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Therese McBeath |Rick Llewellyn| Vadakattu Gupta | Bill Davoren | Willie Shoobridge|Stasia Kroker
| Michael Moodie
Managin...
1. Low water holding capacity
2. Subsoil constraints / hard pans
3. Prone to water repellence
4. Poor establishment
5. Poo...
Long-term performance of N strategies on sands
(Karoonda est. 2009)
Long-term performance of N strategies on sands
Soil Nil 9 N 40 N Sowing 40 N split LSD
Heavy (2) 18.0 17.4 18.8 18.1 3.0
M...
$0
$500
$1,000
$1,500
$2,000
$2,500
$3,000
$3,500
$4,000
$4,500
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
CummulativeGM(2009-15)$/ha
district prac...
What does on/near-row sowing offer on sands?
Photo: Margaret Roper WA
Water follows in-tact roots of prior
crop rows
On-ro...
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
On-row Inter-row On-row Inter-row
2015Establishment(plants/m2)
a
b
b
a
Better crop estab...
Up to 4 times more top soil moisture at seeding
with on-row seeding
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
on-row inter-row on-row inter-row
Surfac...
Increased weed suppression by on-row crops
Brome
plants/
m2
Brome
seeds/m2
On-row 28 2022
Inter-row 105 7332
Inter-row vs ...
Pre-emergence herbicide options for brome on
sand
Results 2013-14: Can achieve 75%+
brome plant control using pre-ems othe...
Pre-emergence herbicide options for brome on
sand (Karoonda 2015)
1. Trifluralin (control) (1.5 L/ha);
2. Trifluralin + Me...
Interrow sowing is used to decrease disease risk...
Crown rot (fusarium) and Take all infection weren’t found
But, there w...
• Similar levels of N available at
sowing at Karoonda on row
Vs inter-row, but can be some
early tie up (e.g. Loxton)
• Gr...
Increased yield for non-wetting sand but not
other soils
• 0.3 t/ha more yield on-row at Karoonda on sand but not on the
s...
Nutrition: Right rate, place, time and form
N Zn S
Rate 0 vs 20 vs 40 0 vs 1 vs 4 0 vs 4 vs 20
Time Upfront vs.
tillering ...
Rate= 40 N Urea
Time= upfront/early led to best yield
Place= Zn enriched Urea below seed to be followed up
Form= Urea, Zn ...
Summary
• Early vigour critical to performance on sands – establishment, N supply,
weed and disease competition
• Higher N...
Thank you
Acknowledgments
Landholders- The Loller Family and
Bulla Burra
Advice- Agrilink and Dodgshun
Medlin
Technical- A...
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Managing for increased crop production on sands (Renmark MRU) - Therese McBeath (CSIRO)

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Sandy soil types of the Northern Mallee often underperform despite good weed management and increased inputs of nitrogen and sulphur. There is still a yield gap that can be addressed, with anecdotal evidence of unused water commonly remaining in the soil at depths of approximately 60cm at harvest.

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Managing for increased crop production on sands (Renmark MRU) - Therese McBeath (CSIRO)

