Ch 3 molecules_of_cells_lecture_presentation (1)

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  • General biology students might not have previously taken a chemistry course. The concept of molecular building blocks that cannot be seen can be abstract and difficult to comprehend for such students. Concrete examples from our diets and good images will increase comprehension.
  • Organic chemistry is the study of organic compounds.
  • The ability to bond in four directions is called tetravalence. This is one facet of carbon’s versatility that makes large, complex molecules possible.
    One of the great advantages of life based on carbon is its ability to form up to four bonds, permitting the assembly of diverse components and branching configurations. Challenge your students to find another element that might also permit this sort of adaptability. (Like carbon, silicon has four electrons in its outer shell.)
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. General biology students might not have previously taken a chemistry course. The concept of molecular building blocks that cannot be seen can be abstract and difficult to comprehend for such students. Concrete examples from our diets and good images will increase comprehension.
    2. Students might need to be reminded about the levels of biological organization. The relationship between atoms, monomers, and polymers can be confusing as each is discussed. Consider noting these relationships somewhere in the classroom (such as on the board) where students can quickly glance for reassurance.
    Teaching Tips
    1. One of the great advantages of carbon is its ability to form up to four bonds, permitting the assembly of diverse components and branching configurations. Challenge your students to find another element that might also permit this sort of adaptability. (Like carbon, silicon has four electrons in its outer shell.)
    2. Toothpicks and gumdrops (or any other pliable small candy) permit the quick construction of chemical models. Different candy colors can represent certain atoms. The model of the methane molecule in Figure 3.1 can thus easily be demonstrated (and consumed!).
  • Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. General biology students might not have previously taken a chemistry course. The concept of molecular building blocks that cannot be seen can be abstract and difficult to comprehend for such students. Concrete examples from our diets and good images will increase comprehension.
    2. Students might need to be reminded about the levels of biological organization. The relationship between atoms, monomers, and polymers can be confusing as each is discussed. Consider noting these relationships somewhere in the classroom (such as on the board) where students can quickly glance for reassurance.
    Teaching Tips
    1. One of the great advantages of carbon is its ability to form up to four bonds, permitting the assembly of diverse components and branching configurations. Challenge your students to find another element that might also permit this sort of adaptability. (Like carbon, silicon has four electrons in its outer shell.)
    2. Toothpicks and gumdrops (or any other pliable small candy) permit the quick construction of chemical models. Different candy colors can represent certain atoms. The model of the methane molecule in Figure 3.1 can thus easily be demonstrated (and consumed!).
  • Figure 3.1A Three representations of methane (CH4).
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. General biology students might not have previously taken a chemistry course. The concept of molecular building blocks that cannot be seen can be abstract and difficult to comprehend for such students. Concrete examples from our diets and good images will increase comprehension.
    2. Students might need to be reminded about the levels of biological organization. The relationship between atoms, monomers, and polymers can be confusing as each is discussed. Consider noting these relationships somewhere in the classroom (such as on the board) where students can quickly glance for reassurance.
    Teaching Tips
    1. One of the great advantages of carbon is its ability to form up to four bonds, permitting the assembly of diverse components and branching configurations. Challenge your students to find another element that might also permit this sort of adaptability. (Like carbon, silicon has four electrons in its outer shell.)
    2. Toothpicks and gumdrops (or any other pliable small candy) permit the quick construction of chemical models. Different candy colors can represent certain atoms. The model of the methane molecule in Figure 3.1 can thus easily be demonstrated (and consumed!).
  • Hydrocarbons are the major components of petroleum. Hydrocarbons consist of the partially decomposed remains of organisms that lived millions of years ago.
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. General biology students might not have previously taken a chemistry course. The concept of molecular building blocks that cannot be seen can be abstract and difficult to comprehend for such students. Concrete examples from our diets and good images will increase comprehension.
    2. Students might need to be reminded about the levels of biological organization. The relationship between atoms, monomers, and polymers can be confusing as each is discussed. Consider noting these relationships somewhere in the classroom (such as on the board) where students can quickly glance for reassurance.
    Teaching Tips
    1. One of the great advantages of carbon is its ability to form up to four bonds, permitting the assembly of diverse components and branching configurations. Challenge your students to find another element that might also permit this sort of adaptability. (Like carbon, silicon has four electrons in its outer shell.)
    2. Toothpicks and gumdrops (or any other pliable small candy) permit the quick construction of chemical models. Different candy colors can represent certain atoms. The model of the methane molecule in Figure 3.1 can thus easily be demonstrated (and consumed!).
  • You may want to give an example of an isomer. Students can relate to the isomers glucose and galactose, because both are energy sources for organisms.
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. General biology students might not have previously taken a chemistry course. The concept of molecular building blocks that cannot be seen can be abstract and difficult to comprehend for such students. Concrete examples from our diets and good images will increase comprehension.
    2. Students might need to be reminded about the levels of biological organization. The relationship between atoms, monomers, and polymers can be confusing as each is discussed. Consider noting these relationships somewhere in the classroom (such as on the board) where students can quickly glance for reassurance.
    Teaching Tips
    1. One of the great advantages of carbon is its ability to form up to four bonds, permitting the assembly of diverse components and branching configurations. Challenge your students to find another element that might also permit this sort of adaptability. (Like carbon, silicon has four electrons in its outer shell.)
    2. Toothpicks and gumdrops (or any other pliable small candy) permit the quick construction of chemical models. Different candy colors can represent certain atoms. The model of the methane molecule in Figure 3.1 can thus easily be demonstrated (and consumed!).
  • Figure 3.1B Variations in carbon skeletons.
  • Figure 3.1B Variations in carbon skeletons.
  • Figure 3.1B Variations in carbon skeletons.
  • Figure 3.1B Variations in carbon skeletons.
  • Functional groups may participate in chemical reactions or may contribute to function indirectly by their effects on molecular shape.
    A drill with interchangeable drill bits is a nice analogy to carbon skeletons with different functional groups. The analogy relates the role of different functions with different structures.
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. General biology students might not have previously taken a chemistry course. The concept of molecular building blocks that cannot be seen can be abstract and difficult to comprehend for such students. Concrete examples from our diets and good images will increase comprehension.
    Teaching Tips
    1. A drill with interchangeable drill bits is a nice analogy to carbon skeletons with different functional groups. The analogy relates the role of different functions to different structures.
  • Table 3.2 Functional Groups of Organic Compounds.
