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intelligent tutoring in informal settings: empirical study

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  1. 1. INTELLIGENT TUTORING ININFORMAL SETTINGS:EMPIRICAL STUDYMalinka IvanovaTechnical University of SofiaInternational workshop onInteractive Environments and Emerging Technologies for eLearning (IEETeL 2013)Utrecht, the Nederlands, 4 June, 2013
  2. 2. Aim• to identify the factors:– that distinguish tutoring and learning in formalclassroom and informal places– that are important for realization of an intelligenttutor supporting informal learning
  3. 3. Research questions• How the environmental conditions influence on theprocess of learning?• How the emotional states of a student contribute to themotivation for learning?• How does the personality influence on the informallearning?• What kind of techniques are suitable for attentionconcentration when learning occurs in informal settings?• What is the maximal achieved level of cognition when astudent learns in a café, at home, in a park, in transportpublic vehicles?
  4. 4. Introduction• intelligent tutoring - one way for increasingpersonal effectiveness in learning• looking for a computer tutor grabbing theadvantages of the human teachers’ capabilitiesand multi-tasking and multi-modal techniques ofmachine learning• computer tutor– domain expert– instructional designer– good psychologist
  5. 5. Introduction• learning in informal settings - cafe places, libraries, home, the time between classes and after that• the power of informal learning could be taken only if it isrelated to formal learning (Csanyi et al., 2008)• specially created places for informal learning in the School ofengineering at the University of Melbourne (Chang et al.,2009)• after a survey - increase use of the informal places if they areavailable for students (Chang et al., 2009)
  6. 6. Introduction• the environmental conditions and the specificity of the places forinformal learning are different than these for lecture or practiceclasses• there are many variables for disturbing and interrupting of a startedlearning activity• the conditions and causes for interruptions and techniques for easytransition from pauses to learning are still not studied andalgorithmized well• the main factor for improving the learning breakdowns is attentionconcentration on the learning content• emotions influence on learners attention and concentration(Chaffar and Frasson, 2004)• other problem - motivation improvement for learning afterinterruptions
  7. 7. MethodThe conditions at four often used places forinformal learning are examined: cafe, home, park andpublic transport vehicles– The used scale for evaluation ranges from 5 – thisfactor possesses very high influence on learning to0 – this factor does not influence on learning• Design of survey tools, including questions related to theinfluence of environmental conditions on the process oflearning• Literature overview to extract the main factors
  8. 8. MethodQuestions related to the relationship betweenemotional states of a student and motivation for learning– The emotions are divided to positive and negative andtheir imprint on the task concentration is identified– Students’ vote ranges from 5 – this emotion is veryimportant for my learning to 0 – this emotion is notimportant
  9. 9. MethodHow does the personality influence on the informallearning?The students’ personality is classified in 6 groups:group 1 - active and communicative persons with intensivesocial life, their activities is influenced by positiveemotionsgroup 2 - quiet, reserved, self-controlled students who thinkintensively before every single stepgroup 3 - students who are easily affected by the conditions ofthe environment, they easily can be discouragedgroup 4 - very impulsive persons who usually perform riskyactivities, they do not plan their stepsgroup 5 - persons who respect social laws and rules and theserules are a base for their activitiesgroup 6 - students who cannot categorize themselves in theabove mentioned five groups
  10. 10. MethodWhat kinds of techniques are suitable for attentionconcentration when learning occurs in informalsettings?The techniques are classified in 3 groups:– techniques for attention returning when adisturbing factor emerges– techniques for attention allocation during thetask performance– techniques for motivation to learn in informalsituation
  11. 11. MethodWhat is the maximal achieved level of cognitionwhen a student learns in a café, at home, in apark, in transport public vehicles?The Bloom’s taxonomy with its 6 levels:– knowledge– comprehension– application– analysis– synthesis– evaluation This will point the level of task complexity suitablefor serving to students when they decide to learninformal
  12. 12. Influence of environmentFactors influencing learning in a cafe
  13. 13. Influence of environmentLearning at home and important factors
  14. 14. Influence of environmentLearning in a park and disturbing factors
  15. 15. Influence of environmentFactors influencing learning in public transport
  16. 16. Influence of environmentCommon factors disturbing learning in a cafe, at home, in a park and in publictransport
  17. 17. Techniques for attention concentration andmotivation• Four levels for attention focusing in an online learning environment:(1) perceptual level - techniques for facilitating the access to theimportant parts of a web page, for selection and for attentionfocusing after interruption(2) deliberative level - tools for performing control on tasks and taskspriorities, techniques for motivation and attention returning(3) operational level - techniques and tools for context keeping afterinterruptions, for information filtering, for reducing the level ofcomplexity(4) meta-cognitive level - tools for self-diagnostic, for attentionallocation(Roda and Nabeth, 2008)
  18. 18. PerceptionallevelDeliberativelevelOperationallevelMeta-cognitivelevelinformation selectioninformation comprehensiongroup perceptionpresentation prominencefiltering, ratingvisualizationnotificationsabstract infocontrol of tasks priorityincrease motivation for focus findingassessment of actionsself-diagnosiscontext restoringfiltering incoming info watch lists, notificationsreducing the required level of vigilancetracking eye movement graphic displayordering of the item flickerinfo graphsinfo summarymetadata useshow hidden infohide distractive infovisualizationorder of activities time for each activitystatistics – number and nature of interruptionstime between message receiving and reflectionresults comparison with othersdiscovering patterns of behaviorguidance for improvement of attention managementtasks fragmentation in subtasks notifications interruptionsmanagement, interruptionfor performancefacilitation – time, contentreducing the task complexitysending of an email, message in a chat box, thedisplaying of an item in the home page of a portal,the display of a blinking icon, or the intervention ofan artificial characterreminds help for encouragementsFour levels forattentionmanagementin digitalenvironment(extracted fromRoda andNabeth, 2008and Roda,2011)
