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Mallee Farming Systems Research - Rick Llewellyn [Geranium MRU]

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Mallee farming systems research –recent findings

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Mallee Farming Systems Research - Rick Llewellyn [Geranium MRU]

  1. 1. Rick Llewellyn, Therese McBeath,,Vadakattu Gupta, Bill Davoren, Willie Shoobridge,, Michael Moodie, Marta Monjardino Mallee farming systems research – recent findings
  2. 2. In-cropStubble HarvestSeeding N Placement Zinc with N On-row sowing Brome control Brome seed control Stubble type N strategies
  3. 3. 2013
  4. 4. Variable rate seeding Variable rate fertiliser technology 4 | GRDC Farm Practices Survey 2016
  5. 5. Nitrogen • The case for variable rate N in the Mallee is very strong • Farm N budgets continue to rise • How do we get more from the N we apply? • Placement • Product • Stubble Effect • Legumes • Timing
  6. 6. 1. Observation of a toxicity effect on sands? Crop plants /m2 (establishment) Placement- Fertiliser Depth 50 kg DAP/ha with seed 50 kg DAP/ha below seed 2015 Karoonda 85 133 2016 Karoonda 92 117 2017 Karoonda 89 94 2017 Loxton 95 97 • Season x soil specific outcome
  7. 7. Crop yield (t/ha) Placement- Fertiliser Depth • Season x soil specific outcome Yield t/ha 50 kg DAP/ha with seed 50 kg DAP/ha below seed 2016 Karoonda 3.44 3.94 2017 Karoonda 2.33 2.36 2017 Loxton 0.64 0.84
  8. 8. 2. Benefit from additional N deeper (crop yields t/ha) Placement- Fertiliser Depth 50 kg DAP/ha with seed 50 kg DAP/ha below seed 50 kg DAP/ha below seed + 35 kg/ha Urea deep 2016 Karoonda 3.44 3.94 - 2017 Karoonda 2.33 2.36 2.81 2017 Loxton 0.64 0.84 1.04
  9. 9. 2. Benefit from additional N deeper (crop yields t/ha) 3. Observation of a nutrient distribution benefit? Best yields seem to be when some with seed and some N deeper (to be continued….) Placement- Fertiliser Depth 50 kg DAP/ha with seed 50 kg DAP/ha below seed 50 kg DAP/ha with seed 50 kg DAP/ha below seed + 35 kg/ha Urea deep + 35 kg/ha Urea deep 2016 Karoonda 3.44 3.94 4.16 - 2017 Karoonda 2.33 2.36 3.02 2.81 2017 Loxton 0.64 0.84 1.18 1.04
  10. 10. 0 N 20N Urea 20N Zn-Urea 20 ZnMAP 40N Urea 2015 Loxton 0.82 1.41 1.53 - 1.66 2016 Loxton 0.77 1.08 1.30 1.36 1.32 Nitrogen and zinc products 40N better than 20 N on Loxton sand 20 N with Zn was equivalent to 40 N Urea in 2015 and 2016 at Loxton
  11. 11. 0 N 20N Urea 20N Zn-Urea 20 ZnMAP 40N Urea 2015 Loxton 0.82 1.41 1.53 1.66 2016 Loxton 0.77 1.08 1.30 1.36 1.32 2017 Loxton 0.43 0.83 * 0.85 0.83 2017 Karoonda 2.60 3.58 3.36 3.44 3.75 2017 Ouyen Sand 0.31 0.88 1.01 0.80 1.09 2017 Ouyen Mid 1.71 2.23 2.34 2.20 2.58 Nitrogen and zinc products Applying 20N Urea with foliar Zn or 20 N Urea with Zn oxide powder did not have the same effect. In 2017 responsiveness to N was less Mechanisms of Zn- N being explored
  12. 12. What about break crops?