  1. 1. Therese McBeath |Rick Llewellyn| Vadakattu Gupta | Bill Davoren | Willie Shoobridge|Stasia Kroker | Michael Moodie Managing for increased crop production on sands
  2. 2. 1. Low water holding capacity 2. Subsoil constraints / hard pans 3. Prone to water repellence 4. Poor establishment 5. Poor fertility/ low N supply / low organic matter 6. Low biological activity - root disease/herbicide residues 7. Brome grass Sandy soil constraints
  3. 3. Long-term performance of N strategies on sands (Karoonda est. 2009)
  4. 4. Long-term performance of N strategies on sands Soil Nil 9 N 40 N Sowing 40 N split LSD Heavy (2) 18.0 17.4 18.8 18.1 3.0 Mid (5) 12.9 14.6 19.6 18.9 2.3 Deep sand (8) 8.0 8.3 13.4 12.6 3.3 • 30% more grain using 40N Vs 9N on mid slope sands (5 t/ha) • 60% more grain using 40N instead of 9N on deep sands (5 t/ha) • 10N+30N split was not better than 40N at seeding on sand • No significant N response on heavy flat after 7 yrs Karoonda cumulative wheat yields (t/ha) 2009-2015
  5. 5. $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 $3,000 $3,500 $4,000 $4,500 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CummulativeGM(2009-15)$/ha district practice Nil Fert High N Upfront High N topdressed Position 1= swale, 9 = Dune (6 = crest) Long-term performance of N strategies on sands Heavy -$200 Mid +$1400 Deep sand +$1100
  6. 6. What does on/near-row sowing offer on sands? Photo: Margaret Roper WA Water follows in-tact roots of prior crop rows On-row vs. inter- row
  7. 7. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 On-row Inter-row On-row Inter-row 2015Establishment(plants/m2) a b b a Better crop establishment under marginal sowing conditions Karoonda Non-Wetting Loxton Wetting Knife points P=0.05
  8. 8. Up to 4 times more top soil moisture at seeding with on-row seeding 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 on-row inter-row on-row inter-row SurfaceSoilWateratSowing(mm/top10cm) a b c c April Sowing May Sowing Karoonda Sand 2015 (0-10 cm soil water) P=0.05
  9. 9. Increased weed suppression by on-row crops Brome plants/ m2 Brome seeds/m2 On-row 28 2022 Inter-row 105 7332 Inter-row vs on-row ≈70% less seed set in 2015 and 80% less in 2014 P=0.05
  10. 10. Pre-emergence herbicide options for brome on sand Results 2013-14: Can achieve 75%+ brome plant control using pre-ems other than trifluralin but variable
  11. 11. Pre-emergence herbicide options for brome on sand (Karoonda 2015) 1. Trifluralin (control) (1.5 L/ha); 2. Trifluralin + Metribuzin (1.5 L/ha + 150 g/ha); 3. Trifluralin + Metribuzin + post emergence Avadex Xtra (1.5 L/ha + 150 g/ha + 2.0 L/ha); 4. Trifluralin + Avadex Xtra (1.5 L/ha + 2.0 L/ha); 5. Sakura (118 g/ha); 6. Sakura + Avadex Xtra (118 g/ha + 3.2 L/ha); 7. Sakura + Metribuzin (118 g/ha + 150 g/ha). with Uni of Adelaide (Kleeman, Preston, Gill) • Sakura alone resulted in 55% less brome panicles than trifluralin alone • Sakura + Avadex resulted in 72% less brome panicles than trifluralin alone ($$)
  12. 12. Interrow sowing is used to decrease disease risk... Crown rot (fusarium) and Take all infection weren’t found But, there was less rhizoctonia infection with on-row seeding DNA Test Rating Karoonda Early Sow Karoonda Late Sow Loxton Early Sow Loxton Late Sow On -row Medium Medium Medium High Inter-row Low Medium Medium Low P=0.05
  13. 13. • Similar levels of N available at sowing at Karoonda on row Vs inter-row, but can be some early tie up (e.g. Loxton) • Greater N availability later in season on row Karoonda Non-Wetting Loxton Wetting 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 On-rowEarly Inter-rowEarly On-rowLate Inter-rowLate AnthesisWheatNuptake(kg/ha) a a b b Some early tie-up but on-row N uptake higher by anthesis.....
  14. 14. Increased yield for non-wetting sand but not other soils • 0.3 t/ha more yield on-row at Karoonda on sand but not on the swale or Loxton wetting sand 14 | 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 On-row Inter-row On-row Inter-row GrainYield(t/ha) a b P=0.1
  15. 15. Nutrition: Right rate, place, time and form N Zn S Rate 0 vs 20 vs 40 0 vs 1 vs 4 0 vs 4 vs 20 Time Upfront vs. tillering vs. first node Upfront vs. 3 leaf vs tillering Upfront vs. tillering Form Urea vs. SOA enriched granule, granule blend and foliar Gypsum vs. SOA
  16. 16. Rate= 40 N Urea Time= upfront/early led to best yield Place= Zn enriched Urea below seed to be followed up Form= Urea, Zn enriched granule, S not significant Treatment Grain Yield (t/ha) Protein (%) Control (P only) 0.96 9.5 20N Urea @sow 1.41 9.1 40N Urea at sow 1.66 10.2 20N Zn enriched Urea @sow 1.53 9.1 20N Urea @sow + 20N Urea@GS31 1.56 10.4 Nutrition: Right rate, place, time and form P=0.05
  17. 17. Summary • Early vigour critical to performance on sands – establishment, N supply, weed and disease competition • Higher N early has led to gains over 7 years with need for sand-specific management • Using last year’s crop row on non-wetting sand is showing promise • Continue to explore the best nutrition package • Pre-emergence herbicides (not trif) can greatly reduce brome seed set with crop competition • New work focused on improving water use efficiency on sands to begin in 2016 |
  18. 18. Thank you Acknowledgments Landholders- The Loller Family and Bulla Burra Advice- Agrilink and Dodgshun Medlin Technical- Anthony Whitbread, Damian Mowat, Paul Adkins, Marcus Hicks, Maxime Salot Disclaimer The information, advice and/or procedures contained in this publication are provided for the sole purpose of disseminating information relating to scientific and technical matters in accordance with the functions of CSIRO under the Science and Industry Act 1949. To the extent permitted by law CSIRO shall not be held liable in relation to any loss or damage incurred by the use/or reliance upon any information and/or procedure contained in this publication. Mention of any product in this publication is for information purposes only and does not constitute a recommendation of any such product either express or implied by CSIRO. This publication contains information that is unpublished and can not be reproduced in any form without the written consent from the authors.

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