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Managing for increased crop production 
on sands
Rick ...
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1. Low water holding capacity
2. Subsoil constraints ...
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3 |
Long‐term performance of N strategies on sands 
(...
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Long‐term performance of N strategies on sands
Karoon...
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On or near-row sowing: what could it offer on
sands?
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0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
On‐row Inter‐row On...
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Up to 4 times more top soil moisture at seeding 
with...
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Increased weed suppression by on‐row crops
Brome
plan...
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Increased weed suppression by on‐row crops
Brome
plan...
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Pre‐emergence herbicide options for brome on 
sand
10...
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Pre‐emergence herbicide options for brome on 
sand (K...
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No increase in rhizoctonia infection with on‐row seed...
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• Similar levels of N available at sowing at Karoonda...
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Improved nutrition on sands: N, S, Zn: what form 
& w...
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‐ 40 N Urea upfront/early led to best yield 
‐ No S r...
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Summary
• Early vigour critical to performance on san...
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AGRICULTURE FLAGSHIP
Thank you
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Nutrition on sands (Loxton 2015):
‐ 40 N Urea upfront...
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Presentation title  |  Presenter name19 |
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Managing for increased crop production on sands (Manangatang) - Rick Llewellyn (CSIRO)

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Sandy soil types of the Northern Mallee often underperform despite good weed management and increased inputs of nitrogen and sulphur. There is still a yield gap that can be addressed, with anecdotal evidence of unused water commonly remaining in the soil at depths of approximately 60cm at harvest.

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Managing for increased crop production on sands (Manangatang) - Rick Llewellyn (CSIRO)

