The Beginnings of LifeNature and Nurture; Physical, Social, and        Cognitive DevelopmentSource: Atkinson & Hilgard’s I...
The Beginnings of LifeCapacio, Krista Kae T. & Larrazabal, Ma. Amale Y.     Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to P...
Nature and NurtureHuman beings enter                   Knowledge is acquired the world with an                  through ex...
For short,HEREDITY                               ENVIRONMENT Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ...
The mind of a newborn infant                              is a tabula rasa (blank state).                               Kn...
19th                 CenturyCHARLES DARWIN
19th                        CenturyCHARLES DARWIN  Theory of Evolution
19th                        CenturyCHARLES DARWIN  Theory of Evolution     HEREDITY
BEHAVIORISM                                                               20th                                            ...
“Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, andmy own specified world to bring them up in, and I’llguarantee to take an...
Today, most psychologists agree not only thatboth nature and nurture play important roles but  also that they interact con...
PHYSICAL     DevelopmentSource: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
Newborn100 Billion Neurons                                         3 years  but with few connections     3x larger brain  ...
Brain Development 2-6 years      • Left brain hemisphere develops more fully which                may explain why children...
Brain Development                        influenced byGeneticfactors                                    Stimulation or    ...
Genes program us.maturation             A process that expresses genetically                 determined characteristics.  ...
Fetal behavior                               Organ developmentkicking, turning, etc.                                If the...
William James                                     A newborn sees the world a                                           buz...
Newborn          CapacitiesSource: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
Vision                         limited focus                         nearsightedHearing   Able todistinguish  different In...
Taste and Smell• Babies prefer sweet-tasting liquids over others.• Babies prefer breast milk over others.     Source: Atki...
Learning and Memory• 3-month-old babies already have good memories.       Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psy...
Motor SkillsGross motor skillsInvolve the use of large bodily movements. Fine motor skillsInvolve the use of small bodily ...
Cognitive Development    in Childhood   Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
Psychological thinking                                     about children’s                                  cognitive dev...
SchemasTheories about howthe physical and socialworlds operates    Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology...
Piaget’s 4 Stages of Cognitive DevelopmentSensorimotor   stage                                     Stage of               ...
Sensorimotor Stage• First 2 years• Relationship between actions and  consequences• Concept of themselves as separate form ...
Preoperational Stage• 1 ½ - 2 years• Use symbols• Does not comprehend rules and  regulations or operations• Dominated by v...
Operational Stages •   Ages between 7 & 12 •   Conservation concept •   Logical manipulation •   Form mental representatio...
Alternatives to Piaget’s TheoryPiaget’s theory may be invalid because such factorsmay have affected child’s response.Infor...
Theory of Mind• Much of our behavior toward other people is based  on our understanding of what they are thinking. metacog...
1     At 2, children have an understanding of simple desires,      emotions, and perceptual experiences but do not      un...
Overall level of cognitive development determines ones                MORAL JUDGEMENT    Children’s understanding of moral...
3      Children give weigh to subjective consideration.4       Youngsters show interest in generating rules to deal       ...
Personality and Social    Development  Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
TEMPERAMENTMood-related personality characteristics.     Research emphasizes that continuity or  discontinuity of temperam...
EARLY SOCIAL BEHAVIOR                       Parent-child bond:  Child smiles                                   Parent enco...
ATTACHMENT An infant’s tendency to seek closeness to particular people and to feel more secure in their presence.  A careg...
The mother’s behavior appears to be the most important       factor in establishing secure attachment.     Source: Atkinso...
LATER DEVELOPMENTSecurely attached babies mostly turned out to beenthusiastic, positive, and non-problematic. Theyare bett...
EFFECTS OF DAY CARE    Children are not significantly affected by               nonmaternal care. Good quality day care ca...
GENDER IDENTITYA firm sense of oneself as either male or female     SEX TYPINGAcquisition of behavioral characteristics th...
But are gender identity and sex typing simply theproduct of cultural prescriptions and expectations,    or a are they part...
Psychoanalytic TheorySigmund Freud 3               “Beginning of the Phallic Stage ofyears              Psychosexual Devel...
Social Learning TheorySex typing is because of the way a sex is treated ina culture. Contradictions  •     Children themse...
Cognitive-Developmental TheoryProposes that gender identity plays a critical role insex typing. 2            • Children ar...
3          • Children are able to separate photos of years            boys and girls but do not know if they              ...
Gender-Schema Theory A set of beliefs about gender.• Children become sex-typed because sex is a major  focus around which ...