  • Table 3.2 Functional Groups of Organic Compounds.
  • Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. General biology students might not have previously taken a chemistry course. The concept of molecular building blocks that cannot be seen can be abstract and difficult to comprehend for such students. Concrete examples from our diets and good images will increase comprehension.
    Teaching Tips
    1. A drill with interchangeable drill bits is a nice analogy to carbon skeletons with different functional groups. The analogy relates the role of different functions to different structures.
  • Figure 3.2 Differences in the chemical groups of sex hormones.
  • Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. General biology students might not have previously taken a chemistry course. The concept of molecular building blocks that cannot be seen can be abstract and difficult to comprehend for such students. Concrete examples from our diets and good images will increase comprehension.
    Teaching Tips
    1. Train cars linking together to form a train is a nice analogy to linking monomers to form polymers. Consider adding that as the train cars are joined, a puff of steam appears—thus the reference to water production and a dehydration reaction when linking molecular monomers.
  • Macromolecules are large and complex. A protein may consist of thousands of atoms that form a molecular colossus with a mass well over 100,000 daltons.
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. General biology students might not have previously taken a chemistry course. The concept of molecular building blocks that cannot be seen can be abstract and difficult to comprehend for such students. Concrete examples from our diets and good images will increase comprehension.
    Teaching Tips
    1. Train cars linking together to form a train is a nice analogy to linking monomers to form polymers. Consider adding that as the train cars are joined, a puff of steam appears—thus the reference to water production and a dehydration reaction when linking molecular monomers.
  • As an example of the universality of monomers, the amino acids in your student’s proteins are the same ones found in a bacterium’s or plant’s proteins.
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. General biology students might not have previously taken a chemistry course. The concept of molecular building blocks that cannot be seen can be abstract and difficult to comprehend for such students. Concrete examples from our diets and good images will increase comprehension.
    Teaching Tips
    1. Train cars linking together to form a train is a nice analogy to linking monomers to form polymers. Consider adding that as the train cars are joined, a puff of steam appears—thus the reference to water production and a dehydration reaction when linking molecular monomers.
  • The bulk of the organic material we ingest is in the form of polymers that are much too large to enter our cells. Within our digestive tract, various enzymes attack the polymers, speeding up hydrolysis.
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. General biology students might not have previously taken a chemistry course. The concept of molecular building blocks that cannot be seen can be abstract and difficult to comprehend for such students. Concrete examples from our diets and good images will increase comprehension.
    Teaching Tips
    1. Train cars linking together to form a train is a nice analogy to linking monomers to form polymers. Consider adding that as the train cars are joined, a puff of steam appears—thus the reference to water production and a dehydration reaction when linking molecular monomers.
  • Figure 3.3A Dehydration reactions build a polymer chain.
  • Figure 3.3A Dehydration reactions build a polymer chain.
  • Figure 3.3B Hydrolysis breaks a polymer chain.
  • Figure 3.3B Hydrolysis breaks a polymer chain.
  • Monosaccharides have molecular formulae that are multiples of CH2O.
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. The abstract nature of chemistry can be discouraging to many students. Consider starting out this section of the lecture by examining the chemical groups on a food nutrition label. Candy bars with peanuts are particularly useful, as they contain significant amounts of all three sources of calories (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids).
    2. Consider reinforcing the three main sources of calories with food items that clearly represent each group. Bring clear examples to class as visual references. For example, a can of Coke or a bag of sugar for carbohydrates, a tub of margarine for lipids, and some beef jerky for protein (although some fat and carbohydrates might also be included).
    Teaching Tips
    1. If your lectures will eventually include details of glycolysis and aerobic respiration, this is a good point to introduce the basic concepts of glucose as fuel. Just introducing this conceptual formula might help: eating glucose + breathing in oxygen → water + usable energy (used to build ATP) + heat + exhaling CO2.
  • Monosaccharides, particularly glucose, are major nutrients for cells. Glucose is the starting compound for an important metabolic pathway called cellular respiration.
    If your lectures will eventually include details of cellular respiration (glycolysis or aerobic respiration), this is a good point to introduce the basic concepts of glucose as fuel.
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. The abstract nature of chemistry can be discouraging to many students. Consider starting out this section of the lecture by examining the chemical groups on a food nutrition label. Candy bars with peanuts are particularly useful, as they contain significant amounts of all three sources of calories (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids).
    2. Consider reinforcing the three main sources of calories with food items that clearly represent each group. Bring clear examples to class as visual references. For example, a can of Coke or a bag of sugar for carbohydrates, a tub of margarine for lipids, and some beef jerky for protein (although some fat and carbohydrates might also be included).
    Teaching Tips
    1. If your lectures will eventually include details of glycolysis and aerobic respiration, this is a good point to introduce the basic concepts of glucose as fuel. Just introducing this conceptual formula might help: eating glucose + breathing in oxygen → water + usable energy (used to build ATP) + heat + exhaling CO2.
  • Figure 3.4B Structures of glucose and fructose.
  • Figure 3.4C Three representations of the ring form of glucose.
  • Sucrose is the sugar (disaccharide) we keep around the kitchen to sweeten coffee or use for dozens of other things.
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. The abstract nature of chemistry can be discouraging to many students. Consider starting out this section of the lecture by examining the chemical groups on a food nutrition label. Candy bars with peanuts are particularly useful, as they contain significant amounts of all three sources of calories (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids).
    2. Consider reinforcing the three main sources of calories with food items that clearly represent each group. Bring clear examples to class as visual references. For example, a can of Coke or a bag of sugar for carbohydrates, a tub of margarine for lipids, and some beef jerky for protein (although some fat and carbohydrates might also be included).
    Teaching Tips
    1. Learning the definitions of word roots is invaluable when learning science. Learning the meaning of the prefix word roots “mono” (one), “di” (two), and “poly” (many) helps to distinguish the structures of various carbohydrates.
  • Figure 3.5 Disaccharide formation by a dehydration reaction.
  • Figure 3.5 Disaccharide formation by a dehydration reaction.
  • Animals and plants store sugars for later use. Plants store starch while animals store glycogen.
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. Consider reinforcing the three main sources of calories with food items that clearly represent each group. Bring clear examples to class as visual references. For example, a can of Coke or a bag of sugar for carbohydrates, a tub of margarine for lipids, and some beef jerky for protein (although some fat and carbohydrates might also be included).
