EuropE at War
 During

the late
nineteenth century Great
Britain, France, Portugal,
Spain, Denmark,
Germany, Italy, and the
Netherlands...
 The

European
factories required raw
materials to
manufacture finished
products. They
looked for new
sources of raw
mate...
 Politics

also led to the
colonization of Africa. Some
European nations showed
national pride by competing
for colonies ...
 Another

reason for
colonizing was the
European
worldview.
Nineteenth century
Europeans viewed
themselves as the
world’s...
 The

scramble for land also reached farther into Asia.
Many Asian territories saw a change from Europe as
trading partne...
 Nationalism

is the love of one’s county and militarism
is using strong armies and threats of war. Both of
these conditi...
 In

1914, a series of events caused
Germany to declare war on Russia
and France. On the other side, the
British joined F...
 These

countries
were large and
controlled lands
around the
world, the war
was called the
Great War.
 Later the United
...
 World

War I was known as “the war to end all wars.”
Unfortunately, just twenty years later, Europe would be
at the cent...
The Russian Revolution
 Before

1917, Russia
was an autocracy.
 The czar was the
absolute ruler.
 The last czar was
Nic...
The Russian Revolution
 The

Russian Revolution started in 1917 and had two
parts.
 The first part was the February Revo...
Russian Revolution
 People

were starving while aristocracy was
living in luxury.
 Russian people were also upset over t...
The October Revolution
 The

October
Revolution was the
second part of the
Russian Revolution.
It is also called the
Bols...
The Russian
Revolution
 The

Bolshevik Revolution was led
by Vladimir Lenin and was based
on an ideology written by Karl ...
The Treaty of Versailles
 The

United States did not
send troops to Europe
until June 1917.
 American soldiers helped
ma...
The Treaty of Versailles
 November

11th was
celebrated as
Armistice Day, in
recognition of the
signing of the truce.
 A...
The Treaty of Versailles










The Treaty of Versailles, which
officially ended the war, required that
Germany ac...
Nazis in Germany
 Germany’s

economy was ruined by the
Treaty of Versailles. The country’s
economic troubles only deepene...
Nazis in Germany










German currency decreased in
value, resulting in inflation.
Inflation occurs when the pric...
Nazis in Germany






The Nazis gained support by blaming
Germany’s problems on the ideas of
Communists and the Jewish...
Worldwide Depression




The Great Depression
weakened many
countries just when
they needed to be
strong.
Soldiers retur...
Worldwide Depression


Britain’s lack of profits by
major industries caused tax
revenues collected by the
government to f...
Worldwide Depression




Great Britain needed to build up a strong military to defend itself,
but it could not afford to...
World War II








Twenty one years after the end of World
War I, another major world war erupted.
One major cause o...
Totalitarian Rulers








During the Great Depression of the
1930s, there was a rise of
totalitarianism in parts of ...
Benito Mussolini








Benito Mussolini used the Italian
people’s distrust of their
government to rise to power. His...
Benito Mussolini






He replaced both Italy’s king
and prime minister as the only
head of the country.
Mussolini used...
ADOLF HITLER






As with Mussolini in Italy,
Adolf Hitler took advantage
of Germany’s bad
economic times to rise to
p...
Adolf Hitler








Once Hitler became the Chancellor of
Germany in 1933, his mob of Brown
Shirts was protected by la...
Adolf Hitler






When Germany’s President Paul
von Hindenburg died in 1934,
Hitler appointed himself Fuhrer
and Reich...
Adolf Hitler
 In

November 1938, Hitler’s Brown
Shirts and other Nazi supporters
attacked and burned Jewish
houses of wor...
The Holocaust
 From

the time Hitler became
the Chancellor of Germany,
the treatment of Jews grew
worse. He used the Jews...
The Holocaust
 The

policies of the Nazi
Party progressively took
rights away from Jews.
 Nazis stated that Jews
were no...
The Holocaust
 During

World War II, Hitler’s campaign
against the Jews eventually led to the
Holocaust, the systematic m...
The European War
 Without

