Al-Najah National universityFaculty of Graduate Studies Name: Malik Manasrah. Supervisor: Dr. Mahmoud kresheh.
• What is narcolepsy?• How is narcolepsy diagnosed?• The causes of narcolepsy• The epidemiology of narcolepsy• Narcolepsy’s symptoms• Narcolepsys treatments• Some risk factors of being narcoleptic
What is narcolepsy?• Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder that causes drowsiness and frequent nap attacks during the day.• It is NOT related to depression, seizure disorders, fainting, or simple lack of sleep.• The name narcolepsy comes from the French word narcolepsie, which is a combination of the Greek word narkē (“numbness”) and leptos (“seizure”).
Risk factor•Family history•Head trauma•Infections, or drugs, thataffect the brain•Anesthesia
What can cause narcolepsy?• Narcolepsy is NOT a mental illness. It is a nervous system disorder.• Evidence suggests that narcolepsy may run in families.• Scientists believe that narcolepsy is caused by a decrease in the amount of hypocretin.• Hypocretin, also known as orexin, is involved in controlling appetite and sleep patterns.
What is the major symptom? • The major symptom is excessive daytime sleepiness. • Sleep attacks occur with little warning and may often occur at inappropriate times and paces. • These naps are physically irresistible and take place several times per day, usually lasting for about 15 minutes each (can be longer).
What are the other symptoms?Cataplexy• The person suddenly loses muscle function while awake and cannot move.• It can be a result of strong emotions, such as laughter or anger. Sleep paralysis• The attacks can last from a • The person temporarily few seconds to several loses the ability to talk or minutes. move when he or she wakes up or first becomes drowsy.
Automatic behavior • A person continues to function, such as talking and putting objects in different places, during sleep, but he or she does not recall doing such activities afterHypnagogic hallucinations awakening.• These are vivid, dreamlike experiences that take place when a person is sleeping, falling asleep, or awakening.• The hallucinations involve seeing or hearing.
How many people are diagnosed with narcolepsy?• Experts estimate that around 3 million people worldwide have narcolepsy.• In the United States, it is estimated that there are around 200,000 people affected by the disorder, but not even a quarter of them • The usual onset of are diagnosed. narcolepsy is in• The prevalence is about 1 per adolescence and young 2,000 people. adulthood.
How does one get diagnosed with narcolepsy?• Two tests are commonly used to diagnose nacolepsy.• One is the polysomnogram, which involves continuous recording of brain waves and nerve and muscle functions during sleep at night.• Another is the multiple sleep latency test, or MSLT, which involves observations made of the time taken for a person to reach the different stages of sleep.
How does one get treated?• There is no known cure for narcolepsy. There are only ways to control the symptoms.• Modafinil, a stimulant drug, is a popular medicine for treating narcolepsy because it is less likely to be abused than other stimulants.• Antidepressant drugs can reduce cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hallucinations.• Some patients also take sodium oxybate at night.
What are some lifestyle adjustmentsthat can help cope with narcolepsy?• Eating light meals during the day• Avoiding heavy meals before important events• Napping after meals• Planning naps ahead• Informing teachers and employers about the disorder
What are some possible complications in daily life?• May endanger life if sleep attacks occur while driving, operating machinery, etc.• Impairment of functioning at work• Impairment of social activities• Side effects of medicines used to treat the disorder