2010 snapshot dataThis is part of the global ‘re-set’ of WorldCat – increased contribution of records from non-NA members
As a basis of comparison, we identified six major research libraries in North America with WorldCat holdings similar in size to those of the APRC Executive Committee members. As with the previous chart, the institutions are presented in order of total WorldCat holdings – UC Davis has the greatest number, Queen’s University has the fewest.
Print books = ~60% of WorldCat as a wholeNA print book collection = 36% of print books in WorldCat, but 72% of all holdingsBOS-WASH avg ~14 holdings per publication PHOENIX avg ~2 holdings per pub’n
http://www.creativeclass.com/_v3/creative_class/2010/10/19/where-the-worlds-brains-are/http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/world-university-rankings/2011-2012/asia.html Map based on Academic Ranking of World Universities rankings (Shanghai Rating Consultancy) in 2010.In 2011 THE rankings, Asian libraries accounted for just 7% of top 400 universities in the world. In 2012, they accounted for 16%.http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/world-university-rankings/2010-2011/asia.html
http://www.flickr.com/photos/siutou_amy/503034582/ “Self-portrait – Amy!” Amy WongKuala Lumpur skyline: wikimedia
The Changing Collections Context: trends in library resource management and some reflections on the Asian Ascendance
Kuala Lumpur | 3 September 2012OCLC Asia Pacific Regional CouncilThe Changing CollectionsContext: trends in libraryresource management and somereflections on Asian AscendanceConstance MalpasProgram OfficerOCLC ResearchFollow me @ConstanceM The world’s libraries. Connected.
Trading Places San Francisco = Thailand? Source: “If US Cities Were Countries, How Would They Rank?” The world’s libraries. Connected. www.theatlantic.com (July, 2011)
Thesis: Place matters In a world where the information environment is increasingly flat Academic collections are increasingly alike Discovery is increasingly dis-intermediated Global supply chains provide frictionless fulfillment libraries are increasingly challenged to demonstrate distinctive value, need to leverage shared capacity to Reduce investment in redundant operations Redirect resources toward renovated library service portfolioLibrary place less about collections, more about creative capital The world’s libraries. Connected.
Speaking of place…Asian ascendance The world’s libraries. Connected. Source: A.T. Kearney. 2012 Global Cities Index
Asian cities poised to gain global influenceThe world’s libraries. Connected. Source: AT Kearney. 2012 Global Cities Index
Factors in „Asian ascendance‟• Regional investment in higher education, ICT infrastructure, logistics and transportation• Renewed attention to global reputation of research institutions, improved ability to attract human capital• Vibrant, culturally diverse urban agglomerations that foster innovation and entrepreneurship The world’s libraries. Connected.
Role of Libraries• Libraries represent critical infrastructure in the knowledge economy• Research, innovation and cultural influence rely on efficient information flows• Increased adoption of shared library services enables a redirection of institutional resources toward distinctive, value generating activities The world’s libraries. Connected.
Implications• Increased attention to research reputation – international rankings, ability to recruit/retain global talent – places new stresses on library organization• Emphasis shifts from acquiring, managing comprehensive local collections to maximizing visibility of locally distinctive assets• Renewed focus on „customer‟ engagement, alignment with academic mission The world’s libraries. Connected.
Operationally, this means:• Local management of retrospective print collections is no longer a „value driver‟ for most institutions• Increased reliance on just-in-time fulfillment, demand-driven acquisitions, „managing up‟ e- resources• New attention to revealing library capacity – expertise, distinctive resources, service profile – in global network The world’s libraries. Connected.
20th Century 21st Century Library Organization defined by Local Collections Shared Collections Local Stewardship Cooperative Governance Local Discovery Network Disclosure supported by Infrastructure Warehouse of books Collaboration spaces Preservation of what is „mine‟ Joint stewardship of what is „ours‟ Local ILS „Cloud-based‟ management svcs assessed with Metrics Collection size Support for research processes Gate count Management of institutional IP Satisfaction Impact The world’s libraries. Connected.
21st Century Collections http://www.arl.org/bm~doc/21stctfreport_11may12.pdfThe world’s libraries. Connected.