  13. 13. • Large legume N yield boost after lupins Legume and fertiliser N for Wheat 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 removed wheat lupin Residue Response Lupin Effect- 1.5 t/ha extra yield *Lupin also provided disease break effect Karoonda. Muschietti et al. (2017)
  14. 14. • Large legume N yield boost after lupins • But profitable N fertiliser responses in wheat still found after lupins Legume and fertiliser N for Wheat 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 0 20 40 Fertiliser Response (kg N/ha) + 0.8 t/ha + 0.6 t/ha 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 removed wheat lupin Residue Response Residue Effect- 1.9 t/ha extra yield *Lupin also provided disease break effect Fertiliser Effect- 1.4 t/ha extra yield Karoonda. Muschietti et al. (2016)
  15. 15. • 9.9 kg canola grain/kg soil mineral N • 6 kg grain/kg fert N) Legume and fertiliser N for Canola Canolayield(kg/ha) Optimised Canola Productivity Project Soil mineral N (kg/ha) Gol Gol NSW, Moodie et al 2017
  16. 16. • 9.9 kg canola grain/kg soil mineral N • 6 kg grain/kg fert N) • Extra 0.2 t/ha canola with 32 kg N/ha as Urea Legume and Fertiliser N for Canola Canolayield(kg/ha) Optimised Canola Productivity Project Soil mineral N at seeding (kg/ha) Gol Gol NSW, Moodie et al
  17. 17. Presentation title | Presenter name17 |
  18. 18. Pre-emergent herbicides on brome Sakura + Avadex resulted in 72-75% (2015-2016) less brome panicles than trifluralin alone ($$) Trifluralin plus metrabuzin reduced brome numbers by 50% in 2017 but not seed set Sowing July Brome (plants/m2) GS31 crop biomass (t/ha) Maturity Brome (seeds/m2) Minus pre-em 31 a 0.92 3240 Plus pre-em 15 b 0.81 3059 Karoonda
  19. 19. Pre-emergent herbicides on brome Sakura + Avadex resulted in 72-75% (2015-2016) less brome panicles than trifluralin alone ($$) Trifluralin plus metrabuzin reduced brome numbers by 50% in 2017 but not seed set Crop competition is key in an integrated approach to brome Sowing July Brome (plants/m2) GS31 crop biomass (t/ha) Maturity Brome (seeds/m2) On-row 15 b 1.09 a 1960 b Inter-row 31 a 0.64 b 4339 a Minus pre-em 31 a 0.92 3240 Plus pre-em 15 b 0.81 3059 Karoonda
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  21. 21. Increased brome weed suppression by on-row crops on non-wetting sands 2017 Inter-row vs on-row Brome seed set: 55% reduction in brome seed set Crop density: 89 wheat/m2 Vs 68/m2 in June 70% more crop biomass at GS31 Karoonda
  22. 22. Brome seed reduction when crop sown on-row compared to inter-row on non-wetting sands Year % Brome Seed Set Reduction 2014 80 2015 72 2016 26 ns 2017 55 Karoonda
  23. 23. Placement- on row sowing • Greater potential to supply N under last year’s crop row. • Can be some early N immobilisation (tie-up) on-row. • On non-wetting sand there was greater N availability later in season on row (Karoonda 2015). On/Edge-Row (kg N/ha/season) Inter-Row (kg N/ha/season) 24-35 12-25 Nitrogen Supply Potential (NSP) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 On-rowEarly Inter-rowEarly AnthesisWheatNuptake(kg/ha) a b
  24. 24. On Row Seeding - What about disease risk? Loxton 2016 Loxton 2015 Rhizo Disease risk can be higher- needs management
  25. 25. Presentation title | Presenter name25 |
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  27. 27. 27 |
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  29. 29. Mallee virtual fencing trial 2017 Audio Electric
  30. 30. Mallee virtual fencing trial 2017