  19. 19. Techniques for attention concentration• For purposes of this exploration the techniques for attentionconcentration are divided to:(1) techniques for attention returning when a task is interruptedand the student gives up to continue at this moment(2) techniques facilitating task performance and attentionallocation
  20. 20. Techniques for attention returning after abreak
  21. 21. Techniques for attention allocation duringa learning session
  22. 22. Motivation improvementIn practice:The degree of motivationare identified throughmeasurement of:• the students’participation in solvingproblems,• the level of taskdifficulty,• the requested helpduring a task doing(Rebolledo-Mendez et al.,2011)According to students:Suitable techniques:• time limiting for every singletask (70.5% of all responders)• comparison of learningachievements among allparticipant in a lesson (62.5%)• creation of reportsummarizing the students’current progress (56%)• using of messages notifyingthe current tasks’ status andstudent’s progress (53%)
  23. 23. Cognitive statesThe Bloom’s taxonomy - six levels for achievement of givencognitive skills is used to determine the types of taskssuitable for serving to students• According to the learning objectives the tasks are classifiedin 6 groups:– group A - tasks for existing knowledge recalling– group B - tasks for new knowledge understanding– group C – tasks that require applying old and new knowledge atproblem solving– group D – tasks connected to the analytical students’ skills– group E - tasks that require skills for knowledge combinationand creation of new solution– group F - tasks for evaluation and judgement of knowledge,concepts, solutions
  24. 24. Cognitive statesMale students’ opinion about thecognitive stateFemale students’ opinionabout the cognitive state
  25. 25. Cognitive states• in a cafe – tasks on existing knowledge recalling,comprehension of new concepts and applying thisknowledge to solve a problem (tasks from A, B and Cgroups)• in a park and in transport - not so complex tasks thatrequire repetition of existing knowledge andunderstanding new concepts (tasks from groups A and B)• home - the best conditions for informal learning andstudents could decide complex problems including tasksat the levels of analysis, synthesis and evaluation (tasksfrom all groups)
  26. 26. Affective states• Rishi (2009) discusses the influence of emotional stateon attention in task doing:– negative emotions - anger, anxiety, or distress do not allowfocusing on the learning item, the learning performance isdecreased– positive emotions - joy and pride could facilitate thinkingand learning• The author proposes a rule-based dynamic method forensuring the best emotional conditions for learning,including detection of emotions and provoking suitableaffective state for performance improvement
  27. 27. Affective states• Chaffar and Frasson (2004) - the system ESTEL (Emotional Statetowards Efficient Learning system) can predict the optimal emotionalstate for learning according to the learner’s personality• Learners’ personality - four groups:(1) extraverts are active and communicative persons who could be easilyinfluenced by positive emotions(2) neuroticism is typical for people who easily are affected by theconditions of the surrounding environment and who easily arediscouraged(3) psychoticism are impulsive and hostile people(4) lie group are sociable persons with respect to the societal lawsThe authors show the connection between learners personality andoptimal emotional state the common affective states that could play a catalizator role forlearning are positive emotions like: joy, confidence, pride, anxiety,self-gratification
  28. 28. Affective states• du Boulay - the factors that could support the design ofmotivational modules in ITSs (Boulay, 2011)• explores three negative emotions:– frustration, anxiety and boredom• and searches for suitable pedagogical strategies accordingto the three motivational states:– values (personal, social and cultural background of a studentthat stimulates his participation in a learning process)– expectancies (expectations of a student for learningperformance)– feelings (the emerging emotion from the previews experience)
  29. 29. Affective states• another study - the influence of positive emotions onlearning performance and facilitation of the cognitiveprocess (Um et al., 2007)• the findings show significant impact of positive emotionson cognition and learning• instructional design and instructional learning objectscan be used for induction of positive mood, to improvestudents’ experience, satisfaction and performance
  30. 30. Affective states• the positive as well as the negative emotions have the power to drivelearning and to motivate or not the students• the positive emotions with the highest scores that support meaningfullearning are: joy, happiness, enthusiasm, and confidenceStudents’ vote about the influence of positive emotions
  31. 31. Affective statesStudents’ vote about the influence of negative emotionsnegative emotions with the highest rate are: anger, perturbed, anxietyand hopelessness
  32. 32. Students personality051015202530354045group 1 group 2 group 3 group 4 group 5 group 6malefemale
  33. 33. Conclusion• the findings - there are many different factors that disturb andinterrupt learning• several of them are so strong that they could lead to taskbreaking for a long time or refusal of further problem solvingand task doing• suitable techniques for motivation and emotional charge haveto be selected very precisely and used for realization of anintelligent tutor
  34. 34. ConclusionIntelligent tutor for informal learningEnvironment•Loud talk•Intensive peoplestream•Loud music•Computer apps•GSM ringAttention returning•Last itemremembering•Help/advisereceiving•Summary of thework to thismomentAttention at taskperforming•Instructions•Tasks structuring•Help/advice/reminderMotivationimprovement•Time limiting fora task•Comparison ofachievements•Progress report•NotificationmessagesCognitive states•Home –remember,understand,apply, analyze,synthesize,evaluate•Cafe -remember,understand,apply•Park andtransport -remember,understandAffective states•Positiveemotions – joy,happiness,enthusiasm,confidence•Negativeemotions – angerperturbed,anxious,hopelesnessPersonality•Social, activeandcommunicative•Quite, self-controlled•Easily affectedby environmentalconditions•Follow socialrules•Get riskyactivities•Combination ofothers
  35. 35. Thank you for your attention!For