M A LI B U ROHWA NIFI NA L PRESENT A T I ONCoercive Citation :Cite my paper or else
What is coercive citation Coercive citation is a malpractice in academicpublishing wherein an editor of a scientific jour...
Why editors coerce citations? Journal editors want to increase the citations of theirjournals, because it raises the jour...
Some Facts A paper in Science in 2012 by Wilhite and Fongindicated that about 20% of academics working ineconomics, socio...
How they do it? “you cite This Journal only once in your 40references. Consequently, we kindly ask you to addreferences o...
My research Coercive citation can also be practiced by as anindividual serving as editor or reviewer for a journalwith th...
Methods Subject: an individual who is well known anecdotallyon the World Wide Web in practicing self-citation. Nelson Ta...
Subject
Results Improper but Tenacious Coercive Citation by N. Tansu is evident andcompelling There are a number of factors tha...
(1) As editors of journals N. Tansu is assoiate editors for 3 journals,particularly: IEEE OSA JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOL...
Evidence from citations Premise: If coercive citation is to occur, the citations to thesubject should come mainly from th...
Evidence from individual papers Premise: If coercive citation is to occur, the citations to theindividual papers of the s...
Evidence from individual papers Zhao H., Liu G., Arif R.A., Tansu N. Current injection efficiencyinduced efficiency-droop...
Evidence through references in journals Premise: If coercive citation is manifested, thenumber of references to the subje...
Citations in IEEE OSA JOURNAL OF DISPLAYTECHNOLOGY In Jan-May 2013, the journal has 115 articles Tansu is the top author...
Citations in Optical Materials Express In Jan-May 2013, the journal has published 54 articles. Tansu didnt publish any p...
Citations in IEEE Photonics Journal In Jan-May 2013, the journal has 93 articles Tansu published 6 papers In the 2261 R...
(2) A Guest Editor for a Special Issue If one is selected as a guest editor for a Special Issue,one can coerced all paper...
A Guest Editor for a Special Issue Premise: If coercive citation is manifested, thenumber of citations to the subject (Ta...
Examples Effects of H2 in GaN barrier spacer layer of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum-welllight-emitting diodes. Lai, W.-C., Y...
A Guest Editor for a Special Issue All 18 papers have 6-16 citations to Tansu, and noticed allpapers are from China, Taiw...
Evidence Citation manipulation is observed. The subject gainedmore than 160 citations from a single journal edition,thank...
Conclusions Considering all this valuable information, my studysuggests that citation solicitation and coercion by anindi...
Recommendation If left unimpeded, it could distort our understandingof scientific quality and research impact and, overma...
Thank You
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Coercive citation, cite my paper or else

860 views

Published on

This is my final presentation of research project on Coercive Citation. While the article focuses on economics, business, sociology and psychology, the problem is likely endemic to all journals. Coercive citation can also be practiced by an individual serving as editor of a journal with the aim to boost one’s own citations. Failure to recognize this trend is likely to cause an underestimation of the breadth of practice in this topic. I recently conducted my study for an individual Professor Nelson Tansu in electrical engineering. My analysis based on tangible data is compelling and appalling

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
860
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
258
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Coercive citation, cite my paper or else

