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Design

The legacy of Antiquity and the birth of the architectural theory in Modernity

Marialuisa PalumboFollow

- 1. Architectural Analysis The legacy of Antiquity Alberto Iacovoni, Marialuisa Palumbo | Cornell in Rome
- 2. Proportion is a due adjustment of the size of the different parts to each other and to the whole; on this proper adjustment symmetry depends. 1. On Principles and Foundations
- 4. Effetti del Buon Governo, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena,1337-1340 | Ambrogio Lorenzetti
- 5. Merchants' meeting | miniature XIV century
- 6. Proportion is a due adjustment of the size of the different parts to each other and to the whole; on this proper adjustment symmetry depends. Man is the measure of all things Protagoras, c.450 BC
- 7. Annunciation, 1344 | Ambrogio Lorenzetti
- 8. Proportion is a due adjustment of the size of the different parts to each other and to the whole; on this proper adjustment symmetry depends. It is not too much to claim that a pattern of tiles used in this sense represents the modern 'systematic space' in an artistically concrete sphere, well before it had been postulated by abstract mathematical thought… Once again this perspectival achievement is nothing other than a concrete expression of a contemporary advance in epistemology or natural philosophy... abandoning the Scholastic idea of a cosmos with the middle of the earth as its absolute center and with the outermost celestial sphere as its absolute limit; the result was the concept of infinity. The vision of the universe is detheologized. Erwin Panofsky, Perspective as Symbolic Form
- 9. The Geocentric model or Ptolemaic system
- 10. Della Pittura (On Painting), 1435 | Leon Battista Alberti
- 11. Della Pittura | Leon Battista Alberti
- 12. Proportion is a due adjustment of the size of the different parts to each other and to the whole; on this proper adjustment symmetry depends. To make clear my exposition in writing this brief commentary on painting, I will take first from the mathematicians those things with which my subject is concerned. Leon Battista Alberti, Della Pittura
- 13. Ludi mathematici, 1450 | Leon Battista Alberti
- 14. Ludi mathematici | Leon Battista Alberti
- 15. Ludi mathematici | Leon Battista Alberti
- 16. De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) 1543 | Nicolaus Copernicus
- 17. Proportion is a due adjustment of the size of the different parts to each other and to the whole; on this proper adjustment symmetry depends. People gave ear to an upstart astrologer who strove to show that the earth revolves, not the heavens or the firmament, the sun and the moon... This fool wishes to reverse the entire science of astronomy; but sacred Scripture tells us [Joshua 10:13] that Joshua commanded the sun to stand still, and not the earth. Martin Luther
- 18. Astronomia Nova, 1609 | Johannes Kepler
- 19. Sidereus Nuncius (Starry Messenger) , 1610 | Galileo Galilei
- 20. Cartesian coordinate system, 1637 | René Descartes
- 21. Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, 1687 | Isaac Newton
- 22. Proportion is a due adjustment of the size of the different parts to each other and to the whole; on this proper adjustment symmetry depends. 02. On Beauty
- 23. De Re Aedificatoria (On the Art of Building in Ten Books), c.1450 | Leon Battista Alberti
- 24. De Re Aedificatoria | Leon Battista Alberti
- 25. Proportion is a due adjustment of the size of the different parts to each other and to the whole; on this proper adjustment symmetry depends. Ut sit pulchritudo quidem certa cum ratione concinnitas universarum partium in eo cuius sint: ita ut addi, aut diminui, aut immutari possit nihil, quam improbabilius reddat. [Beauty is] the harmony and concord of all parts achieved in such a manner that nothing could be added or taken away or altered except for the worse. Alberti, De re aedificatoria, Book VI
- 26. Proportion is a due adjustment of the size of the different parts to each other and to the whole; on this proper adjustment symmetry depends. Aedium compositio constat ex symmetria, cuius rationem diligentissime architecti tenere debent. ea autem paritur a proportione, quae graece ἀναλογία dicitur. proportio est ratae partis membrorum in omni opere totiusque commodulatio, ex qua ratio efficitur symmetriarum. The design of Temples depends on symmetry, the rules of which Architects should be most careful to observe. Symmetry arises from proportion, which the Greeks call ἀναλογία. Proportion is a due adjustment of the size of the different parts to each other and to the whole; on this proper adjustment symmetry depends. Vitruvius, De Architectura, III, 1
- 27. Santa Maria Novella, Florence, 1458-78 (facade) | Alberti
