Determinants of Entrepreneurship in Pakistan Oct 2012

767 views

Published on

Presentation delivered at USIP-GMU conference on Pakistan's youth bulge in October 2012.

Published in: Business, Education
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
767
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Determinants of Entrepreneurship in Pakistan Oct 2012

  1. 1. Attitudes, Ambitions and Entrepreneurship Potentials of Youth in Karachi Mehtab S. Karim & Ammar A. Malik School of Public Policy, George Mason University October 10, 2012
  2. 2. Pakistan’s Youth Bulge • Proportion of Pakistanis in the 15-29 year age bracket: 33 percent overall & 40 percent in cities • National demographic trends and youth migration to cities • Over 7 percent annual GDP growth rate needed to absorb growing labor force
  3. 3. The City of Karachi • A microcosm of Pakistan, representation of all ethnicities • Home to 7.5 - 10 percent of Pakistan’s entire population, 11th largest city in the world (UN 2012) • Produces 20% of national GDP, 25% of national revenues, handles 95% of foreign trade, retains 45% of employment in large-scale manufacturing (ADB 2005)
  4. 4. The Two Faces of Youth in Karachi Photos Courtesy Express Tribune & Pakistan Today
  5. 5. Population Growth in Karachi Year Population (millions) Average Annual Growth Rate (%) 1941 0.387 3.1 1951 1.070 9.4 1961 1.917 6.0 1972 3.500 5.7 1981 5.210 4.5 1998 9.200 (11.200*) 3.5 2012 18.0 (estimated) Youth 7.2 million 3.5 *The 1998 Census counted an estimated 2 million additional people, however since they were born in Bangladesh and Afghanistan , they were considered aliens, therefore, were not included in the official figures
  6. 6. Population Growth Comparison between Developing Country Megacities 18 16 14 12 Cairo Beijing Jakarta Delhi Karachi 10 8 6 4 2 0 1970 Source: United Nations 1980 1990 2000 2010
  7. 7. Survey of Youth in Karachi
  8. 8. The Objectives • Gathering first-hand information from young adults covering the following key themes: o Present economic conditions and challenges o Religious practices and degrees of tolerance o Perceptions on current conditions and future prospects, both for themselves and for the country o Opinions on key players in the country o Preferences for employment versus entrepreneurship (and its potentials)
  9. 9. Sampling Methodology • Cross section representative survey of randomly selected young people living in Karachi, aged between 20 and 29 • Federal Bureau of Statistics Sampling Frame utilized • 90 clusters from a total of 4000 were randomly selected, thus equal chance of selection • 12 young adults (both males and females) selected for interview at home or its vicinity • 1,000 interviews were conducted in total
  10. 10. The Results
  11. 11. Religious Practices and Tolerance 77.5 70.9 70.2 61.9 41.6 37 35.4 30.3 30 20.3 33.5 18 Males Females 10th Grade or below College or above Pray 5 times a day. Would avoid having neighbours of a different religion. Would avoid having neighbours associated with a religious extremist group.
  12. 12. Use of Internet and Mobile Phones 100 95 89 90 80 80 75 73 70 60 55 52 50 40 31 30 20 10 0 Males Females Use Internet Frequently (%) 10th Grade or below College or above Have Mobile Phone (%)
  13. 13. Marital Status and Marriage Decisions 64 62 62 62 60 60 58 59 58 57 57 56 54 54 52 50 Males Females Currently Single (%) 10th Grade or below College or above Marriage is Parents' Decision (%)
  14. 14. Employment Status by Gender Male Female 1.3 30.8 16.2 38.6 46.8 26.8 9.7 29.3 0.5 Full Time job or Self-employed Full Time Student Unemployed (looking for job) Unpaid apprentice Full Time job or Self-employed Full Time Student Unemployed (looking for job) Unpaid apprentice Housewife/At home
  15. 15. Employment Status by Education 10th Grade or below 19.3 College or above 19.6 26 1 32.1 1 16.6 28.7 25 30.7 Full Time job or Self-employed Full Time Student Unemployed (looking for job) Unpaid apprentice Housewife/At home Full Time job or Self-employed Full Time Student Unemployed (looking for job) Unpaid apprentice Housewife/At home
  16. 16. Job Preferences by Gender and Education 80 70 68 65 68 65 64 58 60 54 50 47 46 42 40 42 35 29 28 30 23 23 20 10 0 Have Preference for Government Job Male Well Known BrandName Company Female Work for NGO 10th Grade or below Want to Start Own Business Once College or above
  17. 17. Any Past Entrepreneurship Training? 100 90 93.5 92.2 87.8 85.1 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 14.9 12.1 7.8 10 6.5 0 Male Female No 10th Class or below Yes College or above
  18. 18. Desire for Entrepreneurship Training 90 80 83.8 80.5 77 74 70 60 50 40 30 20 18.6 18.5 13.3 12.7 10 0 Male Female Negative 10th Class or below Positive College or above
  19. 19. Youth’s Concerns by Education 10th Grade or below College or above 100 100 90 90 80 80 70 70 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 Highly Somewhat Not at all Highly Somewhat Not at all
  20. 20. Youth’s Concerns by Gender Male Female 100 100 90 90 80 80 70 70 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 Highly Somewhat Not at all Highly Somewhat Not at all
  21. 21. Prospects of Improvement in Pakistan’s Overall Situation 50 43.8 45 40 37.1 35.9 36 35 30.5 30 29.5 28.5 25 22.5 22.4 20.8 18.2 20 15.6 15.4 15 17.8 13 13 10 5 0 Will Improve Male (%) Remain the Same Female (%) Get Worse 10th Class or below (%) No Opinion College or above (%)
  22. 22. Desire to Move Abroad 60 49.6 50 46.5 43.4 40.1 40 37.1 34 33.9 30 26.5 20 14.3 10.5 10 14.4 12.8 11.7 9.5 8.9 6.7 0 Male (%) Will Always Live in Pakistan Female (%) 10th Class or below (%) Go Abroad for Work College or above (%) Migrate Indefinitely No Opinion
  23. 23. Attitudes, Ambitions and Entrepreneurship Potentials of Youth in Karachi Mehtab S. Karim & Ammar A. Malik School of Public Policy, George Mason University October 10, 2012

×