Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Punctuation Rules


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

Punctuation Rules

  1. 1. Punctuation Notes and Rules
  2. 2. PERIOD • Period . • End of declarative sentence (and mild imperative) • I am going to the grocery store. • Pick up that paper. • _______________________________________________ • After some abbreviations: Dr., Mrs., _____, ______ • Between dollars and cents • $10.25 $109.47 __________ • After numbers and letters in a list or outline 1. A. 2. 1. 3. a.
  3. 3. QUESTION MARK • Question Mark ? • End of interrogative sentence • Are you making that noise? • ______________________________________ • ______________________________________ • ______________________________________ • ______________________________________
  4. 4. EXCLAMATION POINT • Exclamation point ! • End of an exclamatory sentence (and emphatic imperative) • I thought that was exhilarating! • Leave my house! • _______________________________________ _______________________________________ • After an emphatic interjection • Wow! Those fireworks were awesome! • _______________________________________ _______________________________________
  5. 5. Apostrophe • Apostrophe ’ • Use ‘s to show possession for singular nouns, plural nouns not ending in –s, indefinite pronouns, and acronyms • Al’s farm someone’s car NASA’s schedule children’s books • • Important note: Personal pronouns do not use an apostrophe. • his hers its
  6. 6. Apostrophe • Use ‘ to show possession for plural nouns ending in –s. • boys’ games babies’ toys • Shows omissions in contractions and numbers • don’t they’ll back in ‘98 • Shows plural of symbols • A’s 5’s *’s • For a quotation within a quotation • He said, “Robert Frost wrote the poem ’The Road Not Taken’.” • Important note: An apostrophe is not used to indicate plurals of words: • The Smiths The Joneses the cows
  7. 7. Commas • After direct address Lily, let the kitty cat in, please. • Before the coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence I like broccoli, but I love asparagus. • After introductory phrases (can be omitted if not needed for clear meaning) From the deck, I could not see my father on the dock. Seeing her father, the child ran up the steps. • After introductory words Yes, I can go.
  8. 8. Commas • To separate words, phrases, and clauses in a series (Often the comma before the conjunction is omitted.) I bought soap, shampoo, and toothpaste. • Separate adjectives you can put and between and not change the meaning I walked along the rushing, shallow creek. I sank into the small, still pool. • After geographical names (places) He has lived in Walhalla, South Carolina, for ten years.
  9. 9. Commas • After items in dates He wrote the letter on Monday, November 10, 1937, while in the hospital. • After mild interjections Gee, I like that. • After the salutation of a friendly letter Dear Billy, Dear Aunt Lola, • After the closing of any letter Sincerely, Your friend,
  10. 10. Semi-Colon • To connect sentencess clauses not linked by a coordinating conjunction in compound sentence I;I My daddy fixed breakfast; my mommy packed my lunch. • To separate elements in a series that already contains commas I subscribe to a computer magazine that includes reviews of new,better-designed hardware; descriptions of inexpensive, easy-to-use software; advice from experienced, clever experts; and programs that help me keep track of my files.
  11. 11. Colon • Introduce a list or example We packed three things: a toothbrush, a bathing suit, and a towel. • Important note: Colons don’t usually follow verbs. • In time 11:25 A.M. • After salutation in business letter Dear Sir: • Between titles and subtitles. Walt Whitman: Poet of America
  12. 12. Quotation Marks • To set off direct quotations and dialogue Benjamin Franklin said, “A penny saved is a penny earned.” “Do you own this land?” I asked him. He shook his head. “The land belongs to Allah,” he said. • Enclose the titles of short works such as stories, essays, poems, and magazine articles “Flowers for Algernon” “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” “Eat Hot Dogs and Lose Weight”
  13. 13. Underline or Italics • Titles of books, magazines, newspapers, plays, movies, TV series, works of art , comic strips, software Gone With the Wind Sports Illustrated Camelot Mona Lisa • Names of specific ships, spacecraft, planes, trains, etc. the Yorktown Discovery
  14. 14. Slash • Between terms to show either can be used All students were supposed to bring a sweater/jacket.
  15. 15. Ellipsis … • Shows something is left out He was speaking from the back of the train … and saying he would continue the race. • Reflects hesitation Merlin, … may I speak with you privately?
  16. 16. Hyphen • To link two words to form a compound hard-boiled egg forget-me-nots • Divide words at the end of a line in-flate par-ty sci-ence • Fractions written as words three-fourths one-half • In numbers 21 to 99 seventy-five
  17. 17. Dash • Mark an abrupt break in thought or change in tone When I was six, I made my mother a little hat — out of her new blouse. She was — punchbuggy! — upside down on the monkey bars. • After an introductory list Beautiful, talented, well-spoken — she was all of these.
  18. 18. Parentheses • Set off nonessential matter Following the rules (up to a point), we could spell fish this way: ghoti.
  19. 19. Brackets • Replaces parentheses within parentheses (Johnson notes, “At this time [Dickens] began to weaken.”)