Hitler, it is quite
possible that there
would not have been a
world war. After
gaining almost ...
The European War
 The

Third Reich was the
German Empire that
Hitler was creating as he
took over countries such
as Austr...
European War
 In

1939, it became
clear that Hitler was
preparing to invade
Poland.
 Britain and France
had an alliance ...
World War II
 On

September 1, 1939, Hitler’s
forces invaded Poland. Britain
and France declared war on
Germany two days ...
World War II
 The

battles of World War
II were fought in what
were called the European
Theater and the Pacific
Theater. ...
The European War
 The

Soviet Union was
under the control of
Joseph Stalin, who was
ruthless in his
domination of the Sov...
Joseph Stalin
 Before

the war began, Stalin
made a pact with Hitler. The
two leaders agreed not to
attack each other. Th...
Joseph Stalin
 In

June 1941, Hitler broke
his pact with Stalin and
invaded the Soviet Union.
 The fight between
Germany...
WWII
 The

Battle of Stalingrad,
which began in 1942, was a
major turning point in the
eastern front of the European
Thea...
Europe at war 2013 14
Europe at war 2013 14
Europe at war 2013 14
Europe at war 2013 14
Europe at war 2013 14
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Europe at war 2013 14

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Europe at war

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Europe at war 2013 14

  1. 1. EuropE at War
  2. 2.  During the late nineteenth century Great Britain, France, Portugal, Spain, Denmark, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands wanted more land.  This desire for more land lead to the “Scramble for Africa” between 1885 and 1910. Several European countries divided the continent of Africa among themselves.
  3. 3.  The European factories required raw materials to manufacture finished products. They looked for new sources of raw materials and markets for their goods. Gold, diamonds, and oil were some of the resources the Europeans wanted. Asia and Africa had those resources.
  4. 4.  Politics also led to the colonization of Africa. Some European nations showed national pride by competing for colonies in Africa. Great Britain, France, and Germany did not want to be without colonies in Africa. Owning colonies in Africa and Asia made the Europeans feel pride in their country.
  5. 5.  Another reason for colonizing was the European worldview. Nineteenth century Europeans viewed themselves as the world’s most advanced civilization. They felt it was necessary to “civilize” people in the rest of the world. African missionaries helped make colonization seem less offensive to citizens in Europe.
  6. 6.  The scramble for land also reached farther into Asia. Many Asian territories saw a change from Europe as trading partner to Europe as conqueror. Great Britain had taken control of India. France controlled lands in Southeast Asia, including Vietnam. The British fought for control of other lands like Burma, Laos, Siam, and Cambodia.
  7. 7.  Nationalism is the love of one’s county and militarism is using strong armies and threats of war. Both of these conditions were on the rise in Europe.  European countries signed treaties agreeing to help one another in case of attack.
  8. 8.  In 1914, a series of events caused Germany to declare war on Russia and France. On the other side, the British joined France and Russia and formed the Allied Powers. Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire (Turkey and its colonies), and Bulgaria joined the Germans as the Central Powers.
  9. 9.  These countries were large and controlled lands around the world, the war was called the Great War.  Later the United States became involved on the side of the Allied Powers. The war lasted until 1918, and an estimated 10 million people died.
  10. 10.  World War I was known as “the war to end all wars.” Unfortunately, just twenty years later, Europe would be at the center of an even bigger conflict. The Great War became known as World War I. The later, larger conflict was called World War II.
  11. 11. The Russian Revolution  Before 1917, Russia was an autocracy.  The czar was the absolute ruler.  The last czar was Nicholas II.
  12. 12. The Russian Revolution  The Russian Revolution started in 1917 and had two parts.  The first part was the February Revolution, which resulted in the overthrow of the czar, or national ruler.  People in Russia were unhappy with the way the czar and his government were running the country.
  13. 13. Russian Revolution  People were starving while aristocracy was living in luxury.  Russian people were also upset over their participation in the war.  The revolution created chaos both at home and on the warfront.  The Russian army was unable to be effective in the war, and the Russians stopped their involvement in it.