Areas where OCLC has made significant investments in primary research and service developmentThe world’s libraries. Connected. Source: W. Lougee “Content & Collections: Rubrics and Rubiks”
Key Findings ARL institutions are the primary stewards of non- North American books in WorldCat; 69% held by at least one ARL On average, non North- American imprints are held by fewer than 5 ARL libraries East Asian imprints among the least widely held global resources in US academic research libraries, with fewer than 3 holding libraries per title on averageThe world’s libraries. Connected.
Scope of ARL East Asian collections is growing The world’s libraries. Connected. Source: D. Jakubs (2010)
WorldCat library holdings for Asian imprints East Asia South Asia 2004: 61% ARL Southeast Asia 2004: 77% ARL 2010: 42% ARL 2004: 60% ARL 2010: 57% ARL 2010: 35% ARL The world’s libraries. Connected. Source: D. Jakubs (2010)
Implications• Greater diversity of holding institutions increases uncertainty about stewardship and supply• Ongoing pressures on ARL institutions further erode (US) confidence in long-term preservation of global resources, including Asian imprints• Heightened interest to digital supply chain and trusted repositories The world’s libraries. Connected.
Asian regional presence in mass-digitized corpusSome rough figures, based on analysis of WorldCat and HathiTrust in August 2012:• Of the ~20M Asian imprints in WorldCat, only about 756K (4%) are present in the HathiTrust Digital Library• Asian imprints account for less than 20% of the ~5.4M titles digitized by HathiTrust partners The world’s libraries. Connected.
Number of Asian imprints, by region, represented in HathiTrust (July 2012) 756K Titles Asian presence in mass-digitized corpus is growing 247K The world’s libraries. Connected. Source: C. Malpas, OCLC Research 2012.
Asian regional presence in HathiTrust as percent of all titles 2.1M 3.7M 4.9M 5.4M While Asian publications increasingly well represented in WorldCat the region‟s „digital book presence‟ (in WorldCat) has hit a plateau 13% 16% 17% 16% The world’s libraries. Connected. Source: C. Malpas, OCLC Research 2012.
Percent of Asian regional imprints in WorldCat duplicated in HathiTrust Median = 9% Median = 4% Median = 4% … a small fraction of Asian imprints in WorldCat have been digitized South Asia Southeast Asia East Asia The world’s libraries. Connected. Source: C. Malpas, OCLC Research 2012.
Implications• Network presence of Asian imprints is “spiky” – publication records of some countries are more visible than others; digitization accentuates this trend• Potential impact on global reach of research, scholarship produced in Asia• Asian libraries can help correct this imbalance by registering print and digital/digitized holdings in WorldCat The world’s libraries. Connected.
Key Findings Significant and growing overlap between academic print collections and mass- digitized corpus As much as 75% of the mass-digitized resource already managed in shared print repositories Opportunity for large-scale transformation in academic 2011 print management; space recovery and cost-avoidanceThe world’s libraries. Connected.
HathiTrust Digital Library Growth Trajectory As of July 2012, HathiTrust is equal in size (volumes) and scope (titles) to top US ARL libraries The world’s libraries. Connected. Source: C. Malpas, OCLC Research 2012.
The world’s libraries. Connected. Source: C. Malpas. OCLC Research, 2011.
Represents at least 16,693 linear feet or >5 kilometers of shelf space Potential cost avoidance?: USD 900K/yrNTU library collection: ~900K titles in WorldCat TWD 27M/yr 2.4M volumes The world’s libraries. Connected. Source: C. Malpas. OCLC Research, 2012.
Among Asian research libraries, ~25% holdings overlap with HathiTrust Median Overlap = 24% The world’s libraries. Connected. Source: C. Malpas. OCLC Research, 2012.
Among North American peer libraries, 35% overlap with HathiTrust Median Overlap = 35% The world’s libraries. Connected. Source: C. Malpas. OCLC Research, 2012.
ImplicationsFor US academic and research libraries:• an opportunity to rethink local collection management strategies, risk profile has changedFor Asian academic and research libraries:• an opportunity to increase visibility of regional library assets in global network, participate in reconfiguration of library supply chain The world’s libraries. Connected.
Implications (cont.)For all libraries, an opportunity to:• Reduce local investment in commodity collections• Increase alignment with institutional mission by rebalancing service portfolio• Enhance library value proposition by renewing focus on stewardship of distinctive institutional assets, special collections, „global resources‟, teaching & learning materials The world’s libraries. Connected.
