Non Point Pollution
Urban Planning Measures
Sustainable Environmental Planning
Dr. J. E. M. Macwan
PG URBAN PLANNING
Civil Engineering Department, M.Tech. (Planning), Semester-1
• Non Point Pollution
– Principal sources
• Urban and suburban areas
• Agricultural operations
• Atmospheric inputs
• Forestry and mining operations
• Marinas and boating activities
• Planning Measures For Pollution
• Case Study :
– Non-Point regulation in United States & India
This presentation attempts to give a brief summary on
the cause of Non-Point Pollution and Urban Planning
approach to counteract the pollution.
It also give a short description on difference between
Point and Non-Point Pollution.
It includes a case study on Non-point regulation in
United States & India.
Pollution is “something in the wrong place at
the wrong time in the wrong quantity”
Pollution classified as:
• Point pollution
• Non-point pollution
Non Point Pollution
• Principal sources
– Urban and suburban areas
– Agricultural operations
– Forestry and mining operations
– Marines and boating activities
Planning Measures For Non-Point
• Identification of NPS sensitive areas
• Regulation of Land use
• Impose conditional use permits
• Provide Buffer zone
• Built Retention ponds.
• Use of porous pavement
• Provide vegetation filter strips
• Public Involvement & education
• Operation & Maintenance
Source: USEPA-Missouri Stream Team Watershed Coalition
Source: “Vegetative Filter Strips for Non-point Control in Agriculture”
ANR Publication Page no-3
Nonpoint Regulation -United States
• The Clean Water Act (CWA) serves as the foundation for water quality
regulation in the United States
• In 1987-. Section 319 of the amended Act requires each state to develop
and implement a management programme for nonpoint pollution.
• CWA specifically states – “that return flows from irrigated agriculture and
agricultural storm water discharges are not point sources.”
• A significant portion of the financial support for these efforts comes from
the federal government.
• Federal funding for these programmes is currently approximately US $200
million per year
• States are employing a variety of methods to
address nonpoint sources of pollution in a
more coordinated way.
– i.e. In 1969, the California Legislature passed the
“Porter–Cologne Water Quality Control Act”.
• Thus the United States faces significant
challenges with regard to addressing nonpoint
sources of pollution
Case Study : Non-Point regulation in
• The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1974
(the Act) is the primary water quality management law in
• The Act does not explicitly address nonpoint source
pollution, but several of its provisions could be used to
control pollution from nonpoint as well as point sources.
• CPCB recognized in its 2000/01 annual report that nonpoint
water pollution sources were becoming prominent
• The Report concluded that “the only solution to diffuse
sources of pollution is to integrate land use with water
management” (CPCB, 2007)
• In the absence of national initiatives, nonpoint
pollution will remain a low priority at the
central & state level in India. Unless and until
industrial and municipal point sources of
pollution are regulated effectively.
• Specific standards should be released by
Govt. to control the Non-point Pollution.
1. Keith Loague and Dennis L Corwin (2005) “Point and NonPoint Source Pollution”.published in
Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences.
2. Mark E.,Anthony & David (2006)“Vegetative FIlter Strips for Non-point Control in
Agriculture,regents of university of California 8195,3-4.
3. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), "Nonpoint Source Pollution" published
in. Washington D.C. (September 2007).
4. Priyanka Jamwal,Atul K. Mittal,(2002) “Point and non-point microbial source pollution: A case
study of Delhi” published in Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 490-499.
5. Susan, Adam & Jessica (March 2011), “Regulating Nonpoint Source Water Pollution in a Federal
Government: Four Case Studies”, published in Water Resources Development, Vol. 27, No. 1, 53–
6. Yuhei Inamori , Nsoshi Fujimoto, “Non-Point Sources of Pollution” , published in Water Qualty
abd standards-Vol II.