  14. 14. The October Revolution  The October Revolution was the second part of the Russian Revolution. It is also called the Bolshevik Revolution, and it marked the first Communist revolution of the 20th Century
  15. 15. The Russian Revolution  The Bolshevik Revolution was led by Vladimir Lenin and was based on an ideology written by Karl Marx.  This part of the Russian Revolution was more violent than the first.  After the revolution, there was a civil war that lasted more than two years. In the end, the Communist forces gained control of Russia and would continue to rule until nearly the end of the century.
  16. 16. The Treaty of Versailles  The United States did not send troops to Europe until June 1917.  American soldiers helped make the difference in the war. The Allies finally defeated the Central powers, and the fighting ended on November 11, 1918.
  17. 17. The Treaty of Versailles  November 11th was celebrated as Armistice Day, in recognition of the signing of the truce.  An armistice is a temporary stopping of fighting, or a truce.
  18. 18. The Treaty of Versailles      The Treaty of Versailles, which officially ended the war, required that Germany accept full responsibility for the war. Germany also had to give up territory to surrounding countries They had to give Alsace and Lorraine back to France. Germany surrendered its overseas colonies and made its armed forces smaller. Germany also had to pay huge reparations to the countries it harmed. Reparations are payments for war damages, often made by a defeated power to the winning side.
  19. 19. Nazis in Germany  Germany’s economy was ruined by the Treaty of Versailles. The country’s economic troubles only deepened during the Great Depression.  The Great Depression was a global economic downturn that started in 1929.  The Great Depression began in the United States but soon spread into Europe. It lasted for ten years.
  20. 20. Nazis in Germany      German currency decreased in value, resulting in inflation. Inflation occurs when the prices of goods rise quickly. Poverty caused by unemployment led the people of Germany to lose faith in their government. On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler, who was the leader of the National Socialist German Workers, or Nazi Party, became the Chancellor of Germany. His political party won many votes in the elections of 1932.
  21. 21. Nazis in Germany    The Nazis gained support by blaming Germany’s problems on the ideas of Communists and the Jewish people. The desperate people of Germany were vulnerable to these ideas and wanted to believe any leader who gave them hope. Europe was plagued with anti-Jewish sentiments, or anti-Semitism, at the time. Hitler promised the Germans that their country would create jobs and grow to be the most powerful in the world.
  22. 22. Worldwide Depression   The Great Depression weakened many countries just when they needed to be strong. Soldiers returning from the war often found that there were no jobs waiting for them. Jobs that they had left behind had been filled with young people willing to work for less money.
  23. 23. Worldwide Depression  Britain’s lack of profits by major industries caused tax revenues collected by the government to fall. As a result, the government had very little money to spend on the military. This was at a time when Germany was becoming a great threat to its neighboring countries in Europe.
  24. 24. Worldwide Depression   Great Britain needed to build up a strong military to defend itself, but it could not afford to do so. This put Great Britain at a huge disadvantage when World War II began in 1939.
  25. 25. World War II     Twenty one years after the end of World War I, another major world war erupted. One major cause of World War II was the desire of the Germans and Japanese to expand their countries into full empires. To expand, they had to conquer other countries. World War II lasted from 1939 to 1945. On one side of the conflict were the Allies, including Britain, France, the Soviet Union, the United States, and China. On the other side were the Axis powers, led by Germany, Italy, and Japan.
  26. 26. Totalitarian Rulers     During the Great Depression of the 1930s, there was a rise of totalitarianism in parts of the world. A totalitarian government is one in which the government has total control over the country and its citizens. Totalitarian governments often use violence to enforce their laws and to punish anyone who dares to oppose them. Totalitarian regimes seized power in several countries, including Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union
  27. 27. Benito Mussolini     Benito Mussolini used the Italian people’s distrust of their government to rise to power. His political group practiced fascism. The Fascists believed that government should include their own political party, and no others. It also meant total government control of political, economic, religious, and cultural activities. Mussolini’s title was II Duce, meaning “the leader.”