    Teaching Tips
    1. A simple exercise demonstrates the enzymatic breakdown of starches into sugars. If students place an unsalted cracker in their mouths, holding it in their mouths while it mixes well with saliva, they might soon notice that a sweeter taste begins to emerge. The salivary enzyme amylase begins the digestion of starches into disaccharides, which may be degraded further by other enzymes. These disaccharides are the source of the sweet taste.
    2. The text notes that cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule on Earth. Ask your students why this is true.
    3. The cellophane wrap often used to package foods is a biodegradable material derived from cellulose. Consider challenging students to create a list of other cellulose-derived products (such as paper.)
    4. An adult human may store about a half kilogram of glycogen in the liver and muscles of the body, depending upon recent dietary habits. A person who begins dieting might soon notice an immediate weight loss of 2–4 pounds (1–2 kilograms) over several days, reflecting reductions in stored glycogen, water, and intestinal contents (among other factors).
  • Most mammals, including humans, do not have enzymes necessary to digest cellulose. Thus the energy in the glucose monomers is not available. Cows have solved this problem by harboring prokaryotes (bacteria) in their rumen that hydrolyze the cellulose of grass and hay to glucose monomers. The glucose can be used for energy as well as building blocks for other nutrients that nourish the cow. Likewise, termites cannot digest cellulose in wood, but the bacteria in their guts can, and so provide a meal for themselves as well as the termites
    The text notes that cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule on Earth. Ask your students why this is true.
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. Consider reinforcing the three main sources of calories with food items that clearly represent each group. Bring clear examples to class as visual references. For example, a can of Coke or a bag of sugar for carbohydrates, a tub of margarine for lipids, and some beef jerky for protein (although some fat and carbohydrates might also be included).
    Teaching Tips
    1. A simple exercise demonstrates the enzymatic breakdown of starches into sugars. If students place an unsalted cracker in their mouths, holding it in their mouths while it mixes well with saliva, they might soon notice that a sweeter taste begins to emerge. The salivary enzyme amylase begins the digestion of starches into disaccharides, which may be degraded further by other enzymes. These disaccharides are the source of the sweet taste.
    2. The text notes that cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule on Earth. Ask your students why this is true.
    3. The cellophane wrap often used to package foods is a biodegradable material derived from cellulose. Consider challenging students to create a list of other cellulose-derived products (such as paper.)
    4. An adult human may store about a half kilogram of glycogen in the liver and muscles of the body, depending upon recent dietary habits. A person who begins dieting might soon notice an immediate weight loss of 2–4 pounds (1–2 kilograms) over several days, reflecting reductions in stored glycogen, water, and intestinal contents (among other factors).
  • Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. Consider reinforcing the three main sources of calories with food items that clearly represent each group. Bring clear examples to class as visual references. For example, a can of Coke or a bag of sugar for carbohydrates, a tub of margarine for lipids, and some beef jerky for protein (although some fat and carbohydrates might also be included).
    Teaching Tips
    1. A simple exercise demonstrates the enzymatic breakdown of starches into sugars. If students place an unsalted cracker in their mouths, holding it in their mouths while it mixes well with saliva, they might soon notice that a sweeter taste begins to emerge. The salivary enzyme amylase begins the digestion of starches into disaccharides, which may be degraded further by other enzymes. These disaccharides are the source of the sweet taste.
    2. The text notes that cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule on Earth. Ask your students why this is true.
    3. The cellophane wrap often used to package foods is a biodegradable material derived from cellulose. Consider challenging students to create a list of other cellulose-derived products (such as paper.)
    4. An adult human may store about a half kilogram of glycogen in the liver and muscles of the body, depending upon recent dietary habits. A person who begins dieting might soon notice an immediate weight loss of 2–4 pounds (1–2 kilograms) over several days, reflecting reductions in stored glycogen, water, and intestinal contents (among other factors).
  • Figure 3.7 Polysaccharides
  • Lipids are generally not big enough to be macromolecules. They are grouped together because they mix poorly, if at all, with water.
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. Students may struggle with the concept that a pound of fat contains more than twice the calories of a pound of sugar. It might seem that a pound of food would potentially add on a pound of weight. Other students may have never understood the concept of calories in the diet, simply following general guidelines of avoiding fatty foods. Furthermore, fiber and water have no caloric value but add to the weight of food. Consider class discussions that explore student misconceptions about calories, body weight, and healthy diets.
    2. Students might struggle to extrapolate the properties of lipids to their roles in an organism. Ducks float because their feathers repel water instead of attracting it. Hair on our heads remains flexible because of oils produced in our scalp. Examples such as these help connect the abstract properties of lipids to concrete examples in our world.
    Teaching Tips
    1. The text in Module 3.8 notes the common observation that vinegar and oil do not mix in this type of salad dressing. A simple demonstration can help make this point. In front of the class, mix together colored water and a yellow oil (corn or canola oil work well). Shake up the mixture and then watch as the two separate. (You may have a mixture already made ahead of time that remains separated; however, the dye may bleed between the oil and the water.) Placing the mixture on an overhead projector or other well-illuminated imaging device makes for a dramatic display of hydrophobic activity!
    2. The text notes that a gram of fat stores more than twice the energy of a gram of polysaccharide, such as starch. You might elaborate with a simple calculation to demonstrate how a person’s body weight would vary if the energy stored in body fat were stored in carbohydrates instead. If a 100-kg man carried 25% body fat, he would have 25 kg of fat in his body. Fat stores about 2.25 times more energy per gram than carbohydrate. What would be the weight of the man if he stored the energy in the fat in the form of carbohydrate? (2.25  25  56.25 kg of carbohydrate  75 kg  131.25 kg, an increase of 31.25%)
    3. Margarine in stores commonly comes in liquid squeeze containers, in tubs, and in sticks. These forms reflect increasing amounts of hydrogenation, gradually increasing the stiffness from a liquid, to a firmer spread, to a firm stick of margarine. As noted in the text, recent studies have suggested that unsaturated oils become increasingly unhealthy as they are hydrogenated. Public attention to hydrogenation and the health risks of the resulting trans fats are causing changes in the use of products containing trans fats.
  • Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. Students may struggle with the concept that a pound of fat contains more than twice the calories of a pound of sugar. It might seem that a pound of food would potentially add on a pound of weight. Other students may have never understood the concept of calories in the diet, simply following general guidelines of avoiding fatty foods. Furthermore, fiber and water have no caloric value but add to the weight of food. Consider class discussions that explore student misconceptions about calories, body weight, and healthy diets.
