Importance of zero

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Presentation on Importance of Zero for Classes V-VII

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Importance of zero

  1. 1. ZERO
  2. 2. Focus Of Presentation The History of Zero Before Zero Birth of Zero Importance of Zero In Mathematics In Other Fields
  3. 3. Life Without Zero  Can you imagine mathematics without zero? Numbers are used to count creatures or objects  40 cows in the field  Six loaves of bread at the marketplace  Counting zero sheep or loaves of bread does not make much sense  Zero was just not needed!
  4. 4. Before Zero Numbers were used for thousands of years before they used zero Historical records show different path towards the concept  Zero made appearances only to vanish again  Mathematicians were searching for it ,yet did not recognize its fundamental significance
  5. 5. Egyptians Egyptian hieroglyphics were used as early as 3500 B.C.E. Egypt did not have or need a zero. Even without zero, Egyptians became masters of mathematics.
  6. 6. Greeks The Greeks brought mathematics to its highest point in ancient times. Around 500 BC, the Greeks developed a newer more sophisticated system This way avoided repeated letters
  7. 7. Romans The Romans also had a number system  It was a step back from the less sophisticated Egyptian system. The Roman 87, LXXXVII, requires seven symbols, with several repeats
  8. 8. Still… The Egyptian, Greek and Roman number systems had no zeros Even though the Greek number system was more sophisticated than the Egyptian and Greek, it was not the most advanced.
  9. 9. Babylonians 2500 B.C.E., the Babylonians used a system of two symbols  Base 60 They sometimes used a space to represent an empty position. By about 200 C.E., they used a pair of small triangles to represent an empty position. Babylonians never actually invented a zero, they made an important first step!
  10. 10. Babylonians
  11. 11. Birth of Zero In the history of culture the discovery of zero will always stand out as one of the greatest single achievements of the human race. -Tobias Danzig Without zero we would lack  Calculus, financial accounting, the ability to make arithmetic computations quickly and computers!
  12. 12. India Hindu culture had a positional number system in base ten They used a dot to represent an empty place  Sunya which meant “empty” was the name for this dot At this point, the early zero was a placeholder and an aid in computation By 500 C.E., the Hindus use a small circle to represent Zero! This circle was recognized as a numeral
  13. 13. Hindu- Arabic Numerals Arabic people recognized the value of the Hindu system  They adapted the numerals and computation  Then spread the ideas in their travels The zero was named with the Arabic word sifz The actual word “zero” came from Italy
  14. 14. Fear of Zero! Europeans resisted Hindu-Arabic numerals It seemed strange  The numerals, including zero, were not accepted Florence, Italy, passed a law prohibiting the use of the numerals  0 could be changed to look like 6 or 9 Slowly, the numbers became accepted 1500s
  15. 15. Use of Zero By 130 AD Ptolemy was using a symbol for Zero. It was used alone and hence was the first documented use of the number zero in the old world. The Oldest known text to use Zero in the decimal place value system was the Jain text dated 458AD
  16. 16. Spreading The News Leonardo of Pisa, known as Fibonacci  Born to a merchant family living in North Africa  Learned Hindu-Arabic numerals from his Arabic tutors  He brought the news of zero and new computational methods to Europe in his book
  17. 17. Importance of Zero It plays a central role in math.  As a additive identity in integers ,real nos. and other algebraic structures  As a place holder in the place value system. It has been called a natural no.and has a special role in measuring of physical quantities.
  18. 18. In the real-number system,0 is the only number that is neither negativenor positive.It represents the boundary between thenegative and the positive numbers.This property makes 0 the natural startingpoint, or origin, on many scales, as on thecoordinate axes and on thermometers.
  19. 19. Zero Is A Special Number If we add 0 to any number, the sum is the original number  Same is true for subtraction If you multiply any number by 0, the product is 0 If you raise any nonzero number to the power of 0, the resulting number is 1 If you divide 0 by any nonzero, the quotient is 0 Any number divided by 0 is undefined
  20. 20. Zero is….. It is the number that separates positive numbers from negative numbers It is a natural number It is even It is the integer that precedes one Zero must sit in its rightful place on the number line, before on and after negative one
  21. 21. YET…. zero sits at the end of the computer key board At the bottom of the telephone! Because we always start counting with one!
  22. 22. Resources Anthony, Glenda, and Margaret Walshaw. “Zero: A “None” Number?” Teaching Children Mathematics. August 2004 Humes, Alexander. Zero to Lazy Eight, The Romance of Numbers. Simon and Shuster. New York, New York, 1993. Ifrah, Grorges. The Universal History of Numbers. John Wiley and sons, Inc. New York, New York, 2006. O’Connor, JJ and E F Robertson. “History Topic: A history of Zero,” MacTutor History of Mathematics. Noverber 2000. http://www-history.mcs.st- andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Zero.html
  23. 23. Resources Seife, Charles. Zero: The Biography of a Dangerous Idea. Penguin Group Penugin Putnam Inc. New York, New York, 2000. Wallin, Nils-Bertil. “The History of Zero, How was Zero Discovered?” Yale Global, 19 November, 2002. Wilson, Patricia S. “Zero: A Special Case.” Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School. 6 no 5 300- 3, 308-9 Jan 2001. “O” Wikipedia, May 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/0_%28number%29
  24. 24. This Presentation can be used for Classes V TO VII for Maths Activities

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