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Gameful Design for Libraries

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Talk given at the "Pushing the Envelope" symposium on MOOCs, e-Learning, and Gamification for Libraries.

If you downloaded the earlier version of the pptx and want the proper typeface, it's a free font called "Rise of Nations" that can be downloaded here: http://www.dafont.com/cf-rise-of-nations.font . I've replaced that file with a PDF that has the fonts properly embedded, and which includes more detailed speaker notes.

Gameful Design for Libraries

  1. 1. BEFORE WE BEGIN… After sitting through a lego workshop before my talk, I decided to insert a few slides before my “official” set of slides for the talk.
  2. 2. These are games. Patrick Q: http://www.flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/293314242/
  3. 3. These are *toys*. C Slack: http://www.flickr.com/photos/slackpics/4289782818/
  4. 4. GAMES ≠ TOYS GAMES ≠ GAMIFICATION
  5. 5. MOOCS, E-LEARNING, & GAMIFICATION Elizabeth Lane Lawley Rochester Institute of Technology School of Interactive Games & Media Lab for Social Computing @ the MAGIC Center Original first slide for the talk.
  6. 6. Taxonomy of the Lean Startup Anti-Pivot by Tristan Kromer http://www.slideshare.net/Deridian/taxonomy-of-the-lean-startup-antipivot When I told some of my students I was giving a talk at a conference on gamification, they sent me this slide, which is funny because it’s true.
  7. 7. Mind if I cut in here? Sebastian Deterding: Visiting Professor, RIT MAGIC Center & Interactive Games & MediaSebastian recently gave a presentation at the Game On: Exploring Innovative Pedagogies Symposium, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia, http://www.slideshare.net/dings/gameful-design-for-online-learning . Rather than trying to recreate his slides, I’m blatantly stealing a series of them, but with full attribution!
  8. 8. http://www.slideshare.net/dings/gameful-design-for-online-learning http://www.slideshare.net/dings/gameful-design-for-online-learning
  9. 9. http://www.slideshare.net/dings/gameful-design-for-online-learning http://www.slideshare.net/dings/gameful-design-for-online-learning
  10. 10. http://www.slideshare.net/dings/gameful-design-for-online-learning http://www.slideshare.net/dings/gameful-design-for-online-learning
  11. 11. http://www.slideshare.net/dings/gameful-design-for-online-learning http://www.slideshare.net/dings/gameful-design-for-online-learning
  12. 12. http://www.slideshare.net/dings/gameful-design-for-online-learning http://www.slideshare.net/dings/gameful-design-for-online-learning
  13. 13. http://www.slideshare.net/dings/gameful-design-for-online-learning http://www.slideshare.net/dings/gameful-design-for-online-learning
  14. 14. www.slideshare.net/dings/gameful-design-for-online-learning http://www.slideshare.net/dings/gameful-design-for-online-learning
  15. 15. http://www.slideshare.net/dings/gameful-design-for-online-learning http://www.slideshare.net/dings/gameful-design-for-online-learning
  16. 16. http://www.slideshare.net/dings/gameful-design-for-online-learning http://www.slideshare.net/dings/gameful-design-for-online-learning
  17. 17. WHAT DO GAME DESIGNERS HAVE TO SAY ABOUT THIS? Well, that’s just one guy’s opinion, right?
  18. 18. “Gamification is an inadvertent con. It tricks people into believing that there’s a simple way to imbue their thing ... with the psychological, emotional and social power of a great game.” Margaret Robertson: Can’t Play, Won’t Play (2010) http://hideandseek.net/2010/10/06/cant-play-wont-play/
  19. 19. “-ification involves simple, repeatable, proven techniques. [It] is always easy and repeatable, and it’s usually bullshit.” Ian Bogost: Gamification is Bullshit (2011) http://www.bogost.com/blog/gamification_is_bullshit.shtml http://gamifyforthewin.com/2011/09/video-opening-debate-at-for-the-win/ Expanded version in the upcoming book The Gameful World
  20. 20. WELL. OKAY, THEN. LET’S TRY AGAIN...