    2. Students might struggle to extrapolate the properties of lipids to their roles in an organism. Ducks float because their feathers repel water instead of attracting it. Hair on our heads remains flexible because of oils produced in our scalp. Examples such as these help connect the abstract properties of lipids to concrete examples in our world.
    Teaching Tips
    1. The text in Module 3.8 notes the common observation that vinegar and oil do not mix in this type of salad dressing. A simple demonstration can help make this point. In front of the class, mix together colored water and a yellow oil (corn or canola oil work well). Shake up the mixture and then watch as the two separate. (You may have a mixture already made ahead of time that remains separated; however, the dye may bleed between the oil and the water.) Placing the mixture on an overhead projector or other well-illuminated imaging device makes for a dramatic display of hydrophobic activity!
    2. The text notes that a gram of fat stores more than twice the energy of a gram of polysaccharide, such as starch. You might elaborate with a simple calculation to demonstrate how a person’s body weight would vary if the energy stored in body fat were stored in carbohydrates instead. If a 100-kg man carried 25% body fat, he would have 25 kg of fat in his body. Fat stores about 2.25 times more energy per gram than carbohydrate. What would be the weight of the man if he stored the energy in the fat in the form of carbohydrate? (2.25  25  56.25 kg of carbohydrate  75 kg  131.25 kg, an increase of 31.25%)
    3. Margarine in stores commonly comes in liquid squeeze containers, in tubs, and in sticks. These forms reflect increasing amounts of hydrogenation, gradually increasing the stiffness from a liquid, to a firmer spread, to a firm stick of margarine. As noted in the text, recent studies have suggested that unsaturated oils become increasingly unhealthy as they are hydrogenated. Public attention to hydrogenation and the health risks of the resulting trans fats are causing changes in the use of products containing trans fats.
  • Figure 3.8B A dehydration reaction linking a fatty acid to glycerol.
  • Figure 3.8C A fat molecule made from glycerol and three fatty acids.
  • Most animal fat is saturated fat. Saturated fats, such as butter and lard, will pack tightly together and will be solid at room temperature.
    Plant and fish fats are usually unsaturated fats. They are usually liquid at room temperature. Olive oil and cod liver oil are examples.
    Peanut butter, margarine, and many other products are hydrogenated to prevent lipids from separating out in liquid (oil) form.
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. Students may struggle with the concept that a pound of fat contains more than twice the calories of a pound of sugar. It might seem that a pound of food would potentially add on a pound of weight. Other students may have never understood the concept of calories in the diet, simply following general guidelines of avoiding fatty foods. Furthermore, fiber and water have no caloric value but add to the weight of food. Consider class discussions that explore student misconceptions about calories, body weight, and healthy diets.
    2. Students might struggle to extrapolate the properties of lipids to their roles in an organism. Ducks float because their feathers repel water instead of attracting it. Hair on our heads remains flexible because of oils produced in our scalp. Examples such as these help connect the abstract properties of lipids to concrete examples in our world.
    Teaching Tips
    1. The text in Module 3.8 notes the common observation that vinegar and oil do not mix in this type of salad dressing. A simple demonstration can help make this point. In front of the class, mix together colored water and a yellow oil (corn or canola oil work well). Shake up the mixture and then watch as the two separate. (You may have a mixture already made ahead of time that remains separated; however, the dye may bleed between the oil and the water.) Placing the mixture on an overhead projector or other well-illuminated imaging device makes for a dramatic display of hydrophobic activity!
    2. The text notes that a gram of fat stores more than twice the energy of a gram of polysaccharide, such as starch. You might elaborate with a simple calculation to demonstrate how a person’s body weight would vary if the energy stored in body fat were stored in carbohydrates instead. If a 100-kg man carried 25% body fat, he would have 25 kg of fat in his body. Fat stores about 2.25 times more energy per gram than carbohydrate. What would be the weight of the man if he stored the energy in the fat in the form of carbohydrate? (2.25  25  56.25 kg of carbohydrate  75 kg  131.25 kg, an increase of 31.25%)
    3. Margarine in stores commonly comes in liquid squeeze containers, in tubs, and in sticks. These forms reflect increasing amounts of hydrogenation, gradually increasing the stiffness from a liquid, to a firmer spread, to a firm stick of margarine. As noted in the text, recent studies have suggested that unsaturated oils become increasingly unhealthy as they are hydrogenated. Public attention to hydrogenation and the health risks of the resulting trans fats are causing changes in the use of products containing trans fats.
  • The phospholipid bilayer provides the cell with a structure that separates the outside from the inside of the cell. The integrity of the membrane is necessary for life functions. Because of the nature of the phospholipid, many molecules cannot move across the membrane without help.
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. Students might struggle to extrapolate the properties of lipids to their roles in an organism. Ducks float because their feathers repel water instead of attracting it. Hair on our heads remains flexible because of oils produced in our scalp. Examples such as these help connect the abstract properties of lipids to concrete examples in our world.
    Teaching Tips
    1. Before explaining the properties of a polar molecule such as a phospholipid, have students predict the consequences of adding phospholipids to water. See if the class can generate the two most common configurations: (1) a lipid bilayer encircling water (water surrounding the bilayer and contained internally) and (2) a micelle (polar heads in contact with water and hydrophobic tails clustered centrally).
    2. The consequences of steroid abuse will likely be of great interest to your students. However, the reasons for the damaging consequences might not be immediately clear. As time permits, consider noting the diverse homeostatic mechanisms that normally regulate the traits affected by steroid abuse.
  • Figure 3.9A Section of a phospholipid membrane.
  • Unfortunately, a high level of cholesterol in the blood can lead to atherosclerosis. This is a heart disease that results when deposits form in the arteries that supply the heart muscle with oxygen. The deposits block blood flow, and a heart attack results. Both saturated fats and trans fats promote higher levels of cholesterol.
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. Students might struggle to extrapolate the properties of lipids to their roles in an organism. Ducks float because their feathers repel water instead of attracting it. Hair on our heads remains flexible because of oils produced in our scalp. Examples such as these help connect the abstract properties of lipids to concrete examples in our world.
    Teaching Tips
    1. Before explaining the properties of a polar molecule such as a phospholipid, have students predict the consequences of adding phospholipids to water. See if the class can generate the two most common configurations: (1) a lipid bilayer encircling water (water surrounding the bilayer and contained internally) and (2) a micelle (polar heads in contact with water and hydrophobic tails clustered centrally).