  1. 1. The image part with relationship ID rId2 was not found in the file. Managing for increased crop production  on sands Rick Llewellyn, Therese McBeath, Gupta Vadakattu,  Bill Davoren, Willie Shoobridge, Stasia Kroker,  Michael Moodie CSIRO AGRICULTURE , WAITE CAMPUS ADELAIDE
  2. 2. The image part with relationship ID rId17 was not found in the file. 1. Low water holding capacity 2. Subsoil constraints / hard pans  3. Prone to water repellence 4. Poor establishment 5. Poor fertility/ low N supply / low organic matter 6. Low biological activity ‐ root disease/herbicide  residues 7. Brome grass Sandy soil constraints
  3. 3. The image part with relationship ID rId17 was not found in the file. 3 | Long‐term performance of N strategies on sands  (Karoonda est. 2009)
  4. 4. The image part with relationship ID rId17 was not found in the file. Long‐term performance of N strategies on sands Karoonda  cumulative wheat yields (t/ha) 2011‐2015 4 | Soil Nil 9 N 40 N Sowing 40 N split LSD Heavy (2) 12.5 12.3 13.6 13.1 Not sig Mid (5) 8.1 10.5 14.7 13.3 1.1 Deep sand (8) 4.7 5.8 10.0 8.9 1.8 • 40% more grain using 40N Vs 9N on mid slope sands (4 t/ha) • 70% more grain using 40N instead of 9N on deep sands (4 t/ha) • 20N+20N split was never better than 40N at seeding on sand • No significant N response on heavy flat after 7 yrs
  5. 5. The image part with relationship ID rId17 was not found in the file. On or near-row sowing: what could it offer on sands?
  6. 6. The image part with relationship ID rId17 was not found in the file. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 On‐row Inter‐row On‐row Inter‐row 2015 Establishment (plants/m2)Better crop establishment under marginal sowing conditions Karoonda Non‐Wetting Loxton Wetting Error bars are LSD within a site Knife points
  7. 7. The image part with relationship ID rId17 was not found in the file. Up to 4 times more top soil moisture at seeding  with on‐row seeding 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 on‐row inter‐row on‐row inter‐row Surface Soil Water at Sowing (mm/top 10cm) a b c c April Sowing     May Sowing Karoonda Sand 2015 (0‐10 cm soil water) Photo: Margaret Roper WA
  8. 8. The image part with relationship ID rId17 was not found in the file. Increased weed suppression by on‐row crops Brome plants/ m2 Brome seeds/m2 On‐row 28 2022 Inter‐row 105 7332 Inter‐row vs on‐row Karoonda 2015
  9. 9. The image part with relationship ID rId17 was not found in the file. Increased weed suppression by on‐row crops Brome plants/ m2 Brome seeds/m2 On‐row 28 2022 Inter‐row 105 7332 Inter‐row vs on‐row Karoonda 2015 In 2014:  80% less brome plants and seed set  (with similar crop densities)
  10. 10. The image part with relationship ID rId17 was not found in the file. Pre‐emergence herbicide options for brome on  sand 10 | Results 2013‐14: Can achieve 75%+ brome  plant control using pre‐ems other than  trifluralin but variable 
  11. 11. The image part with relationship ID rId17 was not found in the file. Pre‐emergence herbicide options for brome on  sand (Karoonda 2015) 11 | 1. Trifluralin (control) (1.5 L/ha);  2. Trifluralin + Metribuzin (1.5 L/ha + 150 g/ha);  3. Trifluralin + Metribuzin + post emergence Avadex Xtra (1.5 L/ha + 150 g/ha + 2.0 L/ha); 4. Trifluralin + Avadex Xtra (1.5 L/ha + 2.0 L/ha);  5. Sakura (118 g/ha);  6. Sakura + Avadex Xtra (118 g/ha + 3.2 L/ha);  7. Sakura + Metribuzin (118 g/ha + 150 g/ha).  • Sakura alone resulted in 55% less brome panicles than trifluralin  alone • Sakura + Avadex resulted in 72% less brome panicles than  trifluralin alone ($$) With Kleeman, Preston, Gill , University of Adelaide
  12. 12. The image part with relationship ID rId17 was not found in the file. No increase in rhizoctonia infection with on‐row seeding Crown rot  (fusarium) and  Take all weren’t  found
  13. 13. The image part with relationship ID rId17 was not found in the file. • Similar levels of N available at sowing at Karoonda on row Vs inter‐row,  but can be some early tie up (e.g. Loxton)  • Greater N availability later in season on row • 30% more yield on‐row at Karoonda on sand but not on the swale or  Loxton wetting sand Nitrogen & yield 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 On‐row Inter‐row On‐row Inter‐row Grain Yield (t/ha) Karoonda Non‐Wetting Loxton Wetting
  14. 14. The image part with relationship ID rId17 was not found in the file. Improved nutrition on sands: N, S, Zn: what form  & when? Presentationtitle |  Presenter name14 | Control (P only) 20N Urea @sow 40N Urea at sow 20N Zn enriched Urea @sow 20N Urea + Zn blend @sow  20N urea + Foliar Zn @ 2‐3 leaves  20N Urea @sow + 20N Urea@G14/S22 20N Urea @sow + 20N Zn enriched Urea@ GS14/22 20N Urea @sow + 20N Urea@GS31 20N Urea @sow +20S gypsum pre‐sow 20N Urea @sow+20S gypsum@ GS14/22 20N Urea @sow  + 20N Urea@ GS14/22 +20S gyp@GS14/22 20N Urea @sow+20S/20 N SOA+ Urea@ GS14/22 20N Urea @sow+4 S SOA@ GS14/22 
  15. 15. The image part with relationship ID rId17 was not found in the file. ‐ 40 N Urea upfront/early led to best yield  ‐ No S response  ‐ Zn enriched Urea to be followed up 15 | Treatment Grain Yield  (t/ha) Protein  (%) Control (P only) 0.96 9.5  20N Urea @sow 1.41 9.1  40N Urea at sow 1.66 10.2 20N Zn enriched Urea @sow 1.53 9.1 20N Urea @sow + 20N Urea@GS31 1.56 10.4 Improved nutrition on sands: N, S, Zn: what form  & when?
  16. 16. The image part with relationship ID rId17 was not found in the file. Summary • Early vigour critical to performance on sands – establishment, N supply,  weed competition • Higher N early has led to gains over 6 years • Using last year’s crop row is showing promise • A need for sand‐specific management  • Pre‐emergence herbicides (not trif) can greatly reduce brome seed set  with crop competition • New work focused on improving water use efficiency on sands to begin  in 2016 16 |
  17. 17. The image part with relationship ID rId2 was not found in the file. AGRICULTURE FLAGSHIP Thank you
  18. 18. The image part with relationship ID rId17 was not found in the file. Nutrition on sands (Loxton 2015): ‐ 40 N Urea upfront/early best yield  ‐ No S response but Zn enriched Urea to be followed up ‐ 18 | Treatment Grain Yield  (t/ha) Protein (%) Control (P only) 0.96 9.54 20N Urea @sow 1.41 9.13 40N Urea at sow 1.66 10.16 20N Zn enriched Urea @sow 1.53 9.13 20N Urea + Zn blend @sow  1.38 9.27 20N urea + Foliar Zn @ 2‐3 leaves  1.39 9.03 20N Urea @sow + 20N Urea@G14/S22 1.61 9.93 20N Urea @sow + 20N Zn enriched Urea@ GS14/22 1.55 9.60 20N Urea @sow + 20N Urea@GS31 1.56 10.45 20N Urea @sow +20S gypsum pre‐sow 1.29 8.88 20N Urea @sow+20S gypsum@ GS14/22 1.35 9.43 20N Urea @sow  + 20N Urea@ GS14/22 +20S gyp@GS14/22 1.55 9.93 20N Urea @sow+20S/20 N SOA+ Urea@ GS14/22 1.59 9.63 20N Urea @sow+4 S SOA@ GS14/22  1.37 9.25
  19. 19. The image part with relationship ID rId17 was not found in the file. Presentation title  |  Presenter name19 |

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