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The atlantic the_american_colonies_chapter_14

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The atlantic the_american_colonies_chapter_14

  1. 1. The Atlantic The American Colonies Chapter 14 Melissa Colwell
  2. 2. Trade <ul><li>- During the 18th century, trade within the empire became increasingly complex </li></ul><ul><li>-The Navagation Acts locked the Chesapeake and the West Indies into shipping their tobacco and sugar directly to England </li></ul><ul><li>-Northern Colonies produced mainly fish, provisions and lumber to the West Indies </li></ul><ul><li>-By the 1770s the southern European trade nearly matched the value of the West Indian market to the northern mainland colonists </li></ul><ul><li>-The growing importance of wheat exports and flour shifted prosperity within the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>-New English began to import wheat from the more fertile and temperate middle colonies </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  3. 3. Trade Cont. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-The booming export market for wheat also encouraged Chesapeake planters to produce less tobacco and grow more wheat. </li></ul><ul><li>-In value, the Chesapeake grain exports surged from 11,500 pounds in 1740 to 130,000 pounds by 1770, reaching about one-quarter of the value of the tobacco crop </li></ul><ul><li>-The wealth of colonial regions varied directly and positively with the number of slaves </li></ul><ul><li>-The west indian planters lived in the greatest luxury becuase they conducted the harshest labor system with the greatest number of slaves </li></ul>
  4. 4. Poverty <ul><li>-During the 1750s and 1760s the colonists reported growing numbers of the poor in the urban seaports </li></ul><ul><li>-The poverty seemed especially glaringbecause it was sauch a contrast with the increasingly conspicious wealth of the lawyers, merchants, and government officials in the seaports </li></ul><ul><li>-Wealthiest tenth of Bostonians owned more than 60% of the urban wealth </li></ul><ul><li>-Bottom three-tenths owned virtually nothing </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  5. 5. Poverty Cont. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-Growth in urban poverty reflected the greater transatlantic integration of the British Empire in three ways... </li></ul><ul><li>-First, imperial wars swelled the numbers killed, incapacitated, or rendered alcoholic by military service </li></ul><ul><li>-Second, emigration surged from Europe to the colonies, flooding the seaports with poor newcomers, depressing wages and swelling unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>-Third, the freer flow of credit, goods and information across the Atlantic linked the colonies with the mother country in shared market. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Africans <ul><li>-Most eighteenth century emigrants did not come to America of their own free will in search of liberty. </li></ul><ul><li>-Most were enslaved Africans forced across the Atlantic to work on plantations raising American crops for the European market </li></ul><ul><li>-British colonies imported 1.5 million slaves </li></ul><ul><li>-Almost all of the Africans remained slaves for life,passing the status on to their children </li></ul><ul><li>-Only about 1% of the blacks living in the Bristish colonies became free prior to the American Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>-Popular myth has it that the Europeans obtained their slaves by attacking and seizing Africans </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  7. 7. Africans Cont. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-Slave traders provided the labor essential to the plantations producing the commodities-sugar, tobacco, and rice-that drove the expansion of British overseas trade in North America. </li></ul><ul><li>-Europeans expolited and expanded the slavery long practiced by Africans </li></ul><ul><li>-On slave ships, the slaves were jammed into dark holds and onto wooden shelves that barely allowed room to room to turn over </li></ul><ul><li>-Slaves slept on their rough wooden shelves and the wastes that their bodies produced overnight </li></ul>

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