    2. The consequences of steroid abuse will likely be of great interest to your students. However, the reasons for the damaging consequences might not be immediately clear. As time permits, consider noting the diverse homeostatic mechanisms that normally regulate the traits affected by steroid abuse.
  • Figure 3.9B Cholesterol, a steroid.
  • Proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of cells.
    Teaching Tips
    1. Many analogies help students appreciate the diversity of proteins that can be made from just 20 amino acids. The authors note that our language uses combinations of 26 letters to form words. Proteins are much longer “words,” creating even more diversity. Another analogy is to trains. This builds upon the earlier analogy when polymers were introduced. Imagine making different trains about 100 cars long, using any combination of 20 types of railroad cars. Mathematically, the number of possible trains is 20100, a number beyond imagination.
  • Teaching Tips
    1. Many analogies help students appreciate the diversity of proteins that can be made from just 20 amino acids. The authors note that our language uses combinations of 26 letters to form words. Proteins are much longer “words,” creating even more diversity. Another analogy is to trains. This builds upon the earlier analogy when polymers were introduced. Imagine making different trains about 100 cars long, using any combination of 20 types of railroad cars. Mathematically, the number of possible trains is 20100, a number beyond imagination.
  • Teaching Tips
    1. Many analogies help students appreciate the diversity of proteins that can be made from just 20 amino acids. The authors note that our language uses combinations of 26 letters to form words. Proteins are much longer “words,” creating even more diversity. Another analogy is to trains. This builds upon the earlier analogy when polymers were introduced. Imagine making different trains about 100 cars long, using any combination of 20 types of railroad cars. Mathematically, the number of possible trains is 20100, a number beyond imagination.
    2. The authors note that the difference between a polypeptide and a protein is analogous to the relationship between a long strand of yarn and a sweater knitted from yarn. Proteins are clearly more complex!
  • Figure 3.12A General structure of an amino acid.
  • Teaching Tips
    1. Many analogies help students appreciate the diversity of proteins that can be made from just 20 amino acids. The authors note that our language uses combinations of 26 letters to form words. Proteins are much longer “words,” creating even more diversity. Another analogy is to trains. This builds upon the earlier analogy when polymers were introduced. Imagine making different trains about 100 cars long, using any combination of 20 types of railroad cars. Mathematically, the number of possible trains is 20100, a number beyond imagination.
    2. The authors note that the difference between a polypeptide and a protein is analogous to the relationship between a long strand of yarn and a sweater knitted from yarn. Proteins are clearly more complex!
  • Figure 3.12B Examples of amino acids with hydrophobic and hydrophilic R groups.
  • Teaching Tips
    1. Many analogies help students appreciate the diversity of proteins that can be made from just 20 amino acids. The authors note that our language uses combinations of 26 letters to form words. Proteins are much longer “words,” creating even more diversity. Another analogy is to trains. This builds upon the earlier analogy when polymers were introduced. Imagine making different trains about 100 cars long, using any combination of 20 types of railroad cars. Mathematically, the number of possible trains is 20100, a number beyond imagination.
    2. The authors note that the difference between a polypeptide and a protein is analogous to the relationship between a long strand of yarn and a sweater knitted from yarn. Proteins are clearly more complex!
  • Figure 3.12C Peptide bond formation.
    As more and more amino acids are added, a chain of amino acids called a polypeptide results. The combination of amino acids is determined by expression of genes on DNA. Although there seems to be an unlimited number of combinations of 20 amino acids, the combinations are limited in an individual because of inheritance.
  • Figure 3.12C Peptide bond formation.
    As more and more amino acids are added, a chain of amino acids called a polypeptide results. The combination of amino acids is determined by expression of genes on DNA. Although there seems to be an unlimited number of combinations of 20 amino acids, the combinations are limited in an individual because of inheritance.
  • Because of the molecular structure of specific proteins on brain cells, endorphins bind to them. This gives us a feeling of euphoria and pain relief. Morphine, heroin, and other opiate drugs are able to mimic endorphins and bind to the endorphin receptors in the brain. Because of the euphoria that results, we become addicted.
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. The functional significance of protein shape is an abstract molecular example of form and function relationships, which might be new to some students. The binding of an enzyme to its substrate is a type of molecular handshake, which permits specific interactions. To help students think about form and function relationships, share some concrete analogies in their lives—perhaps flathead and Phillips screwdrivers that match the proper type of screws or the fit of a hand into a glove.
    Teaching Tips
    1. Most cooking results in changes in the texture and color of food. The brown color of a cooked steak is the product of the denaturation of proteins. Fixatives such as formalin also denature proteins and cause color changes. Students who have dissected vertebrates will realize that the brown color of the muscles makes it look as if the animal has been cooked.
  • Figure 3.13A Ribbon model of the protein lysozyme.
  • Figure 3.13B Space-filling model of lysozyme.
  • Excessive heat can also denature a protein. A good example is frying or boiling an egg. The proteins in the egg “white” become solid, white, and opaque upon denaturation.
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. The functional significance of protein shape is an abstract molecular example of form and function relationships, which might be new to some students. The binding of an enzyme to its substrate is a type of molecular handshake, which permits specific interactions. To help students think about form and function relationships, share some concrete analogies in their lives—perhaps flathead and Phillips screwdrivers that match the proper type of screws or the fit of a hand into a glove.
    Teaching Tips
    1. Most cooking results in changes in the texture and color of food. The brown color of a cooked steak is the product of the denaturation of proteins. Fixatives such as formalin also denature proteins and cause color changes. Students who have dissected vertebrates will realize that the brown color of the muscles makes it look as if the animal has been cooked.
  • For the BLAST Animation Alpha Helix, go to Animation and Video Files.
    Teaching Tips
    1. Consider this assignment to review the organic molecules in our diets. Have students, working individually or in small groups, analyze a food label listing the components of a McDonalds’ Big Mac or other fast-food sandwich. Note the most abundant organic molecule class (perhaps by weight) found in each component.
  • Sickle cell disease is manifested by an inability of hemoglobin in red blood cells to carry oxygen, the primary function of hemoglobin. This blood disorder is the result of change in a single amino acid.
    Teaching Tips
    1. Consider this assignment to review the organic molecules in our diets. Have students, working individually or in small groups, analyze a food label listing the components of a McDonalds’ Big Mac or other fast-food sandwich. Note the most abundant organic molecule class (perhaps by weight) found in each component.