  1. 1. M A LI B U ROHWA NIFI NA L PRESENT A T I ONCoercive Citation :Cite my paper or else
  2. 2. What is coercive citation Coercive citation is a malpractice in academicpublishing wherein an editor of a scientific journalapproached and coerced authors to add unwarrantedcitations to articles before the editor will agree topublish it.
  3. 3. Why editors coerce citations? Journal editors want to increase the citations of theirjournals, because it raises the journal’s impact factorand ranking, which is a prestige.
  4. 4. Some Facts A paper in Science in 2012 by Wilhite and Fongindicated that about 20% of academics working ineconomics, sociology, psychology, and multiplebusiness disciplines have experienced coercivecitation
  5. 5. How they do it? “you cite This Journal only once in your 40references. Consequently, we kindly ask you to addreferences of articles published in This Journal toyour present article”.
  6. 6. My research Coercive citation can also be practiced by as anindividual serving as editor or reviewer for a journalwith the aim to boost one’s own citations. This type of coercive citation has never been studiedat a micro-level on individual. Failure to recognize this trend is likely to cause anunderestimation of the breadth of practice in thistopic. Researching an individual does however provide agood understanding of the overall trend ofpublication and citation.
  7. 7. Methods Subject: an individual who is well known anecdotallyon the World Wide Web in practicing self-citation. Nelson Tansu is a Professor of Electrical Engineeringwho is well known to have a very high self-citation(60% according to a study) Inclination, publication and citation numbers andpatterns were searched and subsequently recoveredfrom a research database Scopus.
  8. 8. Subject
  9. 9. Results Improper but Tenacious Coercive Citation by N. Tansu is evident andcompelling There are a number of factors that can be used inorder to narrow down the potential citation anomaly.
  10. 10. (1) As editors of journals N. Tansu is assoiate editors for 3 journals,particularly: IEEE OSA JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY Optical Materials Express IEEE Photonics Journal The position held as an Associate Editor allows oneto solicit and importune the authors into citing theeditor’s papers. This is evident as most of thecitations of the subject came from the above-mentioned 3 journals.
  11. 11. Evidence from citations Premise: If coercive citation is to occur, the citations to thesubject should come mainly from the mentioned-above 3journals. In 2012, Tansu acquired 621 citations, which came from 204articles, meaning each article are on average gave 3 citations.However, the top references came from: Optical Materials Express (17 references) , IEEE Photonics Journal(16 references) In Jan-May 2013, Tansu obtained 685 citations, which is very highconsidering it is only 5 months and more citations than previouswhole year. The citations came from 158 articles, meaning eacharticle is on average gave 4 citations. However, the top referencescame from: IEEE OSA Journal of Display Technology (37 references) , OpticalMaterials Express (11 references), IEEE Photonics Journal (5references)
  12. 12. Evidence from individual papers Premise: If coercive citation is to occur, the citations to theindividual papers of the subject should come mainly fromthe mentioned-above 3 journals. Zhao H., Liu G., Zhang J., Poplawsky J.D., Dierolf V., Tansu N.Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells. 2011, OpticsExpress, (14) This paper has 160 citations. Tansu himself has 17 self-citations, butthe rest of citations come from 33 citations are from IEEE OSA Journal of Display Technology 20 citations are from Optical Materials Express 8 citations are from IEEE Photonics Journal The subject gained 61 citations by coercing other authors to cite thispaper.
  13. 13. Evidence from individual papers Zhao H., Liu G., Arif R.A., Tansu N. Current injection efficiencyinduced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emittingdiodes. 2010, Solid-State Electronics, (10) 1119-1124 This paper has 89 citations, Tansu himself has 25 self citations, 25 citations are from IEEE OSA Journal of Display Technology 12 citations are from IEEE Photonics Journal 5 citations are from Optical Materials Express The subject profited 42 citations from being editors of the 3journals. All citations came from articles from Asian counties (Taiwan, China,Korea and Singapore). These examples not unexpectedly showed that the subject hasgained moe than 50% of citations from being editors.
  14. 14. Evidence through references in journals Premise: If coercive citation is manifested, thenumber of references to the subject (Tansu) shouldbe huge compared to other authors. Anomaly inreferences should be detected.
  15. 15. Citations in IEEE OSA JOURNAL OF DISPLAYTECHNOLOGY In Jan-May 2013, the journal has 115 articles Tansu is the top author with 6 papers 1410 References were cited by the 115 articles. Top on the cited list is Nakamura, S. (with 45 citations) an obvious one. (ShujiNakamura is the inventor of the blue LED, a major breakthrough in lightingtechnology.) But second on the list is Tansu with 43 references. In 2012, the journal has 123 articles As Tansu was not an editor at the time, he didnt publish a single article in thejournal. 1787 References were cited by the 123 articles. But Tansu cannot be found in any of the references. This is an anomaly, in 2013 references to Tansu jump from 0 to 43.By becoming aneditor, the subject can benefit and crown the citation list of IEEE OSA JOURNALOF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY.