Key Findings 90% of the print book collection in North America is concentrated in 12 mega-regions Access benefits and preservation risk are highly concentrated Regional collections are highly diffuse Risk assessment requires system-wide view >50% of regional print books managed by academic libraries Changes in global higher education affect entire library system Despite high-levels of bi-lateral 2012 duplication, each mega region has something unique to offer improving „flows‟ will benefit allThe world’s libraries. Connected. players
Monographic Publications and Library Holdings in North American Mega-regions 45M discrete publications 889M library holdings (avg. 20/title); 72% of all holdings in WorldCat “Spiky” distribution The world’s libraries. Connected.
Asian mega-regions, 2010 Asia Pacific in the vanguard of shift … APEC accounts for 9% of world population >50% of global economic output ~75% of global innovation Richard Florida, 2011 “… mega regions will be the drivers of Asian economies in 2050.” Asian Development Bank, 2011 Sources: R. Florida. Cities & the Creative Class in Asia. AtlanticCities.comThe world’s libraries. Connected. Asia 2050: Realizing the Asian Century
“Where the World‟s Brains Are” (2010) Research universities increasingly function as a key hub institution of the knowledge economy. Richard Florida The world’s libraries. Connected. Source: R. Florida. Where the World‟s Brains Are. www.creativeclass.com
“Where the World‟s Brains Are” 2010 vs. 2012 2010/11: Asian universities account for 7% of top 400 world universities 2011/2012: … 16% of top 400 Sources: www.creativeclass.com The world’s libraries. Connected. THES Top Asian Universities 2012
Implications• A (mega) regional strategy for library print management could reduce redundant investment in „low-value‟ operations• Enabling academic libraries to refocus attention, resources on distinctive service contributions• Leveraging existing networks of cooperation and exchange• Raising the global profile of Asian library capacity The world’s libraries. Connected.
The Power of Place The world’s libraries. Connected.
Asia‟s Libraries 2050• Increased reliance on shared service infrastructure: discovery, delivery, resource management• Shift to mega-regional scale in print management• Improved network visibility of Asian library capacity, collections and services• Regional library infrastructure recognized -- and funded -- as vital component of global knowledge economy The world’s libraries. Connected.
Libraries are operating in a world whereinformation is increasingly flat Knowledge is spiky Innovation Culture the future The world’s libraries. Connected.
Thank you for your attention.Questions? Comments?Constance Malpasmalpasc@oclc.org The world’s libraries. Connected.
Sources• Association of Research Libraries. 21st-Century Collections: Calibration of Investment and Collaborative Action. http://www.arl.org/bm~doc/21stctfreport_11may12.pdf• ATKearney (2012). 2012 Global Cities Index and Emerging Cities Outlook http://www.atkearney.com/images/global/pdf/2012_Global_Cities_Index_and_Emerging_Cities_Outlook_ 1.pdf• Florida, R. L., Gulden, T., Mellander, C., & Joseph L. Rotman School of Management. (2007). The rise of the mega-region. Toronto, Ont.: Martin Prosperity Institute. http://www.rotman.utoronto.ca/userfiles/prosperity/File/Rise.of.%20the.Mega-Regions.w.cover.pdf• Jackson, M. E., & Association of Research Libraries , OCLC Research et al. (2006). Changing global book collection patterns in ARL libraries. Washington, D.C: Association of Research Libraries. http://www.arl.org/resources/pubs/grn_global_book.shtml• Jakubs, D. (2010) Are We There Yet? Trends in Global Collections and Services. ARL Membership Meeting, April 2010 http://www.arl.org/bm~doc/mm10sp-jakubs.pdf• Kohli, H. S., Sharma, A., & Sood, A. (2011). ASIA 2050: Realizing the Asian Century: Overview. http://www.emergingmarketsforum.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Overview-0503E.pdf• Lougee, W. (2012). Content & Collections: Rubrics and Rubiks. ARL Membership Meeting, April 2012 www.arl.org/bm~doc/mm12spring-lougee.pdf• Lavoie, B. F., Malpas, C., Shipengrover, J. D., & OCLC Research. (2012). Print management at "Mega- scale": A regional perspective on print book collections in North America. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC Research. http://www.oclc.org/resources/research/publications/library/2012/2012-05.pdf• Malpas, C., & OCLC Research (2011). Cloud-sourcing research collections: Managing print in the mass-digitized library environment. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC Research. http://www.oclc.org/resources/research/publications/library/2011/2011-01.pdf The world’s libraries. Connected.