  • Hydrogen bonding is an important component of the silk protein of a spider’s web. The many hydrogen bonds makes the web as strong as steel.
    Teaching Tips
    1. Consider this assignment to review the organic molecules in our diets. Have students, working individually or in small groups, analyze a food label listing the components of a McDonalds’ Big Mac or other fast-food sandwich. Note the most abundant organic molecule class (perhaps by weight) found in each component.
  • Figure 3.14UN02 Collagen.
  • Teaching Tips
    1. Consider this assignment to review the organic molecules in our diets. Have students, working individually or in small groups, analyze a food label listing the components of a McDonalds’ Big Mac or other fast-food sandwich. Note the most abundant organic molecule class (perhaps by weight) found in each component.
  • Misfolding of proteins cause diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Both are manifested by accumulations of misfolded proteins.
    Consider an assignment to review the organic molecules in our diets. Have students, working individually or in small groups, analyze a food label listing the components of a McDonald’s Big Mac or other fast food sandwich. Note the most abundant organic molecule class (perhaps by weight) found in each component.
    For the BLAST Animation Protein Primary Structure, go to Animation and Video Files.
    For the BLAST Animation Protein Secondary Structure, go to Animation and Video Files.
    For the BLAST Animation Protein Tertiary Structure, go to Animation and Video Files.
    For the BLAST Animation Protein Quaternary Structure, go to Animation and Video Files.
    Teaching Tips
    1. Consider this assignment to review the organic molecules in our diets. Have students, working individually or in small groups, analyze a food label listing the components of a McDonalds’ Big Mac or other fast-food sandwich. Note the most abundant organic molecule class (perhaps by weight) found in each component.
  • Figure 3.14A Primary structure.
  • Figure 3.14A Primary structure.
    Figure 3.14B Secondary structure.
  • Figure 3.14A Primary structure.
    Figure 3.14B Secondary structure.
    Figure 3.14C Tertiary structure.
  • Figure 3.14A Primary structure.
    Figure 3.14B Secondary structure.
    Figure 3.14C Tertiary structure.
    Figure 3.14D Quaternary structure.
  • Pauling was also an advocate for halting nuclear weapons testing and won the Nobel Peace Prize for his work. He was very close to reporting the structure of DNA when Watson and Crick scooped him and correctly described its structure.
    Teaching Tips
    1. An examination of the fabrics and weave of a sweater might help students understand the levels of protein structure. Although not a perfect analogy, levels of organization can be better appreciated. Teasing apart a single thread reveals a simpler organization of smaller fibers woven together. In turn, threads are interlaced into a connected fabric, which may be further twisted and organized into a pattern or structural component of a sleeve. Challenge students to identify the limits of this analogy and identify aspects of protein structure not included (such as the primary structure of a protein, its sequence of amino acids).
    2. Additional details of Linus Pauling’s career can be found on the website of the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University, http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/lpbio/lpbio2.html.
  • Figure 3.15 Linus Pauling with a model of the alpha helix in 1948.
  • Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. Module 3.16 is the first time the authors present the concept of transcription and translation, discussed extensively in later chapters. The basic conceptual flow of information from DNA to RNA to proteins is essential to these later discussions.
    Teaching Tips
    1. The “NA” in the acronyms DNA and RNA stands for “nucleic acid.” Students often do not make this association without assistance.
  • Figure 3.16A A nucleotide, consisting of a phosphate group, sugar, and a nitrogenous base.
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. Module 3.16 is the first time the authors present the concept of transcription and translation, discussed extensively in later chapters. The basic conceptual flow of information from DNA to RNA to proteins is essential to these later discussions.
    Teaching Tips
    1. The “NA” in the acronyms DNA and RNA stands for “nucleic acid.” Students often do not make this association without assistance.
  • Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. Module 3.16 is the first time the authors present the concept of transcription and translation, discussed extensively in later chapters. The basic conceptual flow of information from DNA to RNA to proteins is essential to these later discussions.
    Teaching Tips
    1. The “NA” in the acronyms DNA and RNA stands for “nucleic acid.” Students often do not make this association without assistance.
  • Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. Module 3.16 is the first time the authors present the concept of transcription and translation, discussed extensively in later chapters. The basic conceptual flow of information from DNA to RNA to proteins is essential to these later discussions.
    Teaching Tips
    1. The “NA” in the acronyms DNA and RNA stands for “nucleic acid.” Students often do not make this association without assistance.
  • Figure 3.16B Part of a nucleotide.
  • Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. Module 3.16 is the first time the authors present the concept of transcription and translation, discussed extensively in later chapters. The basic conceptual flow of information from DNA to RNA to proteins is essential to these later discussions.
    Teaching Tips
    1. The “NA” in the acronyms DNA and RNA stands for “nucleic acid.” Students often do not make this association without assistance.
  • Figure 3.16C DNA double helix.
  • Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. Module 3.16 is the first time the authors present the concept of transcription and translation, discussed extensively in later chapters. The basic conceptual flow of information from DNA to RNA to proteins is essential to these later discussions.
    Teaching Tips
    1. The “NA” in the acronyms DNA and RNA stands for “nucleic acid.” Students often do not make this association without assistance.
  • Mutations that lead to lactose tolerance are relativity recent events. The mutation was useful because it allowed people to drink milk when other foods were unavailable. In other words, it provided a survival advantage.
    Student Misconceptions and Concerns
    1. The evolution of lactose tolerance within human groups in East Africa does not represent a deliberate decision, yet this evolutionary change appears logical. Many students perceive adaptations as deliberate events with purpose. As students develop a better understanding of the mechanisms of evolution, it will be important to point out that mutations arise by chance, with the culling hand of natural selection favoring traits that convey advantage. Organisms cannot plan evolutionary change.
    Teaching Tips
    1. When discussing the sequence of nucleotides in DNA and RNA, consider challenging your students with the following questions based upon prior analogies. If the 20 possible amino acids in a polypeptide represent “words” in a long polypeptide sentence, how many possible words are in the language of a DNA molecule? (Four nucleotides, GCAT, are possible). Are these the same “words” used in RNA? (Answer: No. Uracil substitutes for thymine.)