- 28. Proportion is a due adjustment of the size of the different parts to each other and to the whole; on this proper adjustment symmetry depends. All the new elements introduced by Alberti in the facade, the columns, the pediment, the attic, and the scrolls, would remain isolated features were it not for the all-pervading harmony which formed the basis and background of his whole theory. Harmony, the essence of beauty, consists in the relationship of the parts to each other and to the whole, and, in fact, a single system of proportion permeates the facade, and the place and size of every single part and detail is fixed and defined by it. Proportions recommended by Alberti are the simple relations of one to one, one to two, one to three... which are the elements of musical harmony and which Alberti found in classical buildings... The whole facade of S. Maria Novella can be exactly circumscribed by a square. A square of half the side of the large square defines the relationship of the two stories. The main story can be divided into two such squares, while one enclose the upper storey. In other words, the whole building is related to its main parts in the proportion of one to two... Rudolf Wittkower, Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism
- 29. Santa Maria Novella, Florence | Alberti
- 30. Proportion is a due adjustment of the size of the different parts to each other and to the whole; on this proper adjustment symmetry depends. If Nature, therefore, has made the human body so that the different members of it are measures of the whole, so the ancients have, with great propriety, determined that in all perfect works, each part should be some aliquot part of the whole; and since they direct, that this be observed in all works, it must be most strictly attended to in temples of the gods, wherein the faults as well as the beauties remain to the end of time. Vitruvius, De Architectura, III, 1
- 31. I sette libri dell'architettura, c.1537 | The Five Orders
- 32. Proportion is a due adjustment of the size of the different parts to each other and to the whole; on this proper adjustment symmetry depends. Beauty will result from the beautiful form and from the correspondence of the whole to the parts, of the parts amongst themselves, and of these again to the whole; so that the structures may appear an entire and complete body, wherein each member agrees with the other and all memebrs are necessary for the accomplishment of the building” Palladio, Book 1, chap. 1
- 33. Homo ad circulum, c.1490 | Leonardo
- 34. First illustrated edition of De Architectura, Venezia, 1511 | Giovanni Giocondo
- 35. Studies of proportions | Francesco di Giorgio
- 36. Studies of proportions | Francesco di Giorgio
- 37. Studies of proportions | Francesco di Giorgio
- 38. Trattato di Architettura Civile e Militare, c.1470 | Francesco di Giorgio Martini
- 39. The Antiquities of Rome | Andrea Palladio
- 40. I Quattro Libri dell'Architettura, 1570 | Andrea Palladio
- 41. The Four Books of Architecture | Dell'Atrio Corinthio
- 42. The Four Books of Architecture | Pantheon
- 43. The Four Books of Architecture | San Pietro in Montorio
- 44. 03. On the Central-plan Church
- 45. De Re Aedificatoria | Leon Battista Alberti
- 46. Proportion is a due adjustment of the size of the different parts to each other and to the whole; on this proper adjustment symmetry depends. Deus est sphaera infinita, cuius centrum est ubique, circumferentia nullibi. God is an infinite sphere whose center is everywhere and circumference nowhere. Nicolò Cusano, De Docta Ignorantia, 1440
- 47. S. Maria degli Angeli, Firenze, 1434 | Brunelleschi
- 48. Pantheon | Rome
- 49. Temple of Vesta | Rome
- 50. Santa costanza | Rome
- 51. Temple of Minerva Medica or Nymphaeum at the Horti Liciniani | Rome
- 52. Proportion is a due adjustment of the size of the different parts to each other and to the whole; on this proper adjustment symmetry depends. Le più belle, e più regolate forme, e dalle quali le altre ricevono le misure, sono la Ritonda e la Quadrangulare... la Ritonda... sola tra tutte le figure è semplice, uniforme, eguale, forte e capace, faremo I Tempij rotondi. ...è attissima a dimostrare la Unità, la Infinita Essenza, la Uniformità, et la Giustizia di Dio. The most beautiful and most regular forms and from which the other receive their measure are the round and the quadrangular. The round... it is the only one among all the figures that is simple, uniform, equal, strong, and spacious. Therefore let us make our temples round” Palladio, Book I, chap 1
- 53. Sketches for central plan church, c. 1484 | Leonardo
- 54. Santa Maria delle Carceri, Prato, 1485 | Giuliano da Sangallo
- 55. Santa Maria delle Carceri, Prato, 1485 | Giuliano da Sangallo
- 56. San Pietro in Montorio, Roma, 1502 | Bramante
- 57. Proportion is a due adjustment of the size of the different parts to each other and to the whole; on this proper adjustment symmetry depends. This building is a reconstruction by Bramante of an ancient Roman circular temple – or so it seems at first. He mounts it [the theme of the circular temple] on three steps and sets a continuous moulded plinth under the order. This plinth gives the little building a sudden and auspicious 'lift' – enough to ratify its sanctity. And each Doric column has an answering Doric pilaster on the wall of the inner building – what is called the cella. This cella rises higher than the colonnade and is covered with a hemi-spherical dome. Now, is this a literal reconstruction of a Roman temple or is not? Clearly not. It is an extension of an idea borrowed from the Romans. The plinth and the vertical penetration of the central cylinder up and through to a hemi- spherical dome are Bramante's inventions and highly successful ones to judge by the numbers of times they have been imitated. John Summerson, The Classical Language of Architecture