SOURCESMain source:           Atkinson & Hilgard’s   Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.Source of photos:           Google ™
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  • Piaget’s theory may be invalid because such factors may have affected child’s response.
  • Beginnings of Life

    1. 1. The Beginnings of LifeNature and Nurture; Physical, Social, and Cognitive DevelopmentSource: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    2. 2. The Beginnings of LifeCapacio, Krista Kae T. & Larrazabal, Ma. Amale Y. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    3. 3. Nature and NurtureHuman beings enter Knowledge is acquired the world with an through experiences and inborn store of interactions with the knowledge and world. understanding of reality. 17th CenturyCould be accessed through careful reasoning and introspection. JOHN LOCKE Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    4. 4. For short,HEREDITY ENVIRONMENT Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    5. 5. The mind of a newborn infant is a tabula rasa (blank state). Knowledge is provided entirely by experience; there JOHN LOCKE is no built-in knowledge.Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    6. 6. 19th CenturyCHARLES DARWIN
    7. 7. 19th CenturyCHARLES DARWIN Theory of Evolution
    8. 8. 19th CenturyCHARLES DARWIN Theory of Evolution HEREDITY
    9. 9. BEHAVIORISM 20th Century B.F. Skinner Human nature is John B. Watson completely malleable.Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    10. 10. “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, andmy own specified world to bring them up in, and I’llguarantee to take any one at random and train him to be any type of specialist I might select—doctor,lawyer, artist, merchant chief, and yes, even beggar- man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.” (1930)Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    11. 11. Today, most psychologists agree not only thatboth nature and nurture play important roles but also that they interact continuously to guide development. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    12. 12. PHYSICAL DevelopmentSource: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    13. 13. Newborn100 Billion Neurons 3 years but with few connections 3x larger brain Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    14. 14. Brain Development 2-6 years • Left brain hemisphere develops more fully which may explain why children acquire language quickly.Middlechildhood • Handedness—the preference for using one hand
    15. 15. Brain Development influenced byGeneticfactors Stimulation or deprivation afetal behavior child receives from the environment in early years.Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    16. 16. Genes program us.maturation A process that expresses genetically determined characteristics. A determined sequence of growth or change that is relatively independent of external events. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    17. 17. Fetal behavior Organ developmentkicking, turning, etc. If the mother contractsFollows an orderly sequence rubella, damagedepending on stage growth. depends on which organ system was developing during the time of 3 months of pregnancy infection Motor Development After birth Illustrates the interaction between genetically programmed maturation and environmental influences. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    18. 18. William James A newborn sees the world a buzzing, blooming confusion. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    19. 19. Newborn CapacitiesSource: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    20. 20. Vision limited focus nearsightedHearing Able todistinguish different Introduction to Psychology 14Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s th ed.
    21. 21. Taste and Smell• Babies prefer sweet-tasting liquids over others.• Babies prefer breast milk over others. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    22. 22. Learning and Memory• 3-month-old babies already have good memories. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    23. 23. Motor SkillsGross motor skillsInvolve the use of large bodily movements. Fine motor skillsInvolve the use of small bodily movements. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    24. 24. Cognitive Development in Childhood Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    25. 25. Psychological thinking about children’s cognitive development is dominated by two perspectives. Environmen- tal-learning perspective Biological MaturationSource: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    26. 26. SchemasTheories about howthe physical and socialworlds operates Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    27. 27. Piaget’s 4 Stages of Cognitive DevelopmentSensorimotor stage Stage of Concrete Operations Stage of Formal Preoperational Operations stage Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    28. 28. Sensorimotor Stage• First 2 years• Relationship between actions and consequences• Concept of themselves as separate form the external worldobject permanence Awareness that an object continues to exist when it is not present. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    29. 29. Preoperational Stage• 1 ½ - 2 years• Use symbols• Does not comprehend rules and regulations or operations• Dominated by visual impressions egocentrism Belief that everyone sees things the way you do. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    30. 30. Operational Stages • Ages between 7 & 12 • Conservation concept • Logical manipulation • Form mental representations of a series of actions Concrete Operational StageAlthough children are using abstract terms, they are doing soin relation to concrete objects—objects to which they have direct sensory access. Formal Operational StageThe person is able to reason in purely symbolic terms. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    31. 31. Alternatives to Piaget’s TheoryPiaget’s theory may be invalid because such factorsmay have affected child’s response.Information-Processing ApproachesInformation-processing skills—specific skills at gathering andanalyzing information from the environment.Knowledge-Acquisition ApproachesKnowledge—understanding of how facts in a particular domainare organized.Sociocultural ApproachesCulture can influence children’s development in several ways. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    32. 32. Theory of Mind• Much of our behavior toward other people is based on our understanding of what they are thinking. metacognition Thinking about thinking. which is generallyHOW DOES A CHILD’S THEORY OF MIND DEVELOP? 3 steps Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    33. 33. 1 At 2, children have an understanding of simple desires, emotions, and perceptual experiences but do not understand that people mentally represent both objects and their own desires and beliefs.2 At 3, children begin to talk about beliefs and thoughts as well as desires, and seem to understand that beliefs can be false and true. Yet, they continue to explain their own actions and others by appealing to desires rather than beliefs.3 At 4, children begin to understand that people’s thoughts and beliefs affect their behaviors and that people can have beliefs that simply do not reflect reality. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    34. 34. Overall level of cognitive development determines ones MORAL JUDGEMENT Children’s understanding of moral rules and social conventionsHe proposed that children’s understanding of rules develops in a series of 4 stages: 1 Children have no collective purpose. 2 Children act more by the consequence rather than by the intentions behind an action. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    35. 35. 3 Children give weigh to subjective consideration.4 Youngsters show interest in generating rules to deal even with situations they never encountered. Ideological mode of moral reasoning. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    36. 36. Personality and Social Development Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    37. 37. TEMPERAMENTMood-related personality characteristics. Research emphasizes that continuity or discontinuity of temperament is a function of the interaction between the child’s genotype(inherited characteristic) and the environment. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    38. 38. EARLY SOCIAL BEHAVIOR Parent-child bond: Child smiles Parent encouraged 8 Stranger Anxiety months 14 -18 Separation Anxiety months This is because of • Memory capacity 3 Secure • Autonomy years Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    39. 39. ATTACHMENT An infant’s tendency to seek closeness to particular people and to feel more secure in their presence. A caregiver’s sensitive responsiveness to baby’s needs produces secure attachment.A caregiver’s response is not the major cause of attachment behaviors.Attachment patterns may reflect this interaction between baby’s temperament and parent’s responsiveness. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    40. 40. The mother’s behavior appears to be the most important factor in establishing secure attachment. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    41. 41. LATER DEVELOPMENTSecurely attached babies mostly turned out to beenthusiastic, positive, and non-problematic. Theyare better equipped to cope with new experience.Insecurely attached babies grew frustrated, angry, and negative; they easily give up given difficulties. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    42. 42. EFFECTS OF DAY CARE Children are not significantly affected by nonmaternal care. Good quality day care can reduce the effects of growing up in a highly stressed home life. Low quality day care however, may lead to negative effects on a child. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    43. 43. GENDER IDENTITYA firm sense of oneself as either male or female SEX TYPINGAcquisition of behavioral characteristics that aculture considers apporpirate to ones sex. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    44. 44. But are gender identity and sex typing simply theproduct of cultural prescriptions and expectations, or a are they partly a product of “natural” development??? Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    45. 45. Psychoanalytic TheorySigmund Freud 3 “Beginning of the Phallic Stage ofyears Psychosexual Development” • Children are aware of their reproductive organ. • They develop sexual feelings to the opposite sex. • Oedipal Effect—they feel jealous of their same sex parent • Later on diminishes as child wants to become that of the same sex parent—sex typing. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    46. 46. Social Learning TheorySex typing is because of the way a sex is treated ina culture. Contradictions • Children themselves may construct and enforce their own exaggerated version of society’s gender rules. • Development patterns to the child’s view of gender rules. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    47. 47. Cognitive-Developmental TheoryProposes that gender identity plays a critical role insex typing. 2 • Children are able to identify their own sexyears in a photo. • Able to identify sex of a stereotypically dressed man or woman in a photo but cannot predict another child’s toy preference. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    48. 48. 3 • Children are able to separate photos of years boys and girls but do not know if they will either become a mother of a father.Gender Constancy The understanding that a person’s sex remains the same despite changes in age and appearance. Contradiction Children have strong and clear preference for activities deemed appropriate for their sex long before they attain gender constancy. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    49. 49. Gender-Schema Theory A set of beliefs about gender.• Children become sex-typed because sex is a major focus around which their culture chooses to organize its view of reality.• It implies that if the culture becomes less sex typed, children will be less sex typed in their behavior and self-concept. Source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.
    50. 50. SOURCESMain source: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.Source of photos: Google ™

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