  • Ch 3 molecules_of_cells_lecture_presentation (1)

    1. 1. Chapter 3 The Molecules of Cells PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey Lecture by Richard L. Myers Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    2. 2.  INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    3. 3. 3.1 Life’s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon  Diverse molecules found in cells are composed of carbon bonded to other elements – Carbon-based molecules are called organic compounds – By sharing electrons, carbon can bond to four other atoms – By doing so, it can branch in up to four directions Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    4. 4. 3.1 Life’s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon  Methane (CH4) is one of the simplest organic compounds – Four covalent bonds link four hydrogen atoms to the carbon atom – Each of the four lines in the formula for methane represents a pair of shared electrons Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    5. 5. Structural formula Ball-and-stick model Space-filling model Methane The four single bonds of carbon point to the corners of a tetrahedron.
    6. 6. 3.1 Life’s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon  Methane and other compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons – Carbon, with attached hydrogens, can bond together in chains of various lengths Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    7. 7. 3.1 Life’s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon  A chain of carbon atoms is called a carbon skeleton – Carbon skeletons can be branched or unbranched – Therefore, different compounds with the same molecular formula can be produced – These structures are called isomers Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    8. 8. Ethane Length. Propane Carbon skeletons vary in length.
    9. 9. Butane Branching. Isobutane Skeletons may be unbranched or branched.
    10. 10. 1-Butene Double bonds. 2-Butene Skeletons may have double bonds, which can vary in location.
    11. 11. Cyclohexane Rings. Benzene Skeletons may be arranged in rings.
    12. 12. 3.2 Characteristic chemical groups help determine the properties of organic compounds  An organic compound has unique properties that depend upon – The size and shape of the molecule and – The groups of atoms (functional groups) attached to it  A functional group affects a biological molecule’s function in a characteristic way Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    13. 13. 3.2 Characteristic chemical groups help determine the properties of organic compounds  An example of similar compounds that differ only in functional groups is sex hormones – Male and female sex hormones differ only in functional groups – The differences cause varied molecular actions – The result is distinguishable features of males and females Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    14. 14. Estradiol Female lion Testosterone Male lion
    15. 15. 3.3 Cells make a huge number of large molecules from a small set of small molecules  There are four classes of biological molecules – Carbohydrates – Proteins – Lipids – Nucleic acids Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    16. 16. 3.3 Cells make a huge number of large molecules from a small set of small molecules  The four classes of biological molecules contain very large molecules – They are often called macromolecules because of their large size – They are also called polymers because they are made from identical building blocks strung together – The building blocks are called monomers Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    17. 17. 3.3 Cells make a huge number of large molecules from a small set of small molecules  A cell makes a large number of polymers from a small group of monomers – Proteins are made from only 20 different amino acids, and DNA is built from just four kinds of nucleotides Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    18. 18. 3.3 Cells make a huge number of large molecules from a small set of small molecules  Monomers are linked together to form polymers through dehydration reactions, which remove water  Polymers are broken apart by hydrolysis, the addition of water  All biological reactions of this sort are mediated by enzymes, which speed up chemical reactions in cells Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    19. 19. Short polymer Unlinked monomer
    20. 20. Short polymer Dehydration reaction Longer polymer Unlinked monomer
    21. 21. Hydrolysis
    22. 22.  CARBOHYDRATES Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    23. 23. 3.4 Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates  Carbohydrates range from small sugar molecules (monomers) to large polysaccharides – Sugar monomers are monosaccharides, such as glucose and fructose – These can be hooked together to form the polysaccharides Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    24. 24. 3.4 Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates  The carbon skeletons of monosaccharides vary in length – Glucose and fructose are six carbons long – Others have three to seven carbon atoms  Monosaccharides are the main fuels for cellular work – Monosaccharides are also used as raw materials to manufacture other organic molecules Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    25. 25. Glucose (an aldose) Fructose (a ketose)
    26. 26. Structural formula Abbreviated structure Simplified structure
    27. 27. 3.5 Cells link two single sugars to form disaccharides  Two monosaccharides (monomers) can bond to form a disaccharide in a dehydration reaction – An example is a glucose monomer bonding to a fructose monomer to form sucrose, a common disaccharide Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    28. 28. Glucose Glucose
    29. 29. Glucose Glucose Maltose
    30. 30. 3.7 Polysaccharides are long chains of sugar units  Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides – They can function in the cell as a storage molecule or as a structural compound Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    31. 31. 3.7 Polysaccharides are long chains of sugar units  Starch is a storage polysaccharide composed of glucose monomers and found in plants  Glycogen is a storage polysaccharide composed of glucose, which is hydrolyzed by animals when glucose is needed  Cellulose is a polymer of glucose that forms plant cell walls  Chitin is a polysaccharide used by insects and crustaceans to build an exoskeleton Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    32. 32. 3.7 Polysaccharides are long chains of sugar units  Polysaccharides are hydrophilic (water-loving) – Cotton fibers, such as those in bath towels, are water absorbent Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    33. 33. Starch granules in potato tuber cells Glycogen granules in muscle tissue STARCH Glucose monomer GLYCOGEN CELLULOSE Cellulose fibrils in a plant cell wall Hydrogen bonds Cellulose molecules
    34. 34.  LIPIDS Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    35. 35. 3.8 Fats are lipids that are mostly energy-storage molecules  Lipids are water insoluble (hydrophobic, or water fearing) compounds that are important in energy storage – They contain twice as much energy as a polysaccharide  Fats are lipids made from glycerol and fatty acids Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    36. 36. 3.8 Fats are lipids that are mostly energy-storage molecules  Fatty acids link to glycerol by a dehydration reaction – A fat contains one glycerol linked to three fatty acids – Fats are often called triglycerides because of their structure Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    37. 37. Glycerol Fatty acid
    38. 38. 3.8 Fats are lipids that are mostly energy-storage molecules  Some fatty acids contain double bonds – This causes kinks or bends in the carbon chain because the maximum number of hydrogen atoms cannot bond to the carbons at the double bond – These compounds are called unsaturated fats because they have fewer than the maximum number of hydrogens – Fats with the maximum number of hydrogens are called saturated fats Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    39. 39. 3.9 Phospholipids and steroids are important lipids with a variety of functions  Phospholipids are structurally similar to fats and are an important component of all cells – For example, they are a major part of cell membranes, in which they cluster into a bilayer of phospholipids – The hydrophilic heads are in contact with the water of the environment and the internal part of the cell – The hydrophobic tails band in the center of the bilayer Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    40. 40. Hydrophilic heads Water Hydrophobic tails Water
