Focus Of Presentation The History of Zero Before Zero Birth of Zero Importance of Zero In Mathematics In Other Fields
Life Without Zero Can you imagine mathematics without zero? Numbers are used to count creatures or objects 40 cows in the field Six loaves of bread at the marketplace Counting zero sheep or loaves of bread does not make much sense Zero was just not needed!
Before Zero Numbers were used for thousands of years before they used zero Historical records show different path towards the concept Zero made appearances only to vanish again Mathematicians were searching for it ,yet did not recognize its fundamental significance
Egyptians Egyptian hieroglyphics were used as early as 3500 B.C.E. Egypt did not have or need a zero. Even without zero, Egyptians became masters of mathematics.
Greeks The Greeks brought mathematics to its highest point in ancient times. Around 500 BC, the Greeks developed a newer more sophisticated system This way avoided repeated letters
Romans The Romans also had a number system It was a step back from the less sophisticated Egyptian system. The Roman 87, LXXXVII, requires seven symbols, with several repeats
Still… The Egyptian, Greek and Roman number systems had no zeros Even though the Greek number system was more sophisticated than the Egyptian and Greek, it was not the most advanced.
Babylonians 2500 B.C.E., the Babylonians used a system of two symbols Base 60 They sometimes used a space to represent an empty position. By about 200 C.E., they used a pair of small triangles to represent an empty position. Babylonians never actually invented a zero, they made an important first step!
Birth of Zero In the history of culture the discovery of zero will always stand out as one of the greatest single achievements of the human race. -Tobias Danzig Without zero we would lack Calculus, financial accounting, the ability to make arithmetic computations quickly and computers!
India Hindu culture had a positional number system in base ten They used a dot to represent an empty place Sunya which meant “empty” was the name for this dot At this point, the early zero was a placeholder and an aid in computation By 500 C.E., the Hindus use a small circle to represent Zero! This circle was recognized as a numeral
Hindu- Arabic Numerals Arabic people recognized the value of the Hindu system They adapted the numerals and computation Then spread the ideas in their travels The zero was named with the Arabic word sifz The actual word “zero” came from Italy
Fear of Zero! Europeans resisted Hindu-Arabic numerals It seemed strange The numerals, including zero, were not accepted Florence, Italy, passed a law prohibiting the use of the numerals 0 could be changed to look like 6 or 9 Slowly, the numbers became accepted 1500s
Use of Zero By 130 AD Ptolemy was using a symbol for Zero. It was used alone and hence was the first documented use of the number zero in the old world. The Oldest known text to use Zero in the decimal place value system was the Jain text dated 458AD
Spreading The News Leonardo of Pisa, known as Fibonacci Born to a merchant family living in North Africa Learned Hindu-Arabic numerals from his Arabic tutors He brought the news of zero and new computational methods to Europe in his book
Importance of Zero It plays a central role in math. As a additive identity in integers ,real nos. and other algebraic structures As a place holder in the place value system. It has been called a natural no.and has a special role in measuring of physical quantities.
In the real-number system,0 is the only number that is neither negativenor positive.It represents the boundary between thenegative and the positive numbers.This property makes 0 the natural startingpoint, or origin, on many scales, as on thecoordinate axes and on thermometers.
Zero Is A Special Number If we add 0 to any number, the sum is the original number Same is true for subtraction If you multiply any number by 0, the product is 0 If you raise any nonzero number to the power of 0, the resulting number is 1 If you divide 0 by any nonzero, the quotient is 0 Any number divided by 0 is undefined
Zero is….. It is the number that separates positive numbers from negative numbers It is a natural number It is even It is the integer that precedes one Zero must sit in its rightful place on the number line, before on and after negative one
YET…. zero sits at the end of the computer key board At the bottom of the telephone! Because we always start counting with one!
Resources Anthony, Glenda, and Margaret Walshaw. “Zero: A “None” Number?” Teaching Children Mathematics. August 2004 Humes, Alexander. Zero to Lazy Eight, The Romance of Numbers. Simon and Shuster. New York, New York, 1993. Ifrah, Grorges. The Universal History of Numbers. John Wiley and sons, Inc. New York, New York, 2006. O’Connor, JJ and E F Robertson. “History Topic: A history of Zero,” MacTutor History of Mathematics. Noverber 2000. http://www-history.mcs.st- andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Zero.html
Resources Seife, Charles. Zero: The Biography of a Dangerous Idea. Penguin Group Penugin Putnam Inc. New York, New York, 2000. Wallin, Nils-Bertil. “The History of Zero, How was Zero Discovered?” Yale Global, 19 November, 2002. Wilson, Patricia S. “Zero: A Special Case.” Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School. 6 no 5 300- 3, 308-9 Jan 2001. “O” Wikipedia, May 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/0_%28number%29
This Presentation can be used for Classes V TO VII for Maths Activities