As a native Californian, I can vouch for the cultural significance of the divide between Northern California and Southern California, or NorCal and SoCal.I was pleased to come upon this map which confirms my personal suspicion that Northern California really is the more significant ‘half’ of the state. This map draws the line at the point where census tract population data suggest there is an equal number of people on either side of the line. This tells us something about the population density of Southern California cities.What would happen if established boundaries based on the distribution of library resources in CA?
With my colleague Brian Lavoie, have been working for the last year on a project that uses the concept of a mega-region to explore possible regional consolidations of library collections.
A System-wide Perspective on SCELC Library Collections
SCELC Colloquium, 6 March 2013A System-widePerspective on SCELCLibrary CollectionsConstance MalpasProgram OfficerOCLC ResearchFollow me @ConstanceM The world’s libraries. Connected. With thanks to Brian Lavoie
Aggregate resource comprising millions of titles, tense of millions of WorldCat holdings, including ~1M titles unique in WorldCat ‘system’ Diverse range of institution and library types with robust resource sharing network … an ecosystem Membership spans 3 mega-regions: NorCal, SoCal and Dal-AustinThe world’s libraries. Connected.
Group ScaleSCELC Ecosystem The world’s libraries. Connected.
Growth in SCELC Library Holdings in WorldCat Jan 2012 – Jan 2013 100% Median holdings in January 2013: 110K titles 80% Median growth Jan 2012 – Jan 2013: +2% 60% Considerable volatility at institutional scale Percent Growth A few libraries exhibit negative growth 40% Collectively, a pattern of moderate, sustained growth 20% 0% 0 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 2,500,000 3,000,000 SCELC Member Holdings in WorldCat -20%Based on analysis of 104 SCELC holding symbols; some outliers have been excluded from this graph to improve legibility. The world’s libraries. Connected. OCLC Research, 2013
Institutional Infrastructure Non-ARL academic libraries constitute majority of SCELC membership and hold more than 75% of aggregate inventory Library Type Percent of SCELC Percent of SCELC Library Population Aggregate Holdings Non-ARL Academic 82% 77% ( * ) Special ARL 13% 2% 10% 13% * Other 3% <1% * Institutions with stewardship mandate and preservation capacityBased on analysis of 104 SCELC holding library symbols The world’s libraries. Connected. OCLC Research, 2013
Average Distribution of WorldCat Holdings for Titles in SCELC Member Libraries 70% 10% held by <10 libraries 60% 6% held by 10-24 libraries 19% held by 25-99 libraries 50% 65% held by >99 libraries 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 2 to 9 10 to 24 25-99 >99 Holding Libraries (WorldCat)Based on average WorldCat holdings distribution for 104 SCELC libraries The world’s libraries. Connected. OCLC Research, 2013
Mega-regional perspectiveNorCal and SoCal The world’s libraries. Connected.
Where to draw the line?What does the distribution oflibrary resources tell us? The world’s libraries. Connected. http://www.maps.com/map.aspx?pid=17252
Why focus on ‘mega-regions’?• Mega-regions differ from informal NorCal, SoCal boundaries because they reflect the actual organization of regional economic activity• A useful framework for examining distribution of library resources and infrastructure, a ‘natural unit’ of measure• Helps situate print management within broader networks of economic exchange; builds on existing organizational infrastructure and institutional interests The world’s libraries. Connected.
Print Books in California Mega-Regions NorCal SoCal Regional print book collection Regional print book collection • 12,481,999 discrete titles • 9,771,974 discrete titles • 40,154,364 holdings in 775 libraries • 39,969,816 holdings in 774 libraries • 3.22 holdings per title on average • 4.09 holdings per title on average • Median age: 23 (i.e. published 1988) • Median age: 30 (i.e. published 1981) 27% of titles in North America 21% of print book titles in North America >1.5M titles unique to NorCal > 900K titles unique to SoCal The world’s libraries. Connected. OCLC Research, 2013
Print Book Holdings by Library Type Majority of regional print book inventory is held by academic libraries NorCal SoCal N = 40M holdings N = 40M holdings The world’s libraries. Connected. OCLC Research, 2013
Print Book Holdings by Academic Library Type …mostly in non-ARL academic libraries NorCal SoCal N = 22M academic holdings N = 26M academic holdings 35% 37% 20% 27% The world’s libraries. Connected. OCLC Research, 2013
Regional collections are complementaryEach enriches scope of collective resource NorCal>6M titles not duplicated in SoCal duplicates 63% of SoCal collection SoCal>3MK titles not duplicated in NorCal duplicates 49% of NorCal collection Each contributes preservation value The world’s libraries. Connected. OCLC Research, 2013
Summing up Regional context for shared print management differs NorCal SoCal • More titles, more holdings • Fewer titles, fewer holdings • Less duplication at intra- • More duplication at intra- regional and inter-regional regional and inter-regional scale scale • Lesser part of inventory held • Greater part of inventory held by ARLs by ARLs • Fewer options for • More options for redistribution redistribution of stewardship of stewardship The world’s libraries. Connected. OCLC Research, 2013
Scaling upSCELC inSystem-wideContext The world’s libraries. Connected.
