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Atmosphere

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JOURNAL CLUB

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Atmosphere

  1. 1. AIM • To test whether combining the renin inhibitor aliskiren with the ACE inhibitor enalapril was superior to enalapril alone and whether aliskiren was at least noninferior to enalapril in patients with heart failure
  2. 2. RAAS INHIBITORS IN HF ACE Inhibitors • CONSENSUS • SOLVED ARBS • CHARM ALTERNATIVE • ELITE-II ACEI vs ARBS vs COMBINATION • VALIANT ALISKIREN • ALTITUDE • ASTROUNAUT • ATMOSPHERE
  3. 3. ACE Inhibitors and ARBs • incomplete RAAS blockade • reduced feedback inhibition of renin release, triggering a reactive rise in PRA ACE Inhibitor • reactive rise in PRA causes a compensatory increase in Ang I which partially restores Ang II production by ACE-dependent and ACE-independent pathways • Causes dry cough and angioedema ARB • reactive rise in plasma renin activity causes compensatory increases in both Ang I and Ang II • latter may partially restore AT II type 1 receptor stimulation and stimulate profibrotic AT type 2 receptors and prothrombotic AT type 4 receptor
  4. 4. ACE INHIBITORS IN HF
  5. 5. ACE INHIBITORS IN HF
  6. 6. ARBS IN HF
  7. 7. ARBS vs ACE INHIBITORS IN HF
  8. 8. ARBS vs ACE INHIBITORS IN HF
  9. 9. ARBS vs ACE INHIBITORS vs COMBINATION
  10. 10. ARBS vs ACE INHIBITORS vs COMBINATION
  11. 11. ARBS vs ACE INHIBITORS vs COMBINATION
  12. 12. ALISKIREN IN HF-PREVIOUS TRIALS
  13. 13. ALTITUDE Trial • Aliskiren increases the risk of adverse events and stroke without any cardiovascular or renal improvements in patients with Type 2 Diabetes • trial was stopped prematurely
  14. 14. ASTRONAUT trial aliskiren to standard HHF therapy in non-diabetic patients • well-tolerated and improves post-discharge outcomes and biomarker profiles. diabetic patients receiving aliskiren • worse post-discharge outcomes.
  15. 15. The Aliskiren Trial to Minimize Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure (ATMOSPHERE) • randomized trial comparing enalapril alone with aliskiren alone and with the combination of aliskiren and enalapril in patients with heart failure • March 13, 2009, to December 26, 2013 • median follow-up was 36.6 months
  16. 16. ELIGIBLE PATIENTS 1. chronic heart failure with NYHA class II to IV symptoms and an EF ≤35% 2. plasma BNP ≥ 150 pg /ml (or NT-proBNP≥600 pg /ml) 3. if they had been hospitalized for heart failure within the previous 12 months, a BNP ≥ 100 pg /ml (or an NT-proBNP ≥400 pg /ml). 4. receiving stable doses of an ACE inhibitor (equivalent to at least 10 mg of enalapril daily) and of a beta-blocker at the time of enrollment.
  17. 17. EXCLUSION CRITERIA 1. symptomatic hypotension 2. SBP <95 mm Hg at screening (or <90 mm Hg at randomization), 3. eGFR < 40 ml / minute / 1.73 m2 at screening (or <35 ml / minute / 1.73 m2 at randomization or a decline of >25% in eGFR between screening and randomization) 4. serum potassium ≥ 5.0 mmol / liter at screening (or ≥5.2 mmol /liter at randomization) 5. history of inability to take ACE inhibitors
  18. 18. • patients were assigned to the combination of enalapril at a dose of 5 or 10 mg twice daily and aliskiren at a dose of 150 mg once daily, aliskiren at a dose of 150 mg once daily, or enalapril at a dose of 5 or 10 mg twice daily. • Two weeks after randomization, the dose of aliskiren was increased to 300 mg once daily in the combination-therapy group and the aliskiren group, with sham adjustment in the enalapril group
  19. 19. OUTCOMES primary outcome • composite of death from cardiovascular causes or a first hospitalization for heart failure secondary outcomes • change from baseline to 12 months in the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) clinical summary score • change in the NT-proBNP concentration from baseline to 4 months
  20. 20. • ALTITUDE &ASTRONAUT Trials -led to mandate that persons with diabetes at baseline and those in whom diabetes developed during the present trial discontinue the treatment and be switched to conventional therapy and that no further patients with diabetes be enrolled
  21. 21. DISCUSSION  patients with heart failure in which the addition of an ARB to an ACE inhibitor was of some benefit in previous trials  more likely explanation is that neither earlier trial required an evidence-based dose of ACE inhibitor, whereas our trial did  absence of additional benefit with combination therapy in our study was not due to a lack of incremental inhibition of RAAS, because the addition of aliskiren to enalapril led to more adverse effects that are indicative of greater blockade of this system.
  22. 22.  similar excess of adverse effects was noted when only half the full dose of valsartan was added to an evidence-based dose of captopril in patients after MI  there is a therapeutic ceiling for blockade of RAAS beyond which there is little or no additional efficacy and only more adverse effects.  despite the high rate of discontinuation of the randomly assigned therapy by the end of the trial, overall exposure to the treatment was satisfactory  We did not identify worse outcomes in the patients with diabetes who were treated with combination therapy than in those who were treated with enalapril alone.  Patients with diabetes who were treated with aliskiren monotherapy had outcomes similar to those of patients treated with enalapril.
  23. 23. CARRY HOME MESSAGE no benefit from the addition of a renin inhibitor to an evidence-based dose of enalapril not support the use of a renin inhibitor as an alternative to an ACE inhibitor, because the prespecified criterion for noninferiority was not met.

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