  31. 31. Mallee virtual fencing trial 2017-18 (NSW Mallee 2017; Waikerie 2018)
  32. 32. Can virtual fencing manage sheep grazing? Day 1 of VF: 52 audio/14 stimulus Day 3 of VF: 31 audio/4 stimulus Sand Loam (Gol Gol NSW 2017) Waikerie March 2018 Pre- VF VF Post VF Marini et al 2018
  33. 33. CSIRO AGRICULTURE AND FOOD Thank you Acknowledgements Damian Mowat, Stasia Kroker, Marcus Hicks, Jackie Ouzman Loller family, Bulla Burra and other landholders
  34. 34. Presentation title | Presenter name34 | Karoonda Canola 2016 Yield (t/ha) N30 N80 LSD (P=0.05) Dune 1.04 1.50 0.24 Dune Crest 0.99 1.51 0.24 Mid-slope 1.85 2.40 0.16 Swale 2.24 2.75 0.15 Yield (t/ha) 2 leaf 4-8 leaf Stem elongation LSD (P=0.05) Dune 1.25 1.48 1.63 0.35 Dune Crest 1.25 1.45 1.68 0.34 Mid-slope 2.25 2.18 2.55 0.22 Swale 2.56 2.65 2.80 NSD • A relatively dry start and wet spring shifted response to timing with benefit of delay to stem elongation (5 units at sowing) • Oil was all >40%, on swale highest yielding treatments had a 1% lower oil content • Header yields presented due to extremely high variation in hand yield data. • N input history was not a significant factor • 0.51 ± 0.02 t/ha response to an extra 50 kg N/ha fertiliser across soil types (10.2 kg grain/kg N) which was 25-70% yield benefit
  35. 35. Urea Fertilizer use efficiency is low Karoonda (SA) Year of N application 2014 15N Trial – GRDC Stubble Initiative (Gupta et al) % Urea N found in crop
  36. 36. Page 36 Cereal stubbles don’t contribute much N • Wheat stubble contributes 2 to 5% of next Wheat crop N and decreasing in subsequent years • Nitrogen mineralized from Soil OM (and crop residues) contributes 40-55% of crop N uptake. Karoonda (Gupta et al )
  37. 37. Harvest Weed Seed Control BromeH W S C C o n v e n tio n a l 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 B ro m e p la n ts 2 0 1 6 Plantsm2 H W S C C o n ve n tio n a l 40-70% brome seed below cutting height 50 seed/m2 lost during the harvest process HWSC for brome needs to be early and part of a wider IWM program
  38. 38. Timing All N in the period sowing-early tillering is the most consistent performer. Crops in wet springs like 2016 did respond to later N (booting in canola and 1st Node in wheat) but predicting these seasons is tricky. Crops in dry springs like 2017 showed a negative response to later N in canola (booting) but NS in wheat (1st node) and lower NUE overall.
  39. 39. Karoonda • Legume benefit to canola not fully explained by N • Fert N response in canola from 4.8- 10.6 kg grain/kg fert N in addition. • Best NUE for highest break effect and Yield Potential (Dune). • Profit-Risk to be explored Legume and Fertiliser N for Canola Soil Canola after Wheat Yield (t/ha) Canola after Lupin Yield (t/ha) (Mineral N) + Legume N (kg N/ha/0.6m ) Dune 0.79 1.29 (29) +12 Mid- slope 0.70 0.98 (43) +37 Swale 0.78 0.86 (69) +43 Optimised Canola Productivity Project
  40. 40. • Wheat stubbles contribute 1-2% of the N requirement of a subsequent crop • Wheat stubbles can immobilise N early in the season (approx. 5kg N per tonne of stubble) • Compensation for immobilisation by cereal stubbles often needed in low fertility soils Cereal Stubble Effect Mineralisation Immobilisation Plants
  41. 41. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 On-row Inter-row 2015Establishment(plants/m2) a b Crop establishment on non-wetting sand sowing on- row in 2015 Karoonda Non-Wetting P=0.05

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