Print Books in SCELC Libraries• On average, print book titles account for ~75% of individual SCELC library holdings in WorldCat• As of January 2013, an aggregate resource of nearly 5.3M discrete titles, 13.7M holdings Print Book Titles• Average 2.6 SCELC in SCELC Libraries holdings per title 5,300,000 5,271,295 5,200,000• Scope of collection is 5,100,000 5,000,000 4,948,924 +7% growing 4,900,000 4,800,000 4,700,000 January 2011 January 2013 The world’s libraries. Connected. OCLC Research, 2013
Scale Matters: Assessing Print Preservation Risks ~86% of print books in SCELC collective collection are held by fewer than 5 libraries in groupN = 5,271,295 titles The world’s libraries. Connected. OCLC Research, 2013
Scale Matters: Assessing Print Preservation Risks ~86% of print books in SCELC collective collection are held by fewer than 5 libraries in group ~16% of print books in ASERL/WRLC collective collection are held by fewer than 5 libraries in WorldCatN = 5,271,295 titles The world’s libraries. Connected. OCLC Research, 2013
What do SCELC libraries have to offer as a regional preservation asset? Collectively, SCELC libraries hold 5.3M print book titles, representing 28% of the NorCal regional collection (NorCal duplicates 70% of SCELC) 47% of the SoCal regional collection (SoCal duplicates 93% of SCELC) does SCELC want to assume sole responsibility for managing these books as a regional resource? Probably not. The world’s libraries. Connected.
Could SCELC libraries strike bargains with regional print management hubs? Might provide preservation / access Very Large services for average Repository X 15% of SCELC holdings in NorCal Might provide preservation / access Very Large services for average Repository Y 16% of SCELC holdings in SoCal The world’s libraries. Connected.
A cooperative preservation and access strategy SCELC Library Overlap with Regional Repositories NorCal repository SoCal repository 50% 45% 40% might recover 35% >15K linear feet 30% of shelf space might recover 25% >8K linear feet of shelf space 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% WR$ WUOHS SP1 GTX SJG SYF ANTIO JPG SKN PPI CHM DSR CPU ACD CBC CAACT CIJ FPD MGSOL STA SRQ CPC KDM HN# GGB CC9 GGY OR3 GH0 C5U CSM CUF UOP LFE TJP QP9 CCT MEC C7M YU0 CUH CKV CAF MIO MIQ CHC SCB CNU CMM LGV CBF CIA CFT LUB SXQ MXL TGW CAW The world’s libraries. Connected. OCLC Research, 2013
What can SCELC libraries worry less about preserving? Duplication between SCELC Library Collections and HathiTrust Digital Library 70% Percent of Holdings Duplicated in HathiTrust 60% About 30% of your collection, on average 50% 40% 30% 26% in copyright 20% 10% 3% public domain 0% 0 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 2,500,000 3,000,000 Holdings in WorldCatAs of January 2012. The world’s libraries. Connected. OCLC Research, 2013
Where should SCELC libraries be focusing more preservation effort? WorldCat Holdings for Print Book Titles in SCELC Libraries 1,800,000 Look to other partners 1,600,000 Preserve as institutional Strike 1,400,000 assets agreements 1,200,000 within SCELC 1,000,000 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 0 1 to 4 libraries 5 to 9 libraries 10-24 libraries 25 to 99 libraries >99 librariesN = 5,271,295 titles The world’s libraries. Connected. OCLC Research, 2013
Parting Thoughts• SCELC libraries manage a significant collective resource for which traditional, institution-scale stewardship models may not be sustainable.• Assessing preservation risks at group scale may lead to misjudgments about locus and level of investment.• Scaling up to regional and network level infrastructure reveals more opportunities to redistribute and ‘right-scale’ stewardship solutions. The world’s libraries. Connected.
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