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  1. 1. ! ? CASE-BASED WORKFLOW MODELING IN SUPPORT OF AUTOMATION THE TEACHERS’ PERSONAL AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR Malinka Ivanova Technical University of Sofia Mirjam Minor Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main
  2. 2. Aim • To explore the possibilities for activities’ automation of teachers when they use their PLN and this could facilitate their learning
  3. 3. Introduction • Do you use social networking sites? • What kind of activities do you perform? - search, interact, share, like/dislike, join groups, etc. • How much time do you spend? • Is it possible to shorten the distance among learning, effectiveness and time? • What about optimization of teacher’ s behavior through different techniques for automation?
  4. 4. Introduction • Exist strong research about use of social networking sites for educational purposes – Activities in PLN (Ivanova et al., 2012) – Twitter in EFL education (Mork, 2009) – Graasp for collaborative learning (Li et al., 2012) – social media for engineering communication (Mehlenbacher et al., 2010) typical activities performed by teachers and learners are drawn  these activities are not structured in any criterion • One example for activities grouping in time (weekly) when Facebook is utilized as LMS (Wang et al., 2012)
  5. 5. Related work • effectiveness of teachers' activities in social networks  automation functions  related to the people and content searching, filtering and recommending
  6. 6. Automation Techniques • A method for selection of social media content (Twitter) (De Choudhury et al., 2011) • A system that tracks conversations on social platforms (Facebook and Twitter) and prioritizes posts and messages that are related to a given topic (enterprises) (Ajmera et al., 2013) • An algorithm that filter content that is most rated and liked - influential users and passive users on Twitter (Romero et al., 2011) • Personalized item recommendation widget (Guy et al., 2010) - recommendations are done after collecting the relationships among people, tags and items • Recommender system based on user-model (Seth and Zhang, 2008) • A framework with a possibility to summarize Twitter stream messages, retirement of messages and their reconstruction around a given topic (Yang et al., 2012)
  7. 7. Types of Users in Social Networks • (Brandtzæg and Heim, 2011) - five groups: sporadic, lurkers, socialisers, debaters and actives according to their performed activities and level of participation • (Guo et al., 2009) - users’ behavior is related to daily and weekly contributions through posting - the authors propose models describing how users create links and how their networks progress in time • (Lang and Wu, 2011) research the factors that are important for lifetime forming - active and passive lifetime according to users’ activities and behavior
  8. 8. • For purposes of our research: – users of social networking sites – passive (learn by observation ) and active (participate) – with different level of activeness in different time of their learning sessions according to their learning priorities and goals – users possess favorite activities learning optimization recommendations with structured activities
  9. 9. Criterion and procedure for generation of structured workflows Understanding the favorite activities in SNS User model preferences passive user active user time, learning priority recommendations to satisfy passive to motivate passive to be active to satisfy active
  10. 10. • Two different sets with activities typical for passive and active users are created – passive user - a person who prefers to learn alone without getting advantages of participation and communication – passive users learn through observation: read the shared knowledge, accept or not friendships, follow people, monitor activity, track activity stream, use applications with special purposes, search – active users – perform activities that contributes to enrichment of the network knowledge: add comments, publish content/opinion, share link/file, like/dislike, join/create groups, use chat, communicate via direct messaging or other applications, extend contacts, make friendships
  11. 11. Serendipity, Accidental and Intentional Learning • Usually, learning in SNS occurs accidentally and in a serendipitous way – it is unique for every PLN • Every teacher sees different stream of messages and receive different information This fact influences on learning curiosity and changing learning needs • Kop (2012) - recommenders, RSS aggregators and microblog platforms are effective means of facilitating serendipitous learning on open online networks • Teachers have control on their PLN organization, but also they are in touch with unexpected information sources • At this moment serendipity is not automated, just serendipitous content and contacts could be recommended
  12. 12. • PLNs are created intentionally according to the teachers’ interests and future plans  they strive to be connected to people who are sources of topic related content • intentional disposition of PLNs and serendipitous events and processes  teachers respond to serendipitous events in intentionally topic-driven PLN serendipitous event Is it my topic? passive user active user case-based workflows process it ignore it yes no Serendipitous events in intentionally topic-driven PLN
  13. 13. RESEARCH METHODS • the design-oriented paradigm of business informatics (Hevner et al., 2004) – It aims at conducting a feasibility study on whether workflow technology is applicable in order to partly automate the work of teachers in PLN’s • Following a build-and-evaluate cycle (Hevner et al. 2004), a workflow model for learning procedures within PLNs is created (during the build phase) • its technical feasibility is tested by deriving a couple of workflow instances from the activities observed in recent PLNs (during the evaluate phase) • The results of this technical feasibility study are a prerequisite for our future work • The main research questions are: – Representation: How can activities of teachers in social networks be represented and structured in a workflow model? – Applicability: Can the workflow model be populated by cases (workflow instances) for different learning scenarios and user types?
  14. 14. Modelling Workflows • workflows - “the automation of a business process, in whole or part, during which documents, information or tasks are passed from one participant to another for action, according to a set of procedural rules” (WFMC, 1999) • Recently, a broader notion is emerging, where a workflow describes any flow of activities • This notion includes the activities of a learner during the use of a PLN • Workflows are stored in form of cases • Any case could be reused and modified • A new case could be created from existing cases
  15. 15. Workflow 1: Getting to know a new subtopic from the topic • Workflow 1 for a passive user
  16. 16. Workflow 1: Getting to know a new subtopic from the topic • Workflow 1 for a passive user with an intention to be activated
  17. 17. Workflow 1: Getting to know a new subtopic from the topic • Workflow 1 for an active user
  18. 18. Workflow 2: Getting feedback for slides • Workflow 2 for an active user
  19. 19. Workflow 3: Discover an expert for a topic • Workflow 3 for a passive user
  20. 20. Workflow 3: Discover an expert for a topic • Workflow 3 for a passive user with an intention to be activated
  21. 21. Workflow 3: Discover an expert for a topic • Workflow 3 for an active user
  22. 22. Conclusions • modeling of structured activities in time and space and according to the learning priority and learning needs utilizing case-based workflow technology •The workflows are originated from serendipitous events and they are categorized according to the user type •These workflows describe important cases of activities performed during the PLNs organization and utilization •They will support teachers through recommendations and guidance giving, making their learning more effective • They figure the main functions for activities’ automation and semi-automation facilitating the teachers’ personal and social behavior • The created workflows are the first step in the process of software development
  23. 23. Thank you for your attention!