  16. 16. Citations in Optical Materials Express In Jan-May 2013, the journal has published 54 articles. Tansu didnt publish any paper. 1534 References were cited by the 54 articles. Number one on the list is Tansu, with 25 references. In 2012, the journal has 202 articles Tansu didnt publish any paper. In the 5094 References that were cited by the 202 articles, Tansu shared 25references. In 2011, the journal has 170 articles. Tansu didnt publish any paper. In the 4294 References that were cited by the 202 articles, Tansu shared 12references. Every year the number of citations to Tansu increases showing the anomaly,especially in 2013, Tansu is the top cited references.
  17. 17. Citations in IEEE Photonics Journal In Jan-May 2013, the journal has 93 articles Tansu published 6 papers In the 2261 References that were cited by the 93 articles, Tansu is on the top list with 23 references In 2012, the journal has 264 articles Tansu has 2 papers In the 5459 References that were cited by the 264 articles, Tansu shared 37 references. In 2011, the journal has 170 articles Tansu didnt publish any paper In the 2634 References that were cited by the 114 selected articles, Tansu shared 13 references. This trend is not observed in other journals in the same field: IEEE PhotonicsTechnology Letters, Applied Physics Letters, Optics Express, Applied Optics. Inother words the subject cannot be found
  18. 18. (2) A Guest Editor for a Special Issue If one is selected as a guest editor for a Special Issue,one can coerced all papers to cite one’s papers. Thesubject was a guest editor for IEEE OSA Journal ofDisplay Technology in Volume 9, Issue 4 (April2013). The special issue that feature Recent advances insolid state lighting turns out to be Advancing Tansucitations
  19. 19. A Guest Editor for a Special Issue Premise: If coercive citation is manifested, thenumber of citations to the subject (Tansu) shouldoccur on every paper in the special issue and shouldbe huge compared to other authors. Anomaly inreferences should be detected.
  20. 20. Examples Effects of H2 in GaN barrier spacer layer of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum-welllight-emitting diodes. Lai, W.-C., Yang, Y.-Y. 2013 10 citations to Tansu Investigating the effect of piezoelectric polarization on GaN-based LEDs withdifferent quantum barrier thickness. Wang, C.K., Chiang, T.H., Chen, K.Y., Chiou,Y.Z., Lin, T.K., Chang, S.P., Chang, S.J. 9 citations to Tansu Lateral current spreading effect on the efficiency droop in GaN based light-emittingdiodes. Huang, S., Fan, B., Chen, Z., Zheng, Z., Luo, H., Wu, Z., Wang, G., Jiang, H. 8 citations to Tansu Effect of polarization-matched n-type AlGaInN electron-blocking layer on theoptoelectronic properties of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes. Li, Y., Gao, Y., He,M., Zhou, J., Lei, Y., Zhang, L., Zhu, K., Chen, Y. 11 citations to Tansu Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitridelight-emitting diodes. Zhao, H., Liu, G., Zhang, J., Arif, R.A., Tansu, N. 16 citations to Tansu
  21. 21. A Guest Editor for a Special Issue All 18 papers have 6-16 citations to Tansu, and noticed allpapers are from China, Taiwan and Singapore where aneditor can easily coerced the authors. The only paper that escaped is by Feezell and ShujiNakamura, a well-known authority in InGaN LED. This is in accordance with the research by Wilhite andFong that many journal editors appear to strategicallytarget certain authors, such as assistant and associateprofessors (from Asian countries), rather than fullprofessors (Nakamura), relying on the fact that lowerranking authors may be more willing to add theunnecessary citations.
  22. 22. Evidence Citation manipulation is observed. The subject gainedmore than 160 citations from a single journal edition,thanks to IEEE OSA Journal of Display Technology. The excessive citations to Tansu in the papers are notnecessary and essentially superfluous. Take an example the paper by Zhang et al. On the Effectof Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN LightEmitting Diodes: “For that, staggered InGaN quantum wells have beenproposed and investigated [16]–[20].” “ …, thereforeincreasing the radiative recombination rates [23]–[26]” References [16] -[20] and [23]–[26] are all papers byTansu.
  23. 23. Conclusions Considering all this valuable information, my studysuggests that citation solicitation and coercion by anindividual (N. Tansu) is a phenomenon, and is aconundrum. This finding is backed up by solid data from citations ofthe subject and in journals. Coercive citation is primarily targeting vulnerableyounger researchers from Asian countries as publishingin a journal is a critical consideration for an author. This behavior is in order to have the greatest effect on thecitation of an individual that is opportunistic. This casestudy showed that an editor gained 160 citations fromjust a single special issue in a journal.
  24. 24. Recommendation If left unimpeded, it could distort our understandingof scientific quality and research impact and, overmany occasions, disquiet pronouncements abouttenure, promotion, awards and funding. We should stop using citation volume, h index,impact factor and innovate. H index and Impactfactor is like a self-fulfilling prophecy that tends totransform the academia in a competition gameamong scholar and journals.
  25. 25. Thank You

×