership styles of the local government officials in manila as assessed by the officials themselves and their subordinates, using the following five dimensions of McPhee Andrewartha’s Rating scale: 2.1 Focus,2.2 Emphasis 2.3 Relationship, 2.4 timing and 2.5 Thinking
The External FormatThe use of tables and graph Tables and graphs are both ways to organize and arrange data so that it is more easily understood by the viewer. Tables and graphs are related in the sense that the information used in tables is frequently also used for the basis of graphs.
When designing table, keep the format clear and simple. Line up decimal places, note units clearly, use a large enough typeface and construct a clean orderly arrangement of rows and columns. Bar graphs are an excellent way to show the results that are one time, that are not continuous—especially samplings such as surveys and inventories. Bar graphs are used to get an overall idea or trends in responses which categories get, many versus few responses.
• Bars in a graph should be wider than thespaces between them.•All bars should be of equal width, and allspaces including the space between the axisand the first bar, should be equal of width.•Bars should be neither very thin nor verywide.•Use the same color for all the bars in agraph that are in a single data set.•Use different fill colors for positive andnegative values.• Line graph is most useful in displayingdata or information that changecontinuously over time.
The column graph is more similarCircle or pie graphs are particularly good illustrations when considering how many parts of a whole are inception.Each slice should be easily distinguished from the rest and clearly labeled.Use 6 or fewer slices in a graph.Emphasize a slice in a pie graph by exploding it or by choosing a color different from the rest of the slices.Number of segments or slices in a pie graph should be limited to those that
Components that are too small to be shown individually can be grouped into one segment labeled other or miscellaneous.The largest segment conventionally begins at 1200 or at a quarter hour and runs clockwise. Remaining segments continue clockwise.The most important slice is in the upper-right quadrant.
Other Conventions RegardingGraphics1. Keep graphics simple. Design the graphic to help others understand your point.2. Simplify your data3. Use consistent symbols4. Avoid special effects if they do not enhance the point to be made.
TablesTables are numbered consecutively in Arabic numeral. Table number should be written at the top and the caption should be placed at the bottom just right above the table box.In typing tables, never cut table in two pages. You may decrease the size of the font of your table to fit the size in a short coupon bond or you may use landscape so that you will have one table in a page. Avoid enlarging the font size of your table in order to fit in such page.
Caption, Labels And LinesTable caption should be the same as that which appears in the list of tables. It is placed above the table unlike that which is used in figures. The caption should tell in precise terms what the table contains.
PUP format Table 1 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents According to AgeApa formatTable 1. Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents according to age.
Other Rules in Caption1. No terminal punctuation.2. Unusual abbreviation are not allowed in the table, if necessary, put a legend at the bottom of the table.3. Captions should be worded as concisely as clarity permits.4. When a table is placed broadside on a page the caption should be on the binding side.5. Be consistent in label size, font and style.
The Internal FormatA horizontal line should be placed one space below the last line of the caption. Below the line are the box headings-descriptive headings for each column heading and headings are centered between the vertical lines that enclosed them. One space at least should be allowed on either side of each heading.
ExampleTable 2TitleBOXHEADStub Head Column Column Head Column Head Column Head HeadSapannerStub Column Field or Body
Columns that consist of words are placed on the left and those that consist of numbers particularly those with decimals should be aligned and at least one space should be left on each side of the largest number in the column.
Table 4 The Extent Of Behavioral Development Of The Grade One Pupils During The School Year According To SexArea Male Female Total s Mean Mean Mean Rate of Increase 1st Last Increase % 1st Last Increase % 1st Last Increase % recordin recordin recordin recordin recordin recordin g g g g g gPhysical 2.74 3.69 .95 19 2.72 3.84 3.84 1.12 22.4 2.73 3.73 3.78Emotion 2.58 3.67 1.09 21.8 2.54 3.78 1.24 24.8 2.56 3.72 1.16 23.2 -al
LinesThe line at the bottom of the table is omitted on all the pages except the last when a table is continued in a series of pages.Vertical lines are used for grouping, separating closely spaced columns. When two equal parts of the table are placed side by side, double vertical lines should be placed between them. Horizontal lines are not usually placed between lines of items in typed tables.
Figure (Chart, Graph And Illustration) These should be done judiciously. The research reporter must ask himself the following questions: is the illustration necessary? Does it simply repeat what the text said? Illustrative materials shall be called figures. The figure number and caption should be centered below the illustration. An Arabic numeral is written after the word “Figure” followed by a period. The caption should be brief and explanatory.
Size and Proportion of FigureFigures should not be larger than 8 ½ x 11 inches or smaller than 2x2 inches. Figures of equal importance in the report should be approximately equal size.Smaller size photographs may be mounted two or more to a page or regular typing paper. If photographs are 8 ½ x 11 inches in size, they need not to be mounted.If the detail is not shown in an illustration, it is recommended that the original drawing be made much larger than the page’s size and then reduce page size by photography.
Placement and PagingAs with tables, illustrations or figures should follow as closely as possible the first references to them in the text. On the four sides of a page carrying illustrative materials, a margin of least one inch should be allowed. The figure caption, descriptive matter and legends should fall within the margin.In case of illustration or figures occupying half or less than half a page, textual material may be typed on the same page. In no case should less than five lines of typewritten text be put in the same page as an illustration.
Lesson 2: Analysis of Data or FindingsIn analyzing data, stress only those important result that gives information that could answer the problem you raised or posed in your study which you stated in Chapter 1. you highlight only those important and unique findings. You have to be consistent and coherent in your approach as well as logical, based on certain academic conventions.
Lesson 3: Interpretation of Findings/Results,Implications and InferencesSufficient data should be used to justify your inferences or generalizations. The implications suggested by the data should be explained and discussed thoroughly in this portion of your thesis or dissertation.The data analysis involves comparing values on the dependent measures in statistical cases. In the non statistical approach, these comparisons usually involve visual inspection of data. Evaluation depends on projecting from baseline data what findings would be like in the future if some variables were not experimented.