    41. 41. 3.9 Phospholipids and steroids are important lipids with a variety of functions  Steroids are lipids composed of fused ring structures – Cholesterol is an example of a steroid that plays a significant role in the structure of the cell membrane – In addition, cholesterol is the compound from which we synthesize sex hormones Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    42. 42.  PROTEINS Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    43. 43. 3.11 Proteins are essential to the structures and functions of life  A protein is a polymer built from various combinations of 20 amino acid monomers – Proteins have unique structures that are directly related to their functions – Enzymes, proteins that serve as metabolic catalysts, regulate the chemical reactions within cells Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    44. 44. 3.11 Proteins are essential to the structures and functions of life  Structural proteins provide associations between body parts and contractile proteins are found within muscle  Defensive proteins include antibodies of the immune system, and signal proteins are best exemplified by the hormones  Receptor proteins serve as antenna for outside signals, and transport proteins carry oxygen Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    45. 45. 3.12 Proteins are made from amino acids linked by peptide bonds  Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, have an amino group and a carboxyl group – Both of these are covalently bonded to a central carbon atom – Also bonded to the central carbon is a hydrogen atom and some other chemical group symbolized by R Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    46. 46. Amino group Carboxyl group
    47. 47. 3.12 Proteins are made from amino acids linked by peptide bonds  Amino acids are classified as hydrophobic or hydrophilic – Some amino acids have a nonpolar R group and are hydrophobic – Others have a polar R group and are hydrophilic, which means they easily dissolve in aqueous solutions Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    48. 48. Leucine (Leu) Hydrophobic Serine (Ser) Aspartic acid (Asp) Hydrophilic
    49. 49. 3.12 Proteins are made from amino acids linked by peptide bonds  Amino acid monomers are linked together to form polymeric proteins – This is accomplished by an enzyme-mediated dehydration reaction – This links the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of the next amino acid – The covalent linkage resulting is called a peptide bond Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    50. 50. Carboxyl group Amino acid Amino group Amino acid
    51. 51. Carboxyl group Amino acid Amino group Amino acid Peptide bond Dehydration reaction Dipeptide
    52. 52. 3.13 A protein’s specific shape determines its function  A polypeptide chain contains hundreds or thousands of amino acids linked by peptide bonds – The amino acid sequence causes the polypeptide to assume a particular shape – The shape of a protein determines its specific function Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    53. 53. Groove
    54. 54. Groove
    55. 55. 3.13 A protein’s specific shape determines its function  If for some reason a protein’s shape is altered, it can no longer function – Denaturation will cause polypeptide chains to unravel and lose their shape and, thus, their function – Proteins can be denatured by changes in salt concentration and pH Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    56. 56. 3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure  A protein can have four levels of structure – Primary structure – Secondary structure – Tertiary structure – Quaternary structure Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    57. 57. 3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure  The primary structure of a protein is its unique amino acid sequence – The correct amino acid sequence is determined by the cell’s genetic information – The slightest change in this sequence affects the protein’s ability to function Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    58. 58. 3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure  Protein secondary structure results from coiling or folding of the polypeptide – Coiling results in a helical structure called an alpha helix – Folding may lead to a structure called a pleated sheet – Coiling and folding result from hydrogen bonding between certain areas of the polypeptide chain Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    59. 59. Polypeptide chain Collagen
    60. 60. 3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure  The overall three-dimensional shape of a protein is called its tertiary structure – Tertiary structure generally results from interactions between the R groups of the various amino acids – Disulfide bridges are covalent bonds that further strengthen the protein’s shape Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    61. 61. 3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure  Two or more polypeptide chains (subunits) associate providing quaternary structure – Collagen is an example of a protein with quaternary structure – Its triple helix gives great strength to connective tissue, bone, tendons, and ligaments Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    62. 62. Four Levels of Protein Structure Primary structure Amino acids
    63. 63. Four Levels of Protein Structure Primary structure Amino acids Hydrogen bond Secondary structure Alpha helix Pleated sheet
    64. 64. Four Levels of Protein Structure Primary structure Amino acids Hydrogen bond Secondary structure Alpha helix Tertiary structure Polypeptide (single subunit of transthyretin) Pleated sheet
    65. 65. Four Levels of Protein Structure Primary structure Amino acids Hydrogen bond Secondary structure Alpha helix Tertiary structure Quaternary structure Polypeptide (single subunit of transthyretin) Transthyretin, with four identical polypeptide subunits Pleated sheet
    66. 66. 3.15 TALKING ABOUT SCIENCE: Linus Pauling contributed to our understanding of the chemistry of life  After winning a Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Pauling spent considerable time studying biological molecules – He discovered an oxygen attachment to hemoglobin as well as the cause of sickle-cell disease – Pauling also discovered the alpha helix and pleated sheet of proteins Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    67. 67.  NUCLEIC ACIDS Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    68. 68. 3.16 Nucleic acids are information-rich polymers of nucleotides  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) are composed of monomers called nucleotides – Nucleotides have three parts – A five-carbon sugar called ribose in RNA and deoxyribose in DNA – A phosphate group – A nitrogenous base Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    69. 69. Nitrogenous base (adenine) Phosphate group Sugar
    70. 70. 3.16 Nucleic acids are information-rich polymers of nucleotides  DNA nitrogenous bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G) – RNA also has A, C, and G, but instead of T, it has uracil (U) Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    71. 71. 3.16 Nucleic acids are information-rich polymers of nucleotides  A nucleic acid polymer, a polynucleotide, forms from the nucleotide monomers when the phosphate of one nucleotide bonds to the sugar of the next nucleotide – The result is a repeating sugar-phosphate backbone with protruding nitrogenous bases Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    72. 72. Nucleotide Sugar-phosphate backbone
    73. 73. 3.16 Nucleic acids are information-rich polymers of nucleotides  Two polynucleotide strands wrap around each other to form a DNA double helix – The two strands are associated because particular bases always hydrogen bond to one another – A pairs with T, and C pairs with G, producing base pairs  RNA is usually a single polynucleotide strand Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    74. 74. Base pair
    75. 75. 3.16 Nucleic acids are information-rich polymers of nucleotides  A particular nucleotide sequence that can instruct the formation of a polypeptide is called a gene – Most DNA molecules consist of millions of base pairs and, consequently, many genes – These genes, many of which are unique to the species, determine the structure of proteins and, thus, life’s structures and functions Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    76. 76. 3.17 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: Lactose tolerance is a recent event in human evolution  Mutations are alterations in bases or the sequence of bases in DNA – Lactose tolerance is the result of mutations – In many people, the gene that dictates lactose utilization (the formation of the lactase enzyme) is turned off in adulthood – This is an excellent example of human evolution Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

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