- 58. San Pietro in Montorio | Palladio's drawing
- 59. Bramante's design for St Peter Cathedral, 1506 | Serlio
- 60. Foundation medal for St Peter's, 1505 | Cristoforo Caradosso
- 61. Tempietto Barbaro, Maser (Treviso), c. 1570 | Andrea Palladio
- 62. St Paul Cathedral, London, 1696-1708 | Christopher Wren
- 63. Santa Agnese in Agone, Rome, 1652 - 1672 | Borromini
- 64. San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, 1641-1667 | Borromini
- 65. Sant'Andrea al Quirinale, Roma, 1658 - 1678 | Bernini
- 66. Proportion is a due adjustment of the size of the different parts to each other and to the whole; on this proper adjustment symmetry depends. 04. On the Church's Facade
- 67. Medieval churches | Rome
- 68. Proportion is a due adjustment of the size of the different parts to each other and to the whole; on this proper adjustment symmetry depends. Far from leaving the orders out when they [the Romans] built vaulted amphi-theatres, basilicas and triumphal arches, they brought them in, in the most conspicuous way possible, as if they felt that no building could communicate anything unless the orders were involved in it. To them the orders were architecture... The Romans took this highly stylized but structurally quite primitive kind of architecture and married it to arched and vaulted multi-storey buildings of great elaborations. And in doing so they raised architectural language to a new level... ...all major Roman buildings other than temples were designed on the basis of arches and vaults, whereas the orders belong strictly to the more primitive system of 'trabeation'. To marry the two in the sense of giving the old types of temple column the job of carrying arches could work up to a point but it was never satisfactory... So what did the Romans do? The Colosseum at Rome answers the question at once... every row of arches is framed inside a continuous colonnade. The colonnades have no structural purpose – or very little. They are representations of temple architecture carved, as it were, in relief on a building which is not a temple, which is multi-storeyed and is built as a system of arches and vaults. John Summerson, The Classical Language of Architecture
- 70. Sebastiano Serlio, I sette libri dell'architettura, c.1537 | The Colosseum
- 71. San Francesco, Rimini, 1450 | Alberti
- 72. Arch of Constantine | Foundation medal for St Francesco
- 74. Sant'Andrea, Mantova, 1470 | Alberti
- 75. San Satiro, Milano, 1480, Bramante | Sagra di Carpi, 1515, Peruzzi
- 76. San Francesco della Vigna, Venezia, 1562 | Palladio
- 77. San Giorgio Maggiore, Venezia, 1566-1610 | Palladio
- 78. The Four Books of Architecture | Andrea Palladio
- 79. Chiesa del Redentore, Venezia, 1576-92 | Palladio
- 80. Chiesa del Gesù, Roma, 1575 | Giacomo della Porta
- 81. Santi Vincenzo e Anastasio, Rome, 1646 | Martino Longhi
- 82. Val-de-Grâce, Paris, 1645 | Francois Mansart
- 83. San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, 1641-1667 | Borromini
- 84. Santa Agnese in Agone, Rome, 1652 - 1672 | Borromini
- 85. Santa Maria della Pace, Rome, 1656-58 | Pietro da Cortona
- 86. Sant'Andrea al Quirinale, Roma, 1658 - 1678 | Bernini
- 87. Panthéon, Paris, 1758-90 | Jacques-Germain Soufflot
- 88. San Rocco, Rome, 1832 | Giuseppe Valadier
- 89. Proportion is a due adjustment of the size of the different parts to each other and to the whole; on this proper adjustment symmetry depends. 05. On Cities as Monuments
- 90. Ideal City, c.1480 | Luciano Laurana / Piero Della Francesca
- 91. Ideal Piazza | Luciano Laurana / Piero Della Francesca
- 92. Architectural Perspective | Luciano Laurana / Piero Della Francesca
- 93. Consegna delle chiavi, Roma, Cappella Sistina 1481 | Perugino
- 94. Pienza, 1459 | Bernanrdo Rossellino
- 95. Urbino, Palazzo ducale, 1454 | Luciano Laurana
- 96. Ferrara, Herculean Addition, 1492 | Biagio Rossetti
- 97. Piazza San Marco, Venezia | Jacopo Sansovino
- 98. San Marco's Library, 1537, Venezia | Jacopo Sansovino
- 99. Scuola di Atene, Palazzi Vaticani, 1509 | Raffaello
- 100. Capitoline Hill, view c. 1555 | Anonymous
- 102. Campidoglio, 1534-38 | Michelangelo
- 103. Michelangelo's Campidoglio, 1568 | Étienne Dupérac
- 105. Cosmological schema | Isidore of Seville
- 106. Proportion is a due adjustment of the size of the different parts to each other and to the whole; on this proper adjustment symmetry depends. The ancient Romans moved the umbelicus mundi figuratively from Delphi to the Forum, where it remained until medieval legend shifted it once more to the Campidoglio. Here it was permanently fixed in Michelangelo's pavement, which combined its zodiacal inferences with its mound-like forme. Marcus Aurelius, mounted at the center, might have been a foreign element if iconic tradition had not permitted his association with the umbelicus. As Kosmokrator, he succeeded to Apollo's position upon the mound, and since the ancient sculptor had not equipped him with the requisite attributes, Michelangelo placed around his base the corona of Apollo: the twelve pointed rays which also serve as the starting-points of the zodiacal pattern. James Ackerman, The Architecture of Michelangelo
- 107. Piazza del Campidoglio, 1547 | Michelangelo