  28. 28. Benito Mussolini    He replaced both Italy’s king and prime minister as the only head of the country. Mussolini used his private military squads, called Blackshirts, to help him become leader. The squads were ex-soldiers who used violence to silence those who disagreed with Mussolini.
  29. 29. ADOLF HITLER    As with Mussolini in Italy, Adolf Hitler took advantage of Germany’s bad economic times to rise to power. Once Hitler was in power, he outlawed all political parties other than his own Nazi Party. His private military squads were called Brown Shirts. They worked in a way similar to Mussolini’s Blackshirts.
  30. 30. Adolf Hitler     Once Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany in 1933, his mob of Brown Shirts was protected by law, even when they murdered Hitler’s opponents. The Nazi Party gained power by taking advantage of Germany’s political unrest. The Nazis launched vicious verbal and physical attacks on the Jews and anyone who opposed the Nazi Party. The Nazis publicly criticized Germany’s weak government.
  31. 31. Adolf Hitler    When Germany’s President Paul von Hindenburg died in 1934, Hitler appointed himself Fuhrer and Reichskanzler (leader and Reich Chancellor. The Nazis were able to quickly abolish such individual rights as freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, freedom of expression, and the right to privacy. The police were given total freedom to arrest anyone.
  32. 32. Adolf Hitler  In November 1938, Hitler’s Brown Shirts and other Nazi supporters attacked and burned Jewish houses of worship.  They also attacked and vandalized thousands of Jewish-owned stores.  Dozens of Jews were murdered. About 30,000 Jews were arrested and sent to harsh, brutal prisons known as concentration camps.
  33. 33. The Holocaust  From the time Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany, the treatment of Jews grew worse. He used the Jews as a scapegoat.  A scapegoat is unfairly blaming someone for existing problems.
  34. 34. The Holocaust  The policies of the Nazi Party progressively took rights away from Jews.  Nazis stated that Jews were not German citizens, and removed Jews from jobs, businesses, and schools.
  35. 35. The Holocaust  During World War II, Hitler’s campaign against the Jews eventually led to the Holocaust, the systematic murder of about 6 million Jews and millions of other Europeans that Hitler believed to be inferior and unfit to be German Citizens.  Other persecuted groups included Gypsies, Slavs, political enemies, the handicapped, and homosexuals.
  36. 36. The European War  Without Hitler, it is quite possible that there would not have been a world war. After gaining almost total control over Germany, Hitler set out to build what he called the Third Reich.
  37. 37. The European War  The Third Reich was the German Empire that Hitler was creating as he took over countries such as Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Poland.
  38. 38. European War  In 1939, it became clear that Hitler was preparing to invade Poland.  Britain and France had an alliance with Poland, promising to help protect the country if it was attacked.
  39. 39. World War II  On September 1, 1939, Hitler’s forces invaded Poland. Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. This was the start of World War II, the largest and deadliest war ever fought.  More than 40 million soldiers and civilians would be killed before the fighting ended.
  40. 40. World War II  The battles of World War II were fought in what were called the European Theater and the Pacific Theater. The European Theater was the war for control of Europe and the Soviet Union.
  41. 41. The European War  The Soviet Union was under the control of Joseph Stalin, who was ruthless in his domination of the Soviet People and his pursuit of a large empire.
  42. 42. Joseph Stalin  Before the war began, Stalin made a pact with Hitler. The two leaders agreed not to attack each other. They also divided Poland, giving the Soviet Union half of that country, as well as access to control of other countries in Eastern Europe.
  43. 43. Joseph Stalin  In June 1941, Hitler broke his pact with Stalin and invaded the Soviet Union.  The fight between Germany and the Soviet Union became known as the eastern front of the European war. Stalin then joined the Allies in their fight against Hitler.
  44. 44. WWII  The Battle of Stalingrad, which began in 1942, was a major turning point in the eastern front of the European Theater. It has been called the bloodiest battle in human history.  Total deaths were estimated at between 1 and 2 million people.

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