  21. 21. UNDERSTANDING GAMEFUL DESIGN Elizabeth Lane Lawley Rochester Institute of Technology School of Interactive Games & Media Lab for Social Computing @ the MAGIC Center I have a long history of bait-and-switch at conference talks. I’m not really talking about “gamification” today, I’m talking about what people like Sebastian have taken to calling “gameful design.”
  22. 22. GAMES & MOTIVATION And gameful design is very much about motivation.
  23. 23. “[T]he four player types [are] achievers, explorers, socialisers and killers. […] Achievers are Diamonds (they're always seeking treasure); explorers are Spades (they dig around for information); socialisers are Hearts (they empathise with other players); killers are Clubs (they hit people with them).” Richard Bartle: “Hearts, Clubs, Diamonds, Spades: Players Who Suit MUDS” (1996) Richard Bartle, an early MUD (multi-user dungeon) designer, identified a set of player types that relate to motivation, and this framework gets used often in thinking about games and their players. http://www.mud.co.uk/richard/hcds.htm
  24. 24. ACTING INTERACTING PLAYERS WORLD KILLERS ACHIEVERS EXPLORERSSOCIALIZERS Bartle’s types in chart format.
  25. 25. “Narratives often blurred the boundaries between well-defined motivation categories. […I]t made sense to abandon framing what was happening as motivation changes and to think about the narratives more broadly as player life-cycles or play trajectories.” Nick Yee The Daedalus Project “Player Life Cycles” (2007) Nick Yee, who has a PhD in psychology from Stanford, and now works for Ubisoft, spent years collecting data on MMO players, and developed a richer framework for understanding players in that type of game environment. These player narratives are interesting and useful in thinking about the player (or “user”) life cycle in many contexts. http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus/archives/001588.php
  26. 26. MMO PLAYER STAGES Entry Practice Mastery Burnout Recovery http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus/archives/001588.php
  27. 27. MMO PLAYER STAGES Entry Practice Mastery Burnout Recovery ▷ Newcomer Euphoria ▷ Playing With Others http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus/archives/001588.php
  28. 28. MMO PLAYER STAGES Entry Practice Mastery Burnout Recovery ▷ Ramping Up/Progression ▷ Solo to Group http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus/archives/001588.php
  29. 29. MMO PLAYER STAGES Entry Practice Mastery Burnout Recovery ▷ Staying for Friends/Casual Guilds ▷ High-End Content/Serious Guilds ▷ Social/Community Leadership ▷ PvP/Competition http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus/archives/001588.php
  30. 30. MMO PLAYER STAGES Entry Practice Mastery Burnout Recovery ▷ Grind Burnout ▷ Social/Raiding Burnout ▷ Restarts ▷ Nothing Left to Do http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus/archives/001588.php
  31. 31. MMO PLAYER STAGES Entry Practice Mastery Burnout Recovery ▷ End-Game Casual http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus/archives/001588.php
  32. 32. “The 4 Fun Keys create games’ four most important emotions: 1. Hard Fun: Fiero – in the moment personal triumph over adversity 2. Easy Fun: Curiosity 3. Serious Fun: Relaxation and excitement 4. People Fun: Amusement” Nicole Lazzaro: The 4 Keys 2 Fun http://www.nicolelazzaro.com/the4-keys-to-fun/
  33. 33. http://www.nicolelazzaro.com/the4-keys-to-fun/
  34. 34. http://www.slideshare.net/NicoleLazzaro/ux-week-the-future-of-ux-is-play
  35. 35. “An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.” Richard Ryan & Edward Deci: The What & Why of Goal Pursuit (2000) Much of my current thinking about motivation has been shaped by the work on Self-Determination Theory (SDT) developed by Deci & Ryan. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01
  36. 36. FUN --> VOLUNTARY ? What do you do for fun? Would I necessarily find that fun? Would you still find it fun if someone was expecting you to do it?
  37. 37. FUN --> VOLUNTARY ? NO! What do you do for fun? Would I necessarily find that fun? Would you still find it fun if someone was expecting you to do it?
  38. 38. FUN --> VOLUNTARY ? VOLUNTARY --> FUN ! NO! What do you do for fun? Would I necessarily find that fun? Would you still find it fun if someone was expecting you to do it?
  39. 39. Competence? Yes. Autonomy? Maybe. Connectedness? No.
  40. 40. Competence? Yes. Autonomy? Yes. Connectedness? Yes!
  41. 41. Drive provides a very accessible overview of SDT and other motivation research, but it’s also an oversimplified version.
  42. 42. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION The oversimplication of SDT has led people to assume that intrinsic (autotelic) motivation is always better than extrinsic (external) motivation. (Image: cscarlett15 on DeviantArt http://cscarlett15.deviantart.com/art/Loki-and-the-Loon-chibis-329305370 )
  43. 43. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION The oversimplication of SDT has led people to assume that intrinsic (autotelic) motivation is always better than extrinsic (external) motivation. (Image: cscarlett15 on DeviantArt http://cscarlett15.deviantart.com/art/Loki-and-the-Loon-chibis-329305370 )
  44. 44. “Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is not a dichotomy, it’s a continuum.” Scott Rigby: Intrinsic & Extrinsic Player Motivation (2012) It’s not that clear-cut, though, and a more careful reading of SDT shows that. Scott Rigby, who studied with Deci & Ryan, gave a great talk at GDC in 2012 explaining this difference. http://www.immersyve.com/downloads/conference-presentations/SRigby_GDC%202012_Intrinsic%20and%20Extrinisic%20Motivation %20in%20Players.pdf
  45. 45. This is based off of a similar slide by Scott in his presentation. The first and last are easy to categorize as “intrinsic” and “extrinsic”. But often there are motivations that lie in the middle that are harder to understand without a continuum.
  46. 46. I love hiking! This is based off of a similar slide by Scott in his presentation. The first and last are easy to categorize as “intrinsic” and “extrinsic”. But often there are motivations that lie in the middle that are harder to understand without a continuum.
  47. 47. I’m glad I’m getting paid for this. I love hiking! This is based off of a similar slide by Scott in his presentation. The first and last are easy to categorize as “intrinsic” and “extrinsic”. But often there are motivations that lie in the middle that are harder to understand without a continuum.
  48. 48. I’m glad I’m getting paid for this. I need to lose weight. Maybe this will help. I love hiking! This is based off of a similar slide by Scott in his presentation. The first and last are easy to categorize as “intrinsic” and “extrinsic”. But often there are motivations that lie in the middle that are harder to understand without a continuum.
  49. 49. A LITTLE HISTORY… turns out a lot of us have been talking about what is now called “gamification” for a long time. we just weren’t using the “ification” suffix.
  50. 50. May 2008 October 2008 October 2011 Three keynotes, given at three different library conferences, all talking about these ideas.
  51. 51. LEARNING FROM GAMES < 2008 >
  52. 52. Great Mary Poppins song (but the youtube video now has no sound, due to DMCA : ( )
  53. 53. More from the song.
  54. 54. More from the song.
  55. 55. More from the song.
  56. 56. (August 2006) The grind is something I respond to, and have thought a lot about. http://terranova.blogs.com/terra_nova/2006/08/in_praise_of_th.html
  57. 57. REAL WORLD GAMES: Libraries have been using game mechanics for a loooong time.
  58. 58. GAME MECHANICS AND GOALS: THE FIRST FIVE MINUTES • Understanding • Accomplishment • Progression • Acquisition • Communication In  the  October  2008  talk,  I  talked  about  the  importance  of  the  first  five  minute  experience,  and  did  live  demos  of  both  WoW  and  SL’s  first  five   minutes.  These  were  the  aspects  I  discussed,  which  are  relevant  to  all  kinds  of  gameful  design.  
  59. 59. WoW first five minute experience (live demo at conference)
  60. 60. Second Life first five minute experience (live demo)
  61. 61. EMERGING GAMIFICATION < 2011 > I finally used “ification” at the 2011 IL conference...
  62. 62. "My point is that the 'fun', the pleasure of these elements does not come from some extrinsic reward value of those elements, but chiefly from the experience of competence they give rise to.” Sebastian Deterding: Gamification by Design – A Response to O’Reilly (2011) And I was quoting Sebastian even then. http://gamification-research.org/2011/09/a-quick-buck-by-copy-and-paste/ http://gamification-research.org/2011/09/gamification-by-design-response-to-oreilly/
  63. 63. It’s the autonomy, stupid. For this to be successful, it has to be voluntary, fun, and engaging. They have to vest in it as creators, not just consumers. This is the key takeaway from Deci & Ryan’s SDT work. We know this because we asked them J
  64. 64. And I talked about the launch of our new “gaming layer” for undergraduate students, Just Press Play.
  65. 65. ‹❮ 2013 ›❯ So, what happened?
  66. 66. I’d love to tell you it was all spectacularly successful. But no, it wasn’t.
  67. 67. Flickr: amboo who But it’s been far from a total failure, or I wouldn’t be willing to talk about it to so many people! http://www.flickr.com/photos/amboo213/4020584983/
  68. 68. MISTAKE #1: UNREALISTIC TIMELINE We made a bunch of mistakes. The first was too short a development timeline. Don’t underestimate how hard the technology *and* content design for a good gameful design can be.
  69. 69. MISTAKE #2: TANGIBLE ELEMENTS Tangible was a good aim, but requires a lot more technical and production support—keeping things working, generating new cards, etc. And the codes were a terrible idea.
  70. 70. MISTAKE #3: CATEGORIES & LEVELS MISTAKE #4: COMPLEX UI We made a system that was too complex and had too many barriers for the kind of lightweight engagement we wanted
  71. 71. MISTAKE #5: WALLED GARDEN And we made it a walled garden. “Public” really meant “visible to all players”, not to the whole world. Made it difficult to share things and brag about them.
  72. 72. 2012 RELAUNCH Lather, rinse, repeat.. So we took what we’d learned, and iterated on it.
  73. 73. The only reason we could do this is because Microsoft Research had given us enough financial support to be able to iterate over the long term, which meant paying student developers.
  74. 74. We relaunched in 2012, and fixed a number of problems.
  75. 75. Autonomy: entirely optional to play, no achievements are required to progress Connectedness: primary focus; many “social” achievements, many group activities; but the site itself doesn’t facilitate connectedness Mastery: our weakest area; we’re working on making things scarcer and/or more challenging
  76. 76. 2013 RELAUNCH Lather, rinse, repeat.. However, we still weren’t providing enough fresh information, sense of mastery/accomplishment, or opportunities to interact with other players. So we’re iterating again.
  77. 77. The new version will include the ability to comment on nearly everything, as well as the ability to share things to Facebook easily.
  78. 78. We’ve improved the ability to see and reflect on your accomplishments, and provided more motivation to illustrate accomplishments with photos and stories.
  79. 79. We’ve moved it to an Azure framework, and significantly improved the database, backend, and frontend code. Planned open source release of the code base: December 2013!
  80. 80. SUGGESTED READINGS I’m a librarian. I feel compelled to give you an annotated bibliography!
  81. 81. SCOTT NICHOLSON SCOTTNICHOLSON.COM Scott’s doing great stuff on games and gamification in a library-specific context.
  82. 82. http://scottnicholson.com/pubs/index.html
  83. 83. http://infospace.ischool.syr.edu/2013/09/30/gaming-and-play-in-the-library-a-brief- history/
  84. 84. ANDREW WALSH @ANDYWALSH999 Andrew Walsh at the University of Huddersfield, too!
  85. 85. http://librarygame.co.uk/ http://librarygame.tumblr.com/
  86. 86. evernote.com/pub/mamamusings/librarygamification https://www.evernote.com/pub/mamamusings/librarygamification
  87. 87. SEBASTIAN DETERDING CODINGCONDUCT.CC http://codingconduct.cc/
  88. 88. http://slideshare.net/dings
  89. 89. Steffen P. Walz & Sebastian Deterding (eds.) – Due out end of 2013 The Gameful World: Approaches, Issues, Applications. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press gamefulworld.org / twitter: @gamefulworld http://gamefulworld.org
  90. 90. AMY JO KIM SHUFFLEBRAIN.COM http://shufflebrain.com/
  91. 91. http://www.slideshare.net/amyjokim/presentations
  92. 92. IAN BOGOST BOGOST.COM http://bogost.com/
  93. 93. http://bogost.com/
  94. 94. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/ 0262026147
  95. 95. LAWLEY.RIT.EDU SLIDESHARE.NET/MAMAMUSINGS http://lawley.rit.edu/ http://slideshare.net/mamamusings/

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