The battles of the Civil War were fought across the UnitedStates from the East Coast to as far west as New Mexico.Beginning in 1861.During the Civil War, over 200,000 Americans were killed inbattle as each side fought for their chosen cause.On April 12, 1861, the war began when Gen. P.G.T.Beauregard opened fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston harborforcing its surrender. In response to the attack, PresidentLincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to suppress therebellion. While Northern states responded quickly, Virginia,North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas refused, opting tojoin the Confederacy instead.
• Economic and social differences between the North and the South.•States versus federal rights.•The fight between Slave and Non-Slave State Proponents.•Growth of the Abolition Movement.•The election of Abraham Lincoln.
• In 1850 he entered the University of •John S. Mosby was born December Virginia. In his third year at the University, 6, 1833, in Powhatan County, 1853 he was convicted of the ‘unlawful Virginia. He grew up in Nelson and shooting’ of a fellow student and bully, Albemarle counties in Virginia. George Turpin. JOHN• On December 30, 1857, SINGLETON Pauline Clarke and John Mosby MOSBY •In May, 1861 in Abingdon, were married in Nashville. Virginia, Mosby was mustered into the local Confederate unit, Company D of the 1st Virginia Cavalry. •On April 2, 1862, Mosby was appointed •John Mosby was a key innovator in adjutant to the new commander of the 1st the tactics of Guerilla warfare. Virginia Cavalry, his former Captain, William E. (“Grumble”) Jones, with the rank of 1st Lieutenant
•In May, 1861 in Abingdon, Virginia, Mosby was mustered into the localConfederate unit, Company D of the 1st Virginia Cavalry.Mosby entered asa private but was one of the first six men in the unit to receive a new Coltsix-shooter.•On July 11, 1861, Mosby had his first encounter with the Federal cavalryjust south of Martinsburg, Virginia (now West Virginia). When his patrolcame upon a Federal detachment, they managed to capture two Federalsoldiers and then chased the others to Martinsburg.•On July 18, 1861, Mosby’s unit was sent to Manassas where it waspresent for the Battle of Manassas but played a minor role in that action.
•On April 2, 1862, Mosby was promoted to the rank oflieutenant.In March of 1862 when General Joseph Johnstonstarted moving south to Richmond from Manassas, Mosby didsome scouting for Stuart, which brought the young officer toStuart’s attention.•On June 10, 1863 at Atoka, Mosby’s Command is officiallyestablished as a regular army unit, although acting as partisanrangers (who could divide up what they captured). The unit wasnow the 43rd Virginia Battalion of Cavalry.•Mosby, promoted to colonel in December, saw his command riseto 800 men, and continued his activities until the end of the warin April 1865. Unwilling to formally surrender, Mosby reviewedhis men for the last time on April 21, 1865, before disbanding hisunit.
MOSBY RANGERSRecruiting in Northern Virginia, Mosby created a force of irregulartroops which were designated partisan rangers. Consisting ofvolunteers from all walks of life, they lived in the area, blending inwith the populace, and came together when summoned by theircommander.Conducting night raids against Union outposts and supply convoys,they struck where the enemy was weakest. Though his force grew insize (240 by 1864), it was seldom combined and often struck multipletargets in the same night.On June 10, 1863 at Atoka, Mosby’s Command is officially establishedas a regular army unit, although acting as partisan rangers (who coulddivide up what they captured). The unit was now the 43rd VirginiaBattalion of Cavalry.
Fairfax CountyMarch 8, 1863 in Fairfax County Court House, Virginia - On March8, Col. John S. Mosby led a group of his Confederate guerrillas toFairfax County Court House. There was a Union garrison there,commanded by Brig. Gen. E.H. Stoughton. The Confederatesquietly made there way into the courthouse, where Stoughton wassleeping. Mosby captured him in bed, and took him away. TheConfederates also managed to capture 32 other Union soldiers, 58horses, and a number of arms and equipment.Frustrated by Mosbys successes, Lieutenant General Ulysses S.Grant issued an edict in 1864, that Mosby and his men were to bedesignated outlaws and hung without trial if captured.
Other daring missions included attacks onCatlett Station and Aldie. In June 1863,Mosbys command was redesignated the 43rdBattalion of Partisan Rangers. Though pursuedby Union forces, the nature of Mosbys unitallowed his men to simply fade away after eachattack, leaving no trail to follow.
June 10, 1863 in Rectors Cross Roads, VirginiaOn June 10 , Col. John S. Mosby and his 100 Confederate raiders hadarrived in the woods south of Rectors Cross Roads. Mosby learnedthat a camp containing 2 companies of the 6th Michigan Cavalry atSeneca Mills, Maryland. Mosby decided to make an attack on thecamp.The Union camp learned of the approach of Mosbys Confederateforce and began preperations. When the Confederates came intoview, the Federals opened fire on them. Mosby ordered a chargeand the entire force rode forward. Though the Federals continued tofire on them, the Confederates manged to break into the camp andbegan hand-to-hand fighting. The Union ranks soon began to fallapart and they quickly fled the scene in a rout.
January 28-29, 1863 in Chantilly, VirginiaOn January 28, Col. John S. Mosby and his Confederateraiders neared the town of Chantilly. Ahead of themwere a party of Union vendettes, the mounted picketsof the 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Mosby deployed hismen and, at a signal, the Confederates charged forwardinto the Federals. The Confederates grabbed 9Federals, including their horses and weapons. They justas quickly disappeared back into the woods.
January 29, 1863 in Middleburg, Virginia -On January 29, word of the Confederate attack at Chantillyreached the nearby Union command. They ordered a pursuit ofCol. John S. Mosbys Confederate raiders. Col. Percy Wyndham and200 Union cavalrymen of the 5th New Jersey Cavalry rode toMiddleburg.They looked around town and upon not seeing anyConfederates, started to leave town. Mosby and 7 other troopsand attacked the rear of the Union column. After a briefclash, both sides left the area. Union suffered 1 killed and 3captured. The Confederates suffered 3 captured
•Strategic thinkingColonel John S.Mosby clearly was very goodin planning his strategy before attacking hisenemy forces.With a proper missionparameters and using speed, surprise andviolence of action John S.Mosby and his groupcan defeat a larger, numerically superior forcewithin a given span of time.When not on duty, Mosby studied books onstrategy and tactics and had discussions onmilitary matters with Captain William E.“Grumble” Jones.
To weaken the enemy, John S.Mosby hadattacked rail stations,trains and bridges nearDuffield Station,Martinsburg and Winchester;Manassas Gap near Piedmont,and other keylocations. The Union needed these railroads tooperate in the region, and more so to supplyUnion forces in the west.Analyse:As a leader with strategic thinking he can helpConfederate soldier to win many battles
Boldness Mosby‟s most famous raid occurred in March 1863, inside Union lines at Fairfax County Courthouse that is behind the enemy line.He captured Brigadier General Edwin H.Stoughton while he was asleep in his bed. Mosby and his ranger captured Stoughton without any shot of fire although they stayed there over an hour. Analyse:John S.Mosby show his boldness when he get into the Fairfax county court house even with a smaller group of gureilla man.
Risk takingOn December 31, 1862 at Oakham, Mosby approachedStuart for permission to put into action his plan to organize anindependent command against Federal forces in the regionthat stretched from the outskirts of Washington across theBlue Ridge Mountains into the Shenandoah Valley andbeyond the Potomac River into Maryland.Stuart left Oakham leaving Mosby with nine men to carry outraids on Federal positions in the area. Mosby and these ninemen, along with a local guide, John Underwood, conductedtwo successful raids.In two days Mosby and his nine menmanaged to captured 20 cavalrymen, with theirhorses, equipment and arms.Analyse:Even with a smaller group he willing to carry out mission andtake a risk to defeat a larger, numerically superior enemyforce.
Cunning•Every time after he was done doing hismission,Mosby and his gureilla group will hide outin the wood or take a seprate way and hide amongthe popluation of civilian.This is the tactics thatMosby use to make sure they don‟t get caught bythe Union soldier. We can aslo see he was acunning leader when he do hit and run attack onrailway stations and trains•Analyse:With his tactics of cunning,he managedto make sure the safety of his man after returnfrom a mission
•Weaken the enemy•To destroy supply trains- lower morale of Uniontroops•To break up the means of conveying intelligence•To confuse their plans by capturing despatcher
•Prepare heavy detachment to guard against the enemy forces•Keeping a large force on the defensive
•Mosby‟s men does not have camps- detectand captured by enemies.•Scatter for safety and gather at Mosby „s call.•Struck at a weak or unguarded point, and then quick retreat•Small squads at night to attack and run in thepickets along a line of several miles- striking atan invisible foe.•Mosby ranger‟s had no camp duty to do whichhowever necessary is disgusting to soldier ofhigh spirit.
•He agree to charge that he did not fight fair•Neveradmired the commander who declined theadvantage of the first fire•John S.Mosby conducted war on a theory thatthe end of it is to secure peace by destruction ofthe resources of the enemy, with a small loss aspossible to his own side
Mosby tactic depends on surprise, strike and vanished- guerilla tactic Did not train his men- enforced discipline, established a reputation of winning Mosby left a legacy for the special operation forces that are important today for antiterrorist